Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 7

MAS Related Abstracts

7 The Design of the Multi-Agent Classification System (MACS)

Authors: Mohamed R. Mhereeg


The paper discusses the design of a .NET Windows Service based agent system called MACS (Multi-Agent Classification System). MACS is a system aims to accurately classify spread-sheet developers competency over a network. It is designed to automatically and autonomously monitor spread-sheet users and gather their development activities based on the utilization of the software Multi-Agent Technology (MAS). This is accomplished in such a way that makes management capable to efficiently allow for precise tailor training activities for future spread-sheet development. The monitoring agents of MACS are intended to be distributed over the WWW in order to satisfy the monitoring and classification of the multiple developer aspect. The Prometheus methodology is used for the design of the agents of MACS. Prometheus has been used to undertake this phase of the system design because it is developed specifically for specifying and designing agent-oriented systems. Additionally, Prometheus specifies also the communication needed between the agents in order to coordinate to achieve their delegated tasks.

Keywords: Design, classification, MAS, MACS, prometheus

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6 The Effects of Mirror Therapy on Clinical Improvement in Hemiplegic Lower Extremity Rehabilitation in Subjects with Chronic Stroke

Authors: Hassan Abo-Salem, Huang Xiaolin


Background and Purpose: The effectiveness of mirror therapy (MT) has been investigated in acute hemiplegia. The present study examines whether MT, given during chronic stroke, was more effective in promoting motor recovery of the lower extremity and walking speed than standard rehabilitation alone. Methods: The study enrolled 30 patients with chronic stroke. Fifteen patients each were assigned to the treatment group and the control group. All patients received a conventional rehabilitation program for a 4-week period. In addition to this rehabilitation program, patients in the treatment group received mirror therapy for 4 weeks, 5 days a week. Main measures: Passive ankle joint dorsiflexion range of motion, gait speed, Brunnstrom stages of motor recovery, plantarflexor muscle tone by Modified Ashworth Scale. Results: Results: No significant difference was found in the outcome measures among groups before treatment. When compared with standard rehabilitation, mirror therapy improved Ankle ROM, Brunnstrom stages and waking speed (p < 0.05). However, there were no significant differences between two groups on MAS (P > 0.05). Conclusions: Mirror therapy combined with a conventional stroke rehabilitation program enhances lower-extremity motor recovery and walking speed in chronic stroke patients.

Keywords: Stroke, MAS, mirror therapy, walking speed

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5 Identification and Validation of Co-Dominant Markers for Selection of the CO-4 Anthracnose Disease Resistance Gene in Common Bean Cultivar G2333

Authors: Annet Namusoke, Annet Namayanja, Peter Wasswa, Shakirah Nampijja


Common bean cultivar G2333 which offers broad resistance for anthracnose has been widely used as a source of resistance in breeding for anthracnose resistance. The cultivar is pyramided with three genes namely CO-4, CO-5 and CO-7 and of these three genes, the CO-4 gene has been found to offer the broadest resistance. The main aim of this work was to identify and validate easily assayable PCR based co-dominant molecular markers for selection of the CO-4 gene in segregating populations derived from crosses of G2333 with RWR 1946 and RWR 2075, two commercial Andean cultivars highly susceptible to anthracnose. Marker sequences for the study were obtained by blasting the sequence of the COK-4 gene in the Phaseolus gene database. Primer sequence pairs that were not provided from the Phaseolus gene database were designed by the use of Primer3 software. PCR conditions were optimized and the PCR products were run on 6% HPAGE gel. Results of the polymorphism test indicated that out of 18 identified markers, only two markers namely BM588 and BM211 behaved co-dominantly. Phenotypic evaluation for reaction to anthracnose disease was done by inoculating 21days old seedlings of three parents, F1 and F2 populations with race 7 of Colletotrichum lindemuthianum in the humid chamber. DNA testing of the BM588 marker onto the F2 segregating population of the crosses RWR 1946 x G 2333 and RWR 2075 x G2333 further revealed that the marker BM588 co-segregated with disease resistance with co-dominance of two alleles of 200bp and 400bp, fitting the expected segregation ratio of 1:2:1. The BM588 marker was significantly associated with disease resistance and gave promising results for marker assisted selection of the CO-4 gene in the breeding lines. Activities to validate the BM211 marker are also underway.

Keywords: MAS, Phaseolus vulgaris, codominant, Colletotrichum lindemuthianum

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4 Identifying of Hybrid Lines for Lpx-B1 Gene in Durum Wheat

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yıldırım, Ramazan Özbey


The basic criteria which determine durum wheat quality is its suitability for pasta processing that is pasta making quality. Bright yellow color is a desired property in pasta products. Durum wheat pasta making quality is affected by grain pigment content and oxidative enzymes which affect adversely bright yellow color. Of the oxidative enzymes, lipoxygenase LOX is the most effective one on oxidative bleaching of yellow pigments in durum wheat products. Thus, wheat cultivars that are high in yellow pigments but low in LOX enzyme activity should be preferred for the production of pasta with high color quality. The aim of this study was to reduce lipoxygenase activities of the backcross durum wheat lines that were previously improved for their protein quality. For this purpose, two advanced lines with different parents (TMB2 and TMB3) were used recurrent parents. Also, Gediz-75 wheat with low LOX enzyme activity was used as the gene source. In all of the generations, backcrossed plants carrying the targeted gene region (Lpx-B1.1) were selected using SSR markers by marker assisted selection method. As a result, the study will be completed in three years instead of six years required in a classical backcross breeding study, leading to the development of high-quality candidate varieties. This research has been financially supported by TÜBİTAK (Project No: 112T910).

