Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

marriage Related Abstracts

13 “Who Will Marry Me?”: The Marital Status of Disabled Women in India

Authors: Sankalpa Satapathy

Abstract:

The stigma attached to disability is very high in India and given its patriarchal society women and their interests have always been pushed to the background. The identity of disabled women is compromised under the social construction of disability which lowers their self-esteem and hampers their development. Disability policies in India have focused on provision of educational and employment opportunities to make them economically productive members of the society. This preoccupation with the materialistic spheres of lives of the disabled has led to a neglect of the private sphere concerning intimate social relationships and motherhood. This paper seeks to bring to forefront the private lives of disabled women. Semi-structured in-depth interviews were conducted with twenty seven women with physical disability (congenital/acquired) from Odisha, a state in India. Sampling was done in a manner to include women from various strata of the society to allow meaningful analysis. In a society where paramount importance is attached to wifehood and motherhood, the chances of marriage for disabled women were very low compared to disabled men. Majority believed that marriage and having a family was meant for non disabled women and had decided against getting married. Socialization process was found to be a major factor in determining the ideas and aspirations of disabled women. They were clearly sidelined by their families on the issue of marriage. Education and employment levels did not seem to increase the appeal of disabled women to prospective suitors. But not all the women interviewed were closed to the idea of intimate relationships and marriage. Disabled women who were married or hoped to get married in future were found to have a better body image and greater self motivation. It is interesting to understand the means by which these women, who have been brought up to internalize ideas of their unattractiveness, undesirability, asexuality and inability to care, established identities which have so long been denied to them. With these stories of personal triumphs an attempt is made for reclamation of private spheres which have been abandoned by disability policies and make them gender sensitive.

Keywords: Gender, Disability, marriage, Relationships

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12 Barred from Each Other: Why Normative Husbands Remain Married to Incarcerated Wives

Authors: Tomer Einat, Sharon Rabinovitz, Inbal Harel-Aviram

Abstract:

This study explores men’s motivation and justification to remain married to their criminal, imprisoned wives. Using semi-structured interviews and content-analysis, data were collected and analyzed from eight men who maintain stable marriage relationships with their incarcerated wives. Participants are normative men who describe incarceration as a challenge that enhances mutual responsibility and commitment. They exaggerate the extent to which their partners resemble archetypal romantic ideals. They use motivational accounts to explain the woman’s criminal conduct, which is perceived as non-relevant to her real identity. Physical separation and lack of physical intimacy are perceived as the major difficulties in maintaining their marriage relations. Length of imprisonment and marriage was found to be related to the decision whether to continue or terminate the relationships. Women-inmates’ partners experience difficulties and use coping strategies very similar to those cited by other normative spouses facing lengthy separation.

Keywords: marriage, female inmates, normative spouses, romantic accounts

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11 Intellectual Women: The Continuing Struggle between Marriage and Personal Dreams in Margaret Drabble's a Summer Bird-Cage and The Millstone

Authors: Ashwag Abdul-Hakeem Al-Thubaiti

Abstract:

This study aims at analysing women's hesitant attitudes towards marriage in Margaret Drabble's novels, A Summer-Bird-Cage (1964) and The Millstone (1965), to prove that these ambivalent feelings are due to their search for autonomy. The heroines' radical outlook on independence is only meant to hide their conflict regarding sex-experience and fear of intimacy, a fear that has been enhanced by their rejection of the expression of faith that considers marriage a sacred bond and instead focus on their own identity and dissolve any bond that may affect their independence. To achieve their autonomy, they have to depend on themselves financially and focus on their aspirational goals. This sharp division between the two worlds, the family life and the personal success attributes negatively to their lives and leads to a self-identity crisis. Drabble tends to solve this struggle by awakening their maternal instinct. Once they respect their physical needs and appreciate their role as it is assigned to them by nature and society, they reach a balanced identity.

Keywords: Women, marriage, Autonomy, Maternity

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10 Gender Roles in Modern Indian Marriages

Authors: Parul Bhandari

Abstract:

An image of a modern and progressive India garners the rhetoric of ‘choice’ marriages, gender egalitarian relationships, and search for ‘love’ in conjugal unions. Such an image especially resonates with the lives of young professionals, who, largely belonging to the middle class, consider themselves to be the global face India. While this rhetoric of ‘progress’ and ‘love’ is abounding in both Indian and non-Indian public discourses, it is imperative to scientifically analyse the veracity of these claims. This paper thus queries and problematises the notions of being modern and progressive, through the lens of gender roles as expected and desired in a process of matchmaking. The fieldwork conducted is based on qualitative methodology, involving in-depth interviews with 100 highly qualified professionals, (60 men and 40 women), between the age of 24-31, belonging to the Hindu religion and of varied castes and communities, who are residing in New Delhi, and are in the process of spouse-selection or have recently completed it. Further, an analysis of the structure and content of matrimonial websites, which have fast emerged as the new method of matchmaking, was also undertaken. The main finding of this paper is that gender asymmetries continue to determine a suitable match, whether in ‘arranged’ or ‘love’ marriages. This is demonstrated by analysing the expectations of gender roles and gender practices of both men and women, to construct an ideal of a ‘good match’. On the basis of the interviews and the content of matrimonial websites, the paper discusses the characteristics of a ‘suitable boy’ and a ‘suitable girl’, and the ways in which these are received (practiced or criticised) by the young men and women themselves. It is then concluded that though an ideal of ‘compatibility’ and love determines conjugal desires, traditional gender roles, that, for example, consider men as the primary breadwinner and women as responsible for the domestic sphere, continue to dictate urban Indian marriages.

