Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Materials Related Abstracts

14 Agricultural Solid Wastes Generation in Nigeria and Their Recycling Potentials into Building Materials

Authors: Usman Aliyu Jalam, Shuaibu Alolo Sumaila, Sa’adiya Iliyasu Muhammed


Modern building industry lays much emphasis on sophisticated materials that have high embodied energy with intrinsic distinctiveness for damaging the environment. But today, advances in solid waste management have resulted in alternative building materials as partial or complete replacement of the conventional materials like cement, aggregate etc particularly for low cost housing. Investigations carried out revealed that an estimated 18.0 million tonnes of agricultural solid wastes are being generated in Nigeria annually. This constitutes a problem not only to the natural environment but also to the built environment more particularly with the way the wastes are being dispose of. The paper has discussed the present status on the generation and utilisation of agricultural solid wastes, their recycling potentials and environmental implications. It further discovered that although considerable quantity of these wastes were found to have the potentials of being recycled as building materials, the availability of the appropriate technology remains a big challenge in the country. Moreover, majority of the wastes type have gained popularity as fuel. As such, the economic and environmental benefits of recycling the wastes and the use of the wastes as fuel need further investigation.

Keywords: Materials, Building, Environment, Agricultural waste, Nigeria

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13 2D PbS Nanosheets Synthesis and Their Applications as Field Effect Transistors or Solar Cells

Authors: T. Bielewicz, S. Dogan, C. Klinke


Two-dimensional, solution-processable semiconductor materials are interesting for low-cost electronic applications [1]. We demonstrate the synthesis of lead sulfide nanosheets and how their size, shape and height can be tuned by varying concentrations of pre-cursors, ligands and by varying the reaction temperature. Especially, the charge carrier confinement in the nanosheets’ height adjustable from 2 to 20 nm has a decisive impact on their electronic properties. This is demonstrated by their use as conduction channel in a field effect transistor [2]. Recently we also showed that especially thin nanosheets show a high carrier multiplication (CM) efficiency [3] which could make them, through the confinement induced band gap and high photoconductivity, very attractive for application in photovoltaic devices. We are already able to manufacture photovoltaic devices out of single nanosheets which show promising results.

Keywords: Physical Sciences, Physics, Chemistry, Materials, Colloids, Semiconductors, Two-Dimensional Materials, condensed-matter physics

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12 Collation between the Architecture of the Churches and Housing from Antiquity to the Present Day

Authors: Shaloom Mbambu Kabeya, Léonard Kabeya Mukeba


Churches, cathedrals and castles beaten from antiquity to modern times were relevant from that time to the present day, and preserved as cultural heritage. Our predecessors as François 1er1, Michelangelo2, and Giotto3 left us traces. Gustave Eiffel4, Hector Guimard5 did not decrease their time to show modernization (evolution) in architecture. Plagiarism is a brake on architectural development, construction works of spirits is necessary architecture. This work explains the relationship between ancient and modern architecture. It also shows the power of mathematics in modern architecture.

Keywords: Materials, heritage, architectural modernization, mathematical architecture

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11 Formulation, Nutritive Value Assessment And Effect On Weight Gain Of Infant Formulae Prepared From Locally Available Materia

Authors: J. T. Johnson, R. A. Atule, E. Gbodo


The widespread problem of infant malnutrition in developing countries has stirred efforts in research, development and extension by both local and international organizations. As a result, the formulation and development of nutritious weaning foods from local and readily available raw materials which are cost effective has become imperative in many developing countries. Thus, local and readily available raw materials where used to compound and develop nutritious new infant formulae. The materials used for this study include maize, millet, cowpea, pumpkin, fingerlings, and fish bone. The materials where dried and blended to powder. The powders were weighed in the ratio of 4:4:4:3:1:1 respectively and were then mixed properly. Analysis of nutritive value was conducted on the formulae and compared with NAN-2 standard and results reveals that the formulae had reasonable amount of moisture, lipids, carbohydrate, protein, and fibre. Although NAN-2 was superior in both carbohydrate and protein, the new infant formula was higher in mineral elements, vitamins, fibre, and lipids. All the essentials vitamins and both macro and micro minerals where found in appreciable quantity capable of meeting the biochemical and physiological demand of the body while the anti-nutrients composition were significantly below FAO and WHO safe limits. Finally, the compounded infant formulae was feed to a set of albino Wistar rats while some other set of rats was feed with NAN-2 for the period of twenty seven (27) days and body weight was measure at three days intervals. The results of body weight changes was spectacular as their body weight over shot or almost double that of those animals that were feed with NAN-2 at each point of measurement. The results suggest that the widespread problem of infant malnutrition in the developing world especially among the low income segment of the society can now be reduced if not totally eradicated since nutritive and cost effective weaning formulae can be prepared locally from common readily available materials.

