Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

martensite Related Abstracts

6 Characterising the Effects of Heat Treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 Stainless Steels

Authors: Esther T. Akinlabi, Stephen A. Akinlabi


This paper reports on the effects of heat treatment on 3CR12 and AISI 316 stainless steel grades. Heat treatment was conducted on the steel grades and cooled using two different media; air and water in order to study the effect of each medium on the evolving properties of the samples. The heat treated samples were characterized through the evolving microstructure and hardness. It was found that there was a significant grain size reduction in both the heat treated stainless steel specimens compared to the parent materials. The finer grain sizes were achieved as a result of impediment to growth of one phase by the other. The Vickers micro-hardness values of the heat treated samples were higher compared to the parent materials due to the fact that each of the steel grades had a proportion of martensitic structures in their microstructures.

Keywords: Hardness, austenite, ferrite, grain size, martensite, microstructure and stainless steel

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5 Intelligent Materials and Functional Aspects of Shape Memory Alloys

Authors: Osman Adiguzel


Shape-memory alloys are a new class of functional materials with a peculiar property known as shape memory effect. These alloys return to a previously defined shape on heating after deformation in low temperature product phase region and take place in a class of functional materials due to this property. The origin of this phenomenon lies in the fact that the material changes its internal crystalline structure with changing temperature. Shape memory effect is based on martensitic transitions, which govern the remarkable changes in internal crystalline structure of materials. Martensitic transformation, which is a solid state phase transformation, occurs in thermal manner in material on cooling from high temperature parent phase region. This transformation is governed by changes in the crystalline structure of the material. Shape memory alloys cycle between original and deformed shapes in bulk level on heating and cooling, and can be used as a thermal actuator or temperature-sensitive elements due to this property. Martensitic transformations usually occur with the cooperative movement of atoms by means of lattice invariant shears. The ordered parent phase structures turn into twinned structures with this movement in crystallographic manner in thermal induced case. The twinned martensites turn into the twinned or oriented martensite by stressing the material at low temperature martensitic phase condition. The detwinned martensite turns into the parent phase structure on first heating, first cycle, and parent phase structures turn into the twinned and detwinned structures respectively in irreversible and reversible memory cases. On the other hand, shape memory materials are very important and useful in many interdisciplinary fields such as medicine, pharmacy, bioengineering, metallurgy and many engineering fields. The choice of material as well as actuator and sensor to combine it with the host structure is very essential to develop main materials and structures. Copper based alloys exhibit this property in metastable beta-phase region, which has bcc-based structures at high temperature parent phase field, and these structures martensitically turn into layered complex structures with lattice twinning following two ordered reactions on cooling. Martensitic transition occurs as self-accommodated martensite with inhomogeneous shears, lattice invariant shears which occur in two opposite directions, <110 > -type directions on the {110}-type plane of austenite matrix which is basal plane of martensite. This kind of shear can be called as {110}<110> -type mode and gives rise to the formation of layered structures, like 3R, 9R or 18R depending on the stacking sequences on the close-packed planes of the ordered lattice. In the present contribution, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies were carried out on two copper based alloys which have the chemical compositions in weight; Cu-26.1%Zn 4%Al and Cu-11%Al-6%Mn. X-ray diffraction profiles and electron diffraction patterns reveal that both alloys exhibit super lattice reflections inherited from parent phase due to the displacive character of martensitic transformation. X-ray diffractograms taken in a long time interval show that locations and intensities of diffraction peaks change with the aging time at room temperature. In particular, some of the successive peak pairs providing a special relation between Miller indices come close each other.

Keywords: martensite, shape memory effect, twinning, detwinning, self-accommodation, layered structures

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4 Thermo-Mechanical Processing of Armor Steel Plates

Authors: Eman El-Shenawy, Maha El-Meligy, Taher El-Bitar, Almosilhy Almosilhy, Nader Dawood


The steel contains 0.3% C and 0.004% B, beside Mn, Cr, Mo, and Ni. The alloy was processed by using 20-ton capacity electric arc furnace (EAF), and then refined by ladle furnace (LF). Liquid steel was cast as rectangular ingots. Dilatation test showed the critical transformation temperatures Ac1, Ac3, Ms and Mf as 716, 835, 356, and 218 °C. The ingots were austenitized and soaked and then rough rolled to thin slabs with 80 mm thickness. The thin slabs were then reheated and soaked for finish rolling to 6.0 mm thickness plates. During the rough rolling, the roll force increases as a result of rolling at temperatures less than recrystallization temperature. However, during finish rolling, the steel reflects initially continuous static recrystallization after which it shows strain hardening due to fall of temperature. It was concluded that, the steel plates were successfully heat treated by quenching-tempering at 250 ºC for 20 min.

