Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Material Related Abstracts

13 Characterization of Copper Slag and Jarofix Waste Materials for Road Construction

Authors: A. K. Sinha, V. K. Arora, V. G. Havanagi

Abstract:

Copper slag and Jarofix are waste materials, generated during the manufacture of copper and zinc respectively, which have potential for utility in embankment and road construction. Accordingly, a research project was carried out to study the characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix to utilize in the construction of road. In this study, copper slag and Jarofix were collected from Tuticorin, State of Tamil Nadu and Hindustan Zinc Ltd., Chittorgarh, Rajasthan state, India respectively. These materials were investigated for their physical, chemical, and geotechnical characteristics. The materials were collected from the disposal area and laboratory investigations were carried out to study its feasibility for use in the construction of embankment and sub grade layers of road pavement. This paper presents the results of physical, chemical and geotechnical characteristics of copper slag and Jarofix. It was concluded that copper slag and Jarofix may be utilized in the construction of road.

Keywords: Material, Road Construction, copper slag, Jarofix waste

Procedia PDF Downloads 306
12 Test of Moisture Sensor Activation Speed

Authors: I. Parkova, A. Vališevskis, A. Viļumsone

Abstract:

Nocturnal enuresis or bed-wetting is intermittent incontinence during sleep of children after age 5 that may precipitate wide range of behavioural and developmental problems. One of the non-pharmacological treatment methods is the use of a bed-wetting alarm system. In order to improve comfort conditions of nocturnal enuresis alarm system, modular moisture sensor should be replaced by a textile sensor. In this study behaviour and moisture detection speed of woven and sewn sensors were compared by analysing change in electrical resistance after solution (salt water) was dripped on sensor samples. Material of samples has different structure and yarn location, which affects solution detection rate. Sensor system circuit was designed and two sensor tests were performed: system activation test and false alarm test to determine the sensitivity of the system and activation threshold. Sewn sensor had better result in system’s activation test – faster reaction, but woven sensor had better result in system’s false alarm test – it was less sensitive to perspiration simulation. After experiments it was found that the optimum switching threshold is 3V in case of 5V input voltage, which provides protection against false alarms, for example – during intensive sweating.

Keywords: Industry, Material, conductive yarns, moisture textile sensor

Procedia PDF Downloads 137
11 Topology Optimization of Structures with Web-Openings

Authors: J. H. Lee, D. K. Lee, S. M. Shin

Abstract:

Topology optimization technique utilizes constant element densities as design parameters. Finally, optimal distribution contours of the material densities between voids (0) and solids (1) in design domain represent the determination of topology. It means that regions with element density values become occupied by solids in design domain, while there are only void phases in regions where no density values exist. Therefore the void regions of topology optimization results provide design information to decide appropriate depositions of web-opening in structure. Contrary to the basic objective of the topology optimization technique which is to obtain optimal topology of structures, this present study proposes a new idea that topology optimization results can be also utilized for decision of proper web-opening’s position. Numerical examples of linear elastostatic structures demonstrate efficiency of methodological design processes using topology optimization in order to determinate the proper deposition of web-openings.

Keywords: Material, Structure, topology optimization, web-opening, element density

Procedia PDF Downloads 312
10 Public Functions of Kazakh Modern Literature

Authors: Alua Temirbolat, Erkingul Soltanaeva, Omyrkhan Abdimanuly

Abstract:

In this article, the public and social functions of literature and art in the Republic of Kazakhstan were analyzed on the basis of formal and informal literary organizations. The external and internal, subjective and objective factors which influenced the modern literary process were determined. The literary forces, their consolidation, types of organization in the art of word were examined. The periods of the literary process as planning, organization, promotion, and evaluation and their leading forces and approaches were analyzed. The right point of view to the language and mentality of the society force will influence to the literary process. The Ministry of Culture, the Writers' Union of RK and various non-governmental organizations are having different events for the promotion of literary process and to glorify literary personalities in the entire territory of Kazakhstan. According to the cultural plan of different state administration, there was a big program in order to publish their literary encyclopedia, to glorify and distribute books of own poets and writers of their region to the country. All of these official measures will increase the reader's interest in the book and will also bring up people to the patriotic education and improve the status of the native language. The professional literary publications such as the newspaper ‘Kazakh literature’, magazine ‘Zhuldyz’, and journal ‘Zhalyn’ materials which were published in the periods 2013-2015 on the basis of statistical analysis of the Kazakh literature topical to the issues and the field of themes are identified and their level of connection with the public situations are defined. The creative freedom, relations between society and the individual, the state of the literature, the problems of advantages and disadvantages were taken into consideration in the same articles. The level of functions was determined through the public role of literature, social feature, personal peculiarities. Now the stages as the literature management planning, organization, motivation, as well as the evaluation are forming and developing in Kazakhstan. But we still need the development of literature management to satisfy the actual requirements of the today’s agenda.