Keywords: MAS, triticum durum, durum wheat, lipoxygenase, LOX, Lpx-B1.1

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3 Marker Assisted Breeding for Grain Quality Improvement in Durum Wheat

Authors: Begüm Terzi, Özlem Ateş Sönmezoğlu, Ahmet Yıldırım, Leyla Gündüz


Durum wheat quality is defined as its suitability for pasta processing, that is pasta making quality. Another factor that determines the quality of durum wheat is the nutritional value of wheat or its final products. Wheat is a basic source of calories, proteins and minerals for humans in many countries of the world. For this reason, improvement of wheat nutritional value is of great importance. In recent years, deficiencies in protein and micronutrients, particularly in iron and zinc, have seriously increased. Therefore, basic foods such as wheat must be improved for micronutrient content. The effects of some major genes for grain quality established. Gpc-B1 locus is one of the genes increased protein and micronutrients content, and used in improvement studies of durum wheat nutritional value. The aim of this study was to increase the protein content and the micronutrient (Fe, Zn ve Mn) contents of an advanced durum wheat line (TMB 1) that was previously improved for its protein quality. For this purpose, TMB1 advanced durum wheat line were used as the recurrent parent and also, UC1113-Gpc-B1 line containing the Gpc-B1 gene was used as the gene source. In all of the generations, backcrossed plants carrying the targeted gene region were selected by marker assisted selection (MAS). BC4F1 plants MAS method was employed in combination with embryo culture and rapid plant growth in a controlled greenhouse conditions in order to shorten the duration of the transition between generations in backcross breeding. The Gpc-B1 gene was selected specific molecular markers. Since Yr-36 gene associated with Gpc-B1 allele, it was also transferred to the Gpc-B1 transferred lines. Thus, the backcrossed plants selected by MAS are resistance to yellow rust disease. This research has been financially supported by TÜBİTAK (112T910).

Keywords: MAS, triticum durum, durum wheat, Gpc-B1, Yr-36

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2 Agent/Group/Role Organizational Model to Simulate an Industrial Control System

Authors: Noureddine Seddari, Mohamed Belaoued, Salah Bougueroua


The modeling of complex systems is generally based on the decomposition of their components into sub-systems easier to handle. This division has to be made in a methodical way. In this paper, we introduce an industrial control system modeling and simulation based on the Multi-Agent System (MAS) methodology AALAADIN and more particularly the underlying conceptual model Agent/Group/Role (AGR). Indeed, in this division using AGR model, the overall system is decomposed into sub-systems in order to improve the understanding of regulation and control systems, and to simplify the implementation of the obtained agents and their groups, which are implemented using the Multi-Agents Development KIT (MAD-KIT) platform. This approach appears to us to be the most appropriate for modeling of this type of systems because, due to the use of MAS, it is possible to model real systems in which very complex behaviors emerge from relatively simple and local interactions between many different individuals, therefore a MAS is well adapted to describe a system from the standpoint of the activity of its components, that is to say when the behavior of the individuals is complex (difficult to describe with equations). The main aim of this approach is the take advantage of the performance, the scalability and the robustness that are intuitively provided by MAS.

Keywords: Complex Systems, Modeling and simulation, MAS, Industrial Control System, AALAADIN, AGR, MAD-KIT

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1 Biotechnological Interventions for Crop Improvement in Nutricereal Pearl Millet

Authors: Supriya Ambawat, Balraj Singh, Subaran Singh, C. Tara Satyavathi, B. S. Rajpurohit, Ummed Singh


Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is an important staple food of the arid and semiarid tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It is rightly termed as nutricereal as it has high nutrition value and a good source of carbohydrate, protein, fat, ash, dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, etc. Pearl millet has low prolamine fraction and is gluten free which is useful for people having a gluten allergy. It has several health benefits like reduction in blood pressure, thyroid, diabe¬tes, cardiovascular and celiac diseases but its direct consumption as food has significantly declined due to several reasons. Keeping this in view, it is important to reorient the ef¬forts to generate demand through value-addition and quality improvement and create awareness on the nutritional merits of pearl millet. In India, through Indian Council of Agricultural Research-All India Coordinated Research Project on Pearl millet, multilocational coordinated trials for developed hybrids were conducted at various centers. The gene banks of pearl millet contain varieties with high levels of iron and zinc which were used to produce new pearl millet varieties with elevated iron levels bred with the high‐yielding varieties. Thus, using breeding approaches and biochemical analysis, a total of 167 hybrids and 61 varieties were identified and released for cultivation in different agro-ecological zones of the country which also includes some biofortified hybrids rich in Fe and Zn. Further, using several biotechnological interventions such as molecular markers, next-generation sequencing (NGS), association mapping, nested association mapping (NAM), MAGIC populations, genome editing, genotyping by sequencing (GBS), genome wide association studies (GWAS) advancement in millet improvement has become possible by identifying and tagging of genes underlying a trait in the genome. Using DArT markers very high density linkage maps were constructed for pearl millet. Improved HHB67 has been released using marker assisted selection (MAS) strategies, and genomic tools were used to identify Fe-Zn Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The draft genome sequence of millet has also opened various ways to explore pearl millet. Further, genomic positions of significantly associated simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with iron and zinc content in the consensus map is being identified and research is in progress towards mapping QTLs for flour rancidity. The sequence information is being used to explore genes and enzymatic pathways responsible for rancidity of flour. Thus, development and application of several biotechnological approaches along with biofortification can accelerate the genetic gain targets for pearl millet improvement and help improve its quality.

Keywords: Malnutrition, MAS, Sequencing, pearl millet, Biotechnological approaches, genomic tools, nutricereal

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