Keywords: Gender, marriage, India, middle class

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9 Barriers to Marital Expectation among Individuals with Hearing Impairment in Oyo State

Authors: Adebomi M. Oyewumi, Sunday Amaize

Abstract:

The study was designed to examine the barriers to marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment in Oyo State, Nigeria. Descriptive survey research design was adopted. Purposive sampling technique was used to select one hundred participants made up forty-four (44) males and fifty-six (56) females, all with varying degrees of hearing impairment. Eight research questions were raised and answered. The instrument used was Marital Expectations Scale with reliability coefficient of 0.86. Data was analyzed using descriptive statistics tools of frequency count and simple percentage as well as inferential statistics tools of T-TEST and ANOVA. The findings revealed that there was a significant relationship existing among the main identified barriers (environmental barrier, communication barrier, hearing loss, unemployment and poor sexuality education) to the marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment. The joint contribution of the independent variables (identified barriers) to the dependent variable (marital expectations) was significant, F = 5.842, P < 0.05, accounting for about 89% of the variance. The relative contribution of the identified barriers to marital expectations of unmarried persons with hearing impairment is as follows: environmental barrier (β = 0.808, t = 5.176, P < 0.05), communication barrier (β = 0.533, t = 3.305, P < 0.05), hearing loss (β = 0.550, t = 2.233, P < 0.05), unemployment (β = 0.431, t = 2.102, P < 0.05), poor sexuality education (β = 0.361, t = 1.985, P < 0.05). Environmental barrier proved to be the most potent contributor to the poor marital expectations among unmarried persons with hearing impairment. Therefore, it is recommended that society dismantles the nagging environmental barrier through positive identification with individuals suffering from hearing impairment. In this connection, members of society should change their negative attitudes and do away with all the wrong notions about the marital ability of individuals with hearing impairment.

Keywords: marriage, Hearing Impairment, environmental barrier, marital expectations

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8 Child Marriage in Indonesian Law Perspective

Authors: Sonny Dewi Judiasih

Abstract:

Every person retains the right to marry and starts a family through a legitimized marriage. Indonesian Marriage Act has regulated the minimum age for boys to marry is 19 while the girls is 16, with an exception that the parents could ask for an exemption to the court or to the authorized official. Despite the age limit is set by the Marriage Act, however, with the influences from adat law and islamic law which allows younger persons to marry, the child marriage phenomenon is inevitable to happen in Indonesia. Child marriages in Indonesia have shown such alarming fact where 4.8 percentage of total marriage number come from persons with the age of 10 to 14 years old. The percentage was the result from a research conducted by the National Population and Family Planning Board (BKKBN). The result shows 41.9 percent of child marriages was contributed by girls who marry in the age of 15 to 19, which mostly comes from villagers. Other fact shows 50 percent of child marriages end in divorce with grounds varied from the mental health of the children, economic situation, and so on. With more children committed early marriages, more babies will be borned from indebted families. Subsequently, the government’s program to alleviate poverty will be short of expectations. Other risk for child marriages includes death of the mother and the child after giving birth. The people have challenged the legality of child marriages through judicial review filed to the Constitutional Court. The Court decided to reinforce the age limitation previously set by the Marriage Act by issuing judicial decision no: 30-74/PUU-Xii/2014. The Court stated that changes to the age limit must be in conform with cultural and traditional situation. Further, it stated child marriages are allowed to be arranged as an “emergency exit” if the parents filed such request to an exemption on the grounds of coercive situation and after the court or the authorized officials issued its approval.

Keywords: Child, marriage, Indonesia, court

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7 Perceived Procedural Justice and Conflict Management in Romantic Relations

Authors: Inbal Peleg Koriat, Rachel Ben-Ari

Abstract:

The purpose of the present study was to test individual’s conflict management style in romantic relations as a function of their perception of the extent of procedural justice in their partner behavior, and to what extant this relationship is mediated by the quality of the relations. The research procedure included two studies: The first study was a correlative study with 160 participants in a romantic relation. The goal of the first study was to examine the mediation model with self-report questionnaires. The second study was an experimental study with 241 participants. The study was designed to examine the causal connection between perceived procedural justice (PPJ) and conflict management styles. Study 1 indicated a positive connection between PPJ and collaborative conflict management styles (integrating, compromising and obliging). In contrast, a negative connection was not found between PPJ and non-collaborative conflict management styles (avoiding, and dominating). In addition, perceived quality of the romantic relations was found to mediate the connection between PPJ and collaborative conflict management styles. Study 2 validated the finding of Study 1 by showing that PPJ leads the individual to use compromising and integrating conflict management styles. In contrast to Study 1, Study 2 shows that a low PPJ increases the individual’s tendency to use an avoiding conflict management style. The study contributes to the rather scarce research on PPJ role in conflict management in general and in romantic relations in particular. It can provide new insights into cognitive methods of coping with conflict that encourage transformation in the conflict and a way to grow and develop both individually and as a couple.