Keywords: Material, literature management, literary process, social functions

Procedia PDF Downloads 257
9 Thermal Instability in Solid under Irradiation

Authors: P. Selyshchev

Abstract:

Construction materials for nuclear facilities are operated under extreme thermal and radiation conditions. First of all, they are nuclear fuel, fuel assemblies, and reactor vessel. It places high demands on the control of their state, stability of their state, and their operating conditions. An irradiated material is a typical example of an open non-equilibrium system with nonlinear feedbacks between its elements. Fluxes of energy, matter and entropy maintain states which are far away from thermal equilibrium. The links that arise under irradiation are inherently nonlinear. They form the mechanisms of feed-backs that can lead to instability. Due to this instability the temperature of the sample, heat transfer, and the defect density can exceed the steady-state value in several times. This can lead to change of typical operation and an accident. Therefore, it is necessary to take into account the thermal instability to avoid the emergency situation. The point is that non-thermal energy can be accumulated in materials because irradiation produces defects (first of all these are vacancies and interstitial atoms), which are metastable. The stored energy is about energy of defect formation. Thus, an annealing of the defects is accompanied by releasing of non-thermal stored energy into thermal one. Temperature of the material grows. Increase of temperature results in acceleration of defect annealing. Density of the defects drops and temperature grows more and more quickly. The positive feed-back is formed and self-reinforcing annealing of radiation defects develops. To describe these phenomena a theoretical approach to thermal instability is developed via formalism of complex systems. We consider system of nonlinear differential equations for different components of microstructure and temperature. The qualitative analysis of this non-linear dynamical system is carried out. Conditions for development of instability have been obtained. Points of bifurcation have been found. Convenient way to represent obtained results is a set of phase portraits. It has been shown that different regimes of material state under irradiation can develop. Thus degradation of irradiated material can be limited by means of choice appropriate kind of evolution of materials under irradiation.

Keywords: Material, irradiation, non-equilibrium state, nonlinear feed-back, thermal instability

Procedia PDF Downloads 162
8 Renovation of Pipeline in Residential Buildings by Polymeric Composites

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi

Abstract:

In this paper, rehabilitation methods for pipeline by advanced polymeric coating such as relining are reviewed. A number of diverse methods which are globally used are described and a brief summary of advances in technology, methods and materials is provided. The paper explains why it is claimed that sewerage rehabilitation with relining in residential buildings is environmentally friendly and economical, the importance of the quality control procedure is discussed and several quality tests are proposed.

Keywords: Buildings, Material, Composite, renovation

Procedia PDF Downloads 138
7 Reinforced Concrete Design Construction Issues and Earthquake Failure-Damage Responses

Authors: Hasan Husnu Korkmaz, Serra Zerrin Korkmaz

Abstract:

Earthquakes are the natural disasters that threat several countries. Turkey is situated on a very active earthquake zone. During the recent earthquakes, thousands of people died due to failure of reinforced concrete structures. Although Turkey has a very sufficient earthquake code, the design and construction mistakes were repeated for old structures. Lack of the control mechanism during the construction process may be the most important reason of failure. The quality of the concrete and poor detailing of steel or reinforcement is the most important headings. In this paper, the reasons of failure of reinforced concrete structures were summarized with relevant photos. The paper is beneficial for civil engineers as well as architect who are in the process of construction and design of structures in earthquake zones.

