Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

maternal nutrition Related Abstracts

4 Effects of Maternal Nutrition at Different Stages of Pregnancy in Bali Cows on Growth Performance of the Offspring to Weaning

Authors: D. P. Rahardja, A. L. Toleng, M. Yusuf

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to investigate the life-long effect of in utero nutrition fed at different stages of pregnancy in Bali cows (n = 40): (U1) without in utero nutrition (0 – parturition, negative control); (U2) 0 – 90 d of gestation; (U3) 90 - 180 d of gestation; (U4) 180 d – parturition; and (U5) in utero nutrition along gestation period (0 d to parturition – positive control) on the growth performance of the offspring to weaning age. The results indicated that effect of maternal nutrition on male and female offspring were particularly indicated by the growth performance of both the male and female offspring from birth to weaning.

Keywords: Bali cows, birth weight, maternal nutrition, pre-weaning daily gain, weaning weight

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3 Impact of Maternal Nutrition on Newborn Anthropometry and Hemoglobin

Authors: Vinay Mishra, Meena Malkani

Abstract:

Objectives: To study the effect of physical maternal nutritional markers (viz. weight, height, gestational weight gain, BMI) and third-trimester haemoglobin concentration on anthropometry and cord blood haemoglobin of their newborn. Methods: Study area: Post-natal ward of a tertiary care hospital in an urban area. Study population: All post-partum women and their newborns. Sample size: 100. Maternal and neonatal data and anthropometric measurements were recorded in semi-structured case proforma. Data analysis: The data obtained was analysed using SPSS 20 software.The comparison between the groups was done using One-Way Analysis of Variance for two groups. For more than two groups comparisons further posthoc analysis was done using Tukey test. Pearson correlation coefficient was used for correlating the variables. A P value less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results: 1. Out of the 100 studied mothers, 52% were anaemic. 2. Cord blood haemoglobin values decreased significantly with the order of birth. 3. Cord blood haemoglobin of normal-weight newborns is significantly higher as compared to that of LBW newborns. 4. Cord blood haemoglobin has strong statistical significance with maternal anaemia. 5. Pre-pregnancy weight and gestational weight gain significantly influence the neonates anthropometry. Conclusions: 1. Birth order has a prominent inverse effect on the cord blood haemoglobin. 2. Majority of the expectant mothers are anaemic and give birth to LBW babies with reduced anthropometric markers. 3. Pre-pregnancy weight, height and gestational weight gain has a very significant impact on the neonatal anthropometry. 4. Thus, maternal nutrition during gestation and during the crucial periods of growth in the pre-child bearing age group has a very significant impact on foetal development.

Keywords: Anthropometry, Newborn, maternal nutrition, cord blood hemoglobin

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2 Potential Impacts of Maternal Nutrition and Selection for Residual Feed Intake on Metabolism and Fertility Parameters in Angus Bulls

Authors: Aidin Foroutan, David S. Wishart, Leluo L. Guan, Carolyn Fitzsimmons

Abstract:

Maximizing efficiency and growth potential of beef cattle requires not only genetic selection (i.e. residual feed intake (RFI)) but also adequate nutrition throughout all stages of growth and development. Nutrient restriction during gestation has been shown to negatively affect post-natal growth and development as well as fertility of the offspring. This, when combined with RFI may affect progeny traits. This study aims to investigate the impact of selection for divergent genetic potential for RFI and maternal nutrition during early- to mid-gestation, on bull calf traits such as fertility and muscle development using multiple ‘omics’ approaches. Comparisons were made between High-diet vs. Low-diet and between High-RFI vs. Low-RFI animals. An epigenetics experiment on semen samples identified 891 biomarkers associated with growth and development. A gene expression study on Longissimus thoracis muscle, semimembranosus muscle, liver, and testis identified 4 genes associated with muscle development and immunity of which Myocyte enhancer factor 2A [MEF2A; induces myogenesis and control muscle differentiation] was the only differentially expressed gene identified in all four tissues. An initial metabolomics experiment on serum samples using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) identified 4 metabolite biomarkers related to energy and protein metabolism. Once all the biomarkers are identified, bioinformatics approaches will be used to create a database covering all the ‘omics’ data collected from this project. This database will be broadened by adding other information obtained from relevant literature reviews. Association analyses with these data sets will be performed to reveal key biological pathways affected by RFI and maternal nutrition. Through these association studies between the genome and metabolome, it is expected that candidate biomarker genes and metabolites for feed efficiency, fertility, and/or muscle development are identified. If these gene/metabolite biomarkers are validated in a larger animal population, they could potentially be used in breeding programs to select superior animals. It is also expected that this work will lead to the development of an online tool that could be used to predict future traits of interest in an animal given its measurable ‘omics’ traits.

Keywords: Biomarker, Omics, maternal nutrition, residual feed intake

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1 Exploring the Applicability of a Rapid Health Assessment in India

Authors: Claudia Carbajal, Jija Dutt, Smriti Pahwa, Sumukhi Vaid, Karishma Vats

Abstract:

ASER Centre, the research and assessment arm of Pratham Education Foundation sees measurement as the first stage of action. ASER uses primary research to push and give empirical foundations to policy discussions at a multitude of levels. At a household level, common citizens use a simple assessment (a floor-level test) to measure learning across rural India. This paper presents the evidence on the applicability of an ASER approach to the health sector. A citizen-led assessment was designed and executed that collected information from young mothers with children up to a year of age. The pilot assessments were rolled-out in two different models: Paid surveyors and student volunteers. The survey covered three geographic areas: 1,239 children in the Jaipur District of Rajasthan, 2,086 in the Rae Bareli District of Uttar Pradesh, and 593 children in the Bhuj Block in Gujarat. The survey tool was designed to study knowledge of health-related issues, daily practices followed by young mothers and access to relevant services and programs. It provides insights on behaviors related to infant and young child feeding practices, child and maternal nutrition and supplementation, water and sanitation, and health services. Moreover, the survey studies the reasons behind behaviors giving policy-makers actionable pathways to improve implementation of social sector programs. Although data on health outcomes are available, this approach could provide a rapid annual assessment of health issues with indicators that are easy to understand and act upon so that measurements do not become an exclusive domain of experts. The results give many insights into early childhood health behaviors and challenges. Around 98% of children are breastfed, and approximately half are not exclusively breastfed (for the first 6 months). Government established diet diversity guidelines are met for less than 1 out of 10 children. Although most households are satisfied with the quality of drinking water, most tested households had contaminated water.

Keywords: water and sanitation, maternal nutrition, supplementation, citizen-led assessment, rapid health assessment, Infant and Young Children Feeding

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