Keywords: marriage, procedural justice, conflict management style, romantic relations

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6 Cultural Biases, Cognitive Dispositions and Conception of Marriage in Indian Families: Role of Urbanization

Authors: Nandita Chaube, S. S. Nathawat, Shweta Jha

Abstract:

Keeping in view a drastic change in social and cultural scenario in India, influencing the marriage patterns, preferences and the concept of marriage, the present study examined cultural biases, cognitive dispositions and conception of marriage among Indian families hailing from urban, semi-urban and rural backgrounds. Structured interviews were conducted on 15 families of Jaipur region and its nearby villages including young adults and aged family members. The sample was comprised of both male and female family members. Qualitative analyses of interview data revealed a considerable difference amongst the families on the basis of residential background and other cultural, cognitive and conceptual levels. Hence, it is concluded that Indian families hailing from different cultural and residential backgrounds differ in their conceptions of marriage.

Keywords: Families, marriage, Urbanization, cognitive dispositions, cultural biases

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5 The Rocketing Raise of Bride Price in the Rural China: Intimacy and Family Changes Brought by Rural Urban Migration

Authors: Lei Liu

Abstract:

This paper concerns on a special phenomenon of rocketing of bride’s price in rural China after the rural-urban labor migration nowadays. It provides a brief overview of three major prospective on marriage exchange, especially impose the local marriage market due to the post-migration economic environments. Then the author highlights on several factors that influence the rocketing raise of rural marriage gifts using both the primary data from census 2010 and the interviews from the field study, such as one-child policy and the unbalanced sex ratio with the familiar context parents used different strategies in raising their sons and daughters so as to best hold their own interests, causing inequality between females and males. Then this was broken by the independence of rural women and the phenomenon of cross-regional marriage after the free mobility of labor resource between rural areas and urban areas which gives women equal rights to choose their spouses together with some publicly policies that accelerate the decline of patriarchy. In the end, the author spells out a framework of migration influence on rural marriage for some theoretical and policy implications of the findings.

Keywords: marriage, rural China, rural-urban migration, gender stratification, bride price

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4 Domestic Violence against Rural Women in Haryana State of India

Authors: Subhash Chander, Jatesh Kathpalia

Abstract:

Violence against women has spread into a global epidemic. This has debilitating effect over the performance of women. Due to deep-rooted values, traditional Indian culture women fear the consequences of reporting violence and declare an unwillingness to subject themselves to the shame of being identified as battered women. Main interest was to study types of domestic violence which women face and to encourage them to report the matter. The study involved understanding the nature, extent and types of domestic violence. Two hundred rural women respondents were selected at random, interview schedule was prepared, and victims afflicted with domestic violence were identified. Data were collected and analyzed for different forms of domestic violence faced by women. 60% of the respondents faced domestic violence in different forms. Out of 120 women who were affected, 92.5% faced emotional, 90.8% faced verbal, 49.1% faced economic and 58.3% faced physical violence. 45.0% faced violence within three months of the marriage. Out of these, only 6.6% reported the violence to the police. Frequently faced forms of violence were slapping (27.1%), beating (24.3%) and starvation (25.7%). Number of women who were not allowed to spend money of their own stood at 30.5%. About 50% victims of emotional violence were facing constant criticism by their in-laws. Significant association was found between age, education and socio-economic status of the respondents and domestic violence. Rural women in Haryana face grave problem of domestic violence which need to be curbed for improving condition of women in society.

Keywords: Economic, Emotional, marriage, rural women, domestic violence against women, physical and verbal violence

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3 The Experiences of Hong Kong Chinese Divorced Wives in Facing the Cancer Death of Their Ex-Husbands

Authors: M. L. Yeung

Abstract:

With the surge of divorce rate and male cancer onset/death rates, the phenomenon of divorced wives in the facing cancer death of their ex-husbands is not uncommon in Hong Kong. Yet, there is a dearth of study on the experiences of bereaved-divorced wives in the Hong Kong cultural context. This project fills the knowledge gap by conducting a qualitative study for having interviewed four bereaved ex-wives, who returned to ex-husbands’ end-of-life caregiving and eventually grieved for the ex-spousal’s death. From the perspectives of attachment theory and disenfranchised grief in the Hong Kong cultural context, a ‘double-loss’ experience is found in which interviewees suffer from the first loss of divorce and the second loss of ex-husbands’ death. Traumatic childhood experiences, attachment needs, role ambiguity, unresolved emotions and unrecognized grief are found significant in their lived experiences which alert the ‘double-loss’ is worthy of attention. Extending a family-centered end-of-life and bereavement care services to divorced couples is called for