Keywords: Earthquake, Material, Failure, reinforced concrete structure

Procedia PDF Downloads 219
6 Critical Investigation on Performance of Polymeric Materials in Rehabilitation of Metallic Components

Authors: Parastou Kharazmi

Abstract:

Failure and leakage of metallic components because of corrosion in infrastructure structures is a considerably problematic and expensive issue and the traditional solution of replacing the component is costly and time-consuming. Rehabilitation techniques by using advanced polymeric materials are an alternative solution towards this problem. This paper provides a summary of analyses on relined rehabilitated metallic samples after exposure in practice and real condition to study the composite material performance when it is exposed to water, heat and chemicals in real condition. The study was carried out by using different test methods such as microscopy, thermal and chemical as well as mechanical analyses.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Material, Structure, Composite

Procedia PDF Downloads 123
5 Production of Nanocomposite Electrical Contact Materials Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C in Thermal Plasma

Authors: A. V. Samokhin, A. A. Fadeev, M. A. Sinaiskii, N. V. Alekseev, A. V. Kolesnikov

Abstract:

Composite materials where metal matrix is reinforced by ceramic or metal particles are of great interest for use in the manufacturing of electrical contacts. Significant improvement of the composite physical and mechanical properties as well as increase of the performance parameters of composite-based products can be achieved if the nanoscale structure in the composite materials is obtained by using nanosized powders as starting components. The results of nanosized composite powders synthesis (Ag-SnO2, W-Cu and Cu-C) in the DC thermal plasma flows are presented in this paper. The investigations included the following processes: - Recondensation of micron powder mixture Ag + SnO2 in a nitrogen plasma; - The reduction of the oxide powders mixture (WO3 + CuO) in a hydrogen-nitrogen plasma; - Decomposition of the copper formate and copper acetate powders in nitrogen plasma. The calculations of equilibrium compositions of multicomponent systems Ag-Sn-O-N, W-Cu-O-H-N and Cu-O-C-H-N in the temperature range of 400-5000 K were carried to estimate basic process characteristics. Experimental studies of the processes were performed using a plasma reactor with a confined jet flow. The plasma jet net power was in the range of 2 - 13 kW, and the feedstock flow rate was up to 0.35 kg/h. The obtained powders were characterized by TEM, HR-TEM, SEM, EDS, ED-XRF, XRD, BET and QEA methods. Nanocomposite Ag-SnO2 (12 wt. %). Processing of the initial powder mixture (Ag-SnO2) in nitrogen thermal plasma stream allowed to produce nanopowders with a specific surface area up to 24 m2/g, consisting predominantly of particles with size less than 100 nm. According to XRD results, tin was present in the obtained products as SnO2 phase, and also as intermetallic phases AgxSn. Nanocomposite W-Cu (20 wt .%). Reduction of (WO3+CuO) mixture in the hydrogen-nitrogen plasma provides W-Cu nanopowder with particle sizes in the range of 10-150 nm. The particles have mainly spherical shape and structure tungsten core - copper shell. The thickness of the shell is about several nanometers, the shell is composed of copper and its oxides (Cu2O, CuO). The nanopowders had 1.5 wt. % oxygen impurity. Heat treatment in a hydrogen atmosphere allows to reduce the oxygen content to less than 0.1 wt. %. Nanocomposite Cu-C. Copper nanopowders were found as products of the starting copper compounds decomposition. The nanopowders primarily had a spherical shape with a particle size of less than 100 nm. The main phase was copper, with small amount of Cu2O and CuO oxides. Copper formate decomposition products had a specific surface area 2.5-7 m2/g and contained 0.15 - 4 wt. % carbon; and copper acetate decomposition products had the specific surface area 5-35 m2/g, and carbon content of 0.3 - 5 wt. %. Compacting of nanocomposites (sintering in hydrogen for Ag-SnO2 and electric spark sintering (SPS) for W-Cu) showed that the samples having a relative density of 97-98 % can be obtained with a submicron structure. The studies indicate the possibility of using high-intensity plasma processes to create new technologies to produce nanocomposite materials for electric contacts.