Keywords: Materials, Local, Formulation, nutritive value

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10 Integration of Acoustic Solutions for Classrooms

Authors: Eyibo Ebengeobong Eddie, Halil Zafer Alibaba


The neglect of classroom acoustics is dominant in most educational facilities, meanwhile, hearing and listening is the learning process in this kind of facilities. A classroom should therefore be an environment that encourages listening, without an obstacles to understanding what is being taught. Although different studies have shown teachers to complain that noise is the everyday factor that causes stress in classroom, the capacity of individuals to understand speech is further affected by Echoes, Reverberation, and room modes. It is therefore necessary for classrooms to have an ideal acoustics to aid the intelligibility of students in the learning process. The influence of these acoustical parameters on learning and teaching in schools needs to be further researched upon to enhance the teaching and learning capacity of both teacher and student. For this reason, there is a strong need to provide and collect data to analyse and define the suitable quality of classrooms needed for a learning environment. Research has shown that acoustical problems are still experienced in both newer and older schools. However, recently, principle of acoustics has been analysed and room acoustics can now be measured with various technologies and sound systems to improve and solve the problem of acoustics in classrooms. These acoustic solutions, materials, construction methods and integration processes would be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Materials, Acoustics, Integration, classroom, Speech Intelligibility

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9 Materials for Sustainability

Authors: Qiuying Li


It is a shared opinion that sustainable development requires a system discontinuity, meaning that radical changes in the way we produce and consume are needed. Within this framework there is an emerging understanding that an important contribution to this change can be directly linked to decisions taken in the design phase of products, services and systems. Design schools have therefore to be able to provide design students with a broad knowledge and effective Design for Sustainability tools, in order to enable a new generation of designers in playing an active role in reorienting our consumption and production patterns.

Keywords: Materials, Services, Systems, Design for Sustainability, Ecomaterials

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8 Recent Development of Materials for Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell (PEMFC)

Authors: Mohammed Jourdani, Hamid Mounir, Abdellatif El Marjani


Proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) have been developed as a promising power source for transportation and stationary applications, and power devices for computers and mobile telephones. This paper discusses and summarizes the latest developments of materials and remaining challenges of PEMFC. The different contributions to the material of all components and the efficiencies are analyzed. Many technical advances are introduced to increase the PEMFC fuel cell efficiency and life time for transportation, stationary and portable utilization. By the last years the total cost of this system is decreasing. However, the remaining challenges that need to be overcome mean that it will be several years before full commercialization can take place.

Keywords: Materials, Efficiency, life time, PEMFC fuel cell, recent development, commercialization possibility

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7 Synthesis of Beetosan's Hydrogels with Yellow Tea

Authors: Bozena Tyliszczak, Agnieszka Sobczak-Kupiec, Jolanta Jaskowska, Anna Drabczyk, Sonia Kudlacik


The aim of the study was to select the best conditions for the synthesis of Beetosan's hydrogels with yellow tea. The study determined recipe hydrogel matrix by selecting the appropriate ratio of substrates and to investigate the effect of yellow tea, on the structure and properties of the hydrogel materials. The scope of the research included both to obtain of raw materials required for the synthesis of hydrogel materials, as well as an assessment of their properties. In the first stage of research Beetosan (chitosan derived from bees), and extract the yellow tea China Kekecha was obtained. The second stage was synthesis hydrogels modified by yellow tea. The synthesis of polymeric matrix was preparation under UV radiation. Obtained hydrogel materials were investigated extensively using incubation investigations, absorption capacity, and spectroscopic (FT-IR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Moreover, there was also performed the surface wettability test and a photomicrograph of the structure using scanning electron microscope. Analysis of the obtained results confirms that presence of yellow tea does not significantly affect the behavior of the hydrogels in the incubation fluids. The results show that hydrogel materials exhibit compatibility with the incubatory solutions and they also retain the stability in the tested liquids. Hydrogels obtained in this method might be applied in the cosmetics industry and in the field of medicine. This is possible due to the many interesting properties of tea and biocompatibility and non-toxicity hydrogel materials. The authors would like to thank the The National Centre for Research and Development (Grant no: LIDER/033/697/L-5/13/NCBR/2014) for providing financial support to this project.