Keywords: quenching, martensite, tempering, armor steel, austenitizing, critical transformation temperatures (CTTs), dilatation curve, rough and finish rolling processes, soaking, thermo-mechanical processing

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3 Microstructure and Sintering of Boron-Alloyed Martensitic Stainless Steel

Authors: Ming-Wei Wu, Yu-Jin Tsai, Ching-Huai Chang


Liquid phase sintering (LPS) is a versatile technique for achieving effective densification of powder metallurgy (PM) steels and other materials. The aim of this study was to examine the influences of 0.6 wt% boron on the microstructure and LPS behavior of boron-alloyed 410 martensitic stainless steel. The results showed that adding 0.6 wt% boron can obviously promote the LPS due to a eutectic reaction and increase the sintered density of 410 stainless steel. The density was much increased by 1.06 g/cm³ after 1225ºC sintering. Increasing the sintering temperature from 1225ºC to 1275ºC did not obviously improve the sintered density. After sintering at 1225ºC~1275ºC, the matrix was fully martensitic, and intragranular borides were extensively found due to the solidification of eutectic liquid. The microstructure after LPS consisted of the martensitic matrix and (Fe, Cr)2B boride, as identified by electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and electron probe micro-analysis (EPMA).

Keywords: Microstructure, powder metallurgy, Boron, martensite, stainless steel, liquid phase sintering

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2 Effect of Roughness and Microstructure on Tribological Behaviour of 35NCD16 Steel

Authors: A. Jourani, C. Trevisiol, S. Bouvier


The aim of this work is to study the coupled effect of microstructure and surface roughness on friction coefficient, wear resistance and wear mechanisms. Friction tests on 35NCD16 steel are performed under different normal loads (50-110 N) on a pin-on-plane configuration at cyclic sliding with abrasive silicon carbide grains ranging from 35 µm to 200 µm. To vary hardness and microstructure, the specimens are subjected to water quenching and tempering at various temperatures from 200°C to 600°C. The evolution of microstructures and wear mechanisms of worn surfaces are analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). For a given microstructure and hardness, the friction coefficient decreases with increasing of normal load and decreasing of the abrasive particle size. The wear rate increase with increasing of normal load and abrasive particle size. The results also reveal that there is a critical hardness Hcᵣᵢₜᵢcₐₗ around 430 Hv which maximizes the friction coefficient and wear rate. This corresponds to a microstructure transition from martensite laths to carbides and equiaxed grains, for a tempering around 400°C. Above Hcᵣᵢₜᵢcₐₗ the friction coefficient and the amount of material loss decrease with an increase of hardness and martensite volume fraction. This study also shows that the debris size and the space between the abrasive particles decrease with a reduction in the particle size. The coarsest abrasive grains lost their cutting edges, accompanied by particle damage and empty space due to the particle detachment from the resin matrix. The compact packing nature of finer abrasive papers implicates lower particle detachment and facilitates the clogging and the transition from abrasive to adhesive wear.

Keywords: Microstructure, Wear, surface roughness, martensite, friction

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1 Unusual Weld Failures of Rotary Compressor during Hydraulic Tests: Analysis revealed Boron Induced Cracking in Fusion Zone

Authors: Vaibhav Jain, Goutam Mukhopadhyay, Kaushal Kishore, Manashi Adhikary, Sandip Bhattacharyya, Hrishikesh Jugade, Saurabh Hadas


Rotary air compressors in air conditioners are used to suck excessive volume of air from the atmosphere in a small space to provide drive to the components attached to them. Hydraulic test is one of the most important methods to decide the suitability of these components for usage. In the present application, projection welding is used to join the hot rolled steel sheets after forming for manufacturing of air compressors. These sheets belong to two different high strength low alloy (HSLA) steel grades. It was observed that one batch of compressors made of a particular grade was cracking from the weld, whereas those made of another grade were passing the hydraulic tests. Cracking was repeatedly observed from the weld location. A detailed comparative study of the compressors which failed and successfully passed pressure tests has been presented. Location of crack initiation was identified to be the interface of fusion zone/heat affected zone. Shear dimples were observed on the fracture surface confirming the ductile mode of failure. Hardness profile across the weld revealed a sharp rise in hardness in the fusion zone. This was attributed to the presence of untempered martensitic lath in the fusion zone. A sharp metallurgical notch existed at the heat affected zone/fusion zone interface due to transition in microstructure from acicular ferrite and bainite in HAZ to untempered martensite in the fusion zone. In contrast, welds which did not fail during the pressure tests showed a smooth hardness profile with no abnormal rise in hardness in the fusion zone. The bainitic microstructure was observed in the fusion zone of successful welds. This difference in microstructural constituents in the fusion zone was attributed to the presence of a small amount of boron (0.002 wt. %) in the sheets which were cracking. Trace amount of boron is known to substantially increase the hardenability of HSLA steel, and cooling rate during resolidification in the fusion zone is sufficient to form martensite. Post-weld heat treatment was recommended to transform untempered martensite to tempered martensite with lower hardness.

Keywords: cracking, Boron, Compressor, martensite, weld, hardenability, high strength low alloy steel

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