Keywords: Synthesis, plasma, Material, nanocomposite, electrical contact

Procedia PDF Downloads 114
4 Challenges and Future Prospects of Teaching English in Secondary Schools of Jharkhand Board: An Extensive Survey of the Present Status

Authors: Neha Toppo

Abstract:

Plans and programs for successful secondary education are incomplete without the inclusion of teaching English as an important area. Even after sixteen years of the formation of Jharkhand as a separate state, the students are still struggling to achieve quality education of English. This paper intends to account the present condition of teaching English in Jharkhand board secondary level schools through discussion on various issues of English language teaching, language need and learning challenges of its students. The study is to analyze whether the learning environment, teaching methods and materials, teaching resources, goals of language curriculum are appropriately convincing for the students of the board or require to be reanalyzed and also to provide appropriate suggestions for improvement. Immediate attention must be drawn towards the problem for benefitting those students, who despite their knowledge and talent are lagging behind in numerous fields only due to the lack of proficiency in English. The data and discussion provided are on the basis of a survey, in which semi structured interview with teachers, students and administrators in several schools including both rural and urban area has been taken. Questionnaire, observation and testing were used as important tools. The survey has been conducted in Ranchi district, as it covers large geographical area which includes number of villages and at the same time several towns. The district primarily possesses tribes as well as different class of people including immigrants from all over and outside Jharkhand with their social, economical strata. The observation makes it clear that the English language teaching at the state board is not complementing its context and the whole language teaching system should be re-examined to establish learner oriented environment.

Keywords: Material, Method, secondary level, teaching resources

Procedia PDF Downloads 307
3 Effect of Heat Treatment on the Corrosion Behavior of Stainless Steel

Authors: Altoumi Alndalusi

Abstract:

The work examines the aqueous corrosion behavior of grades of stain less steel which are used as corrosion resistant castings for applications such as valve and pump bodies. The corrosion behavior of steels in the as-cast condition has been examined using potentiostatic studies to illustrate the need for correct thermal treatment. A metallurgical examination and chemical analysis were carried out to establish the morphology of the steel structure. Heat treatment was carried out in order to compare damage in relation to microstructure. Optical and scanning electron microscopy examinations confirmed that the austenitic steels suffers from severe localized inter-dendritic pitting attack, while non homogenized castings highly alloyed duplex steels gave inferior corrosion resistance. Through the heat treatment conditions a significant of phase transformation of the duplex steel C were occurred (from ferrite to austenite and sigma plus carbides) and were gave reduction resistance.

Keywords: Corrosion, Heat Treatment, Material, steel, cast, duplex stainless

Procedia PDF Downloads 59
2 Material Fracture Dynamic of Vertical Axis Wind Turbine Blade

Authors: Ahmed Chellil, Brahim Safi, Samir Lecheb, Hamza Mechakra, Houcine Kebir

Abstract:

In this paper we studied fracture and dynamic behavior of vertical axis wind turbine blade, the VAWT is a historical machine, it has many properties, structure, advantage, component to be able to produce the electricity. We modeled the blade design then imported to Abaqus software for analysis the modes shapes, frequencies, stress, strain, displacement and stress intensity factor SIF, after comparison we chose the idol material. Finally, the CTS test of glass epoxy reinforced polymer plates to obtain the material fracture toughness Kc.

Keywords: Material, Frequency, crack, blade, SIF

Procedia PDF Downloads 383
1 Architectural Knowledge Systems Related to Use of Terracotta in Bengal

Authors: Nandini Mukhopadhyay

Abstract:

The prominence of terracotta as a building material in Bengal is well justified by its geographical location. The architectural knowledge system associated with terracotta can be comprehended in the typology of the built structures as they act as texts to interpret the knowledge. The history of Bengal has witnessed the influence of several rulers in developing the architectural vocabulary of the region. This metamorphosis of the architectural knowledge systems in the region includes the Bhakti movement, the Islamic influence, and the British rule, which led to the evolution of the use of terracotta from decorative elements to structural elements in the present-day context. This paper intends to develop an understanding of terracotta as a building material, its use in a built structure, the common problems associated with terracotta construction, and the techniques of maintenance, repair, and conservation. This paper also explores the size, shape, and geometry of the material and its varied use in temples, mosques in the region. It also takes into note that the use of terracotta was concentrated majorly to religious structures and not in the settlements of the common people. And the architectural style of temples and mosques of Bengal is hugely influenced by the houses of the common.

Keywords: Conservation, Material, knowledge system, terracotta

Procedia PDF Downloads 1