Keywords: Materials, Beetosan, hygrogels, yellow tea

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6 The Relevance of Bioinspired Architecture and Programmable Materials for Development of 4D Printing

Authors: Daniela Ribeiro, Silvia Lenyra Meirelles Campos Titotto


Nature has long served as inspiration for humans, since various technologies present in society are a mirror of the natural world. This is due to the fact that nature has adapted for millions of years to possess the characteristics they have today. In this sense, man takes advantage of this situation and uses it to produce his own objects and solve his problems. This concept, which is known as biomimetics, is something relatively new, once it was only denominated in 1957. Nature, in turn, responds directly and consistently to environmental conditions. For example, plants that have touch sensitivity contract with this stimulus. Such a situation resembles a technology that has been gaining ground in the contemporary world of scientific innovation: 4D printing. 4D printing technology emerged in 2012 as a complement to 3D printing and presents numerous benefits since it provides a deficiency in the second kind of printing mentioned. This type of technology reaches several areas, since it is capable of producing materials that change over time, be it in its composition, form or properties and is such a characteristic that determines the additional dimension of the material. Precisely because of these factors, this type of impression resembles nature and is related to biomimetics. However, only certain types of ‘intelligent’ materials are generally employed in this type of impression, since only they will respond well to such stimuli, one of which is the hydrogel. The hydrogel is a biocompatible polymer that presents several applications, these in turn will be briefly mentioned in this article to exemplify its importance and the reason for choosing this material as object of study. In addition, aspects that configure 4D printing will be treated here, such as the importance of architecture, programming language and the reversibility of printed materials.

Keywords: Materials, Biomimetic, Hydrogel

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5 Aircraft Components, Manufacturing and Design: Opportunities, Bottlenecks, and Challenges

Authors: Ionel Botef


Aerospace products operate in very aggressive environments characterized by high temperature, high pressure, large stresses on individual components, the presence of oxidizing and corroding atmosphere, as well as internally created or externally ingested particulate materials that induce erosion and impact damage. Consequently, during operation, the materials of individual components degrade. In addition, the impact of maintenance costs for both civil and military aircraft was estimated at least two to three times greater than initial purchase values, and this trend is expected to increase. As a result, for viable product realisation and maintenance, a spectrum of issues regarding novel processing technologies, innovation of new materials, performance, costs, and environmental impact must constantly be addressed. One of these technologies, namely the cold-gas dynamic-spray process has enabled a broad range of coatings and applications, including many that have not been previously possible or commercially practical, hence its potential for new aerospace applications. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to summarise the state of the art of this technology alongside its theoretical and experimental studies, and explore how the cold-gas dynamic-spray process could be integrated within a framework that finally could lead to more efficient aircraft maintenance. Based on the paper's qualitative findings supported by authorities, evidence, and logic essentially it is argued that the cold-gas dynamic-spray manufacturing process should not be viewed in isolation, but should be viewed as a component of a broad framework that finally leads to more efficient aerospace operations.

Keywords: Aerospace, Materials, Cold Spray, aging aircraft

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4 Designing and Simulation of the Rotor and Hub of the Unmanned Helicopter

Authors: Krzysztof Skiba, Ksenia Siadkowska, Zbigniew Czyz, Karol Scislowski


Today’s progress in the rotorcraft is mostly associated with an optimization of aircraft performance achieved by active and passive modifications of main rotor assemblies and a tail propeller. The key task is to improve their performance, improve the hover quality factor for rotors but not change in specific fuel consumption. One of the tasks to improve the helicopter is an active optimization of the main rotor providing for flight stages, i.e., an ascend, flight, a descend. An active interference with the airflow around the rotor blade section can significantly change characteristics of the aerodynamic airfoil. The efficiency of actuator systems modifying aerodynamic coefficients in the current solutions is relatively high and significantly affects the increase in strength. The solution to actively change aerodynamic characteristics assumes a periodic change of geometric features of blades depending on flight stages. Changing geometric parameters of blade warping enables an optimization of main rotor performance depending on helicopter flight stages. Structurally, an adaptation of shape memory alloys does not significantly affect rotor blade fatigue strength, which contributes to reduce costs associated with an adaptation of the system to the existing blades, and gains from a better performance can easily amortize such a modification and improve profitability of such a structure. In order to obtain quantitative and qualitative data to solve this research problem, a number of numerical analyses have been necessary. The main problem is a selection of design parameters of the main rotor and a preliminary optimization of its performance to improve the hover quality factor for rotors. This design concept assumes a three-bladed main rotor with a chord of 0.07 m and radius R = 1 m. The value of rotor speed is a calculated parameter of an optimization function. To specify the initial distribution of geometric warping, a special software has been created that uses a numerical method of a blade element which respects dynamic design features such as fluctuations of a blade in its joints. A number of performance analyses as a function of rotor speed, forward speed, and altitude have been performed. The calculations were carried out for the full model assembly. This approach makes it possible to observe the behavior of components and their mutual interaction resulting from the forces. The key element of each rotor is the shaft, hub and pins holding the joints and blade yokes. These components are exposed to the highest loads. As a result of the analysis, the safety factor was determined at the level of k > 1.5, which gives grounds to obtain certification for the strength of the structure. The construction of the joint rotor has numerous moving elements in its structure. Despite the high safety factor, the places with the highest stresses, where the signs of wear and tear may appear, have been indicated. The numerical analysis carried out showed that the most loaded element is the pin connecting the modular bearing of the blade yoke with the element of the horizontal oscillation joint. The stresses in this element result in a safety factor of k=1.7. The other analysed rotor components have a safety factor of more than 2 and in the case of the shaft, this factor is more than 3. However, it must be remembered that the structure is as strong as the weakest cell is. Designed rotor for unmanned aerial vehicles adapted to work with blades with intelligent materials in its structure meets the requirements for certification testing. Acknowledgement: This work has been financed by the Polish National Centre for Research and Development under the LIDER program, Grant Agreement No. LIDER/45/0177/L-9/17/NCBR/2018.

Keywords: Materials, shape memory alloy, main rotor, rotorcraft aerodynamics, unmanned helicopter

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3 Material Detection by Phase Shift Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy

Authors: Alper Kiraz, Rana Muhammad Armaghan Ayaz, Yigit Uysallı, Nima Bavili, Berna Morova


Traditional optical methods for example resonance wavelength shift and cavity ring-down spectroscopy used for material detection and sensing have disadvantages, for example, less resistance to laser noise, temperature fluctuations and extraction of the required information can be a difficult task like ring downtime in case of cavity ring-down spectroscopy. Phase shift cavity ring down spectroscopy is not only easy to use but is also capable of overcoming the said problems. This technique compares the phase difference between the signal coming out of the cavity with the reference signal. Detection of any material is made by the phase difference between them. By using this technique, air, water, and isopropyl alcohol can be recognized easily. This Methodology has far-reaching applications and can be used in air pollution detection, human breath analysis and many more.

Keywords: Materials, Noise, Sensitivity, phase shift, resonance wavelength, time domain approach

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2 The Performance and the Induced Rebar Corrosion of Acrylic Resins for Injection Systems in Concrete Structures

Authors: Christian S. Paglia, E. Pesenti, A. Krattiger


Commercially available methacrylate and acrylamide-based acrylic resins for injection in concrete systems have been tested with respect to the sealing performance and the rebar corrosion. Among the different resins, a methacrylate-based type of acrylic resin significantly inhibited the rebar corrosion. This was mainly caused by the relatively high pH of the resin components and the resin aqueous solution. This resin also exhibited a relatively high sealing performance, in particular after exposing the resin to durability tests. The corrosion inhibition behaviour and the sealing properties after the exposition to durability tests were maintained up to 1 year. The other resins either promoted the corrosion of the rebar and /or exhibited relatively low sealing properties.

Keywords: Materials, acrylic resin, sealing performance, rebar corrosion

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1 Effects of Rising Cost of Building Materials in Nigeria: A Case Study of Adamawa State

Authors: Ibrahim Yerima Gwalem, Jamila Ahmed Buhari


In recent years, there has been an alarming rate of increase in the costs of building materials in Nigeria, and this ugly phenomenon threatens the contributions of the construction industry in national development. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the rising cost of building materials in Adamawa State Nigeria. Four research questions in line with the purpose of the study were raised to guide the study. Two null hypotheses were formulated and tested at 0.05 level of significance. The study adopted a survey research design. The population of the study comprises registered contractors, registered builders, selected merchants, and consultants in Adamawa state. Data were collected using researcher designed instrument tagged effects of the rising cost of building materials questionnaire (ERCBMQ). The instrument was subjected to face and content validation by two experts, one from Modibbo Adama University of Technology Yola and the other from Federal Polytechnic Mubi. The reliability of the instrument was determined by the Cronbach Alpha method and yielded a reliability index of 0.85 high enough to ascertain the reliability. Data collected from a field survey of 2019 was analyzed using mean and percentage. The means of the prices were used in the calculations of price indices and rates of inflation on building materials. Findings revealed that factors responsible for the rising cost of building materials are the exchange rate of the Nigeria Naira with a mean rating (MR) = 4.4; cost of fuel and power supply, MR = 4.3; and changes in government policies and legislation, MR = 4.2, while fluctuations in the construction cost with MR = 2.8; reduced volume of construction output, MR = 2.52; and risk of project abandonment, MRA = 2.51, were the three effects. The study concluded that adverse effects could result in a downward effect on the contributions of the construction industries on the gross domestic product (GDP) in the nation’s economy. Among the recommendations proffered include that the government should formulate a policy that will play down the agitations on the use of imported building materials by encouraging research in the production of local building materials.

Keywords: Materials, Building, Cost, effects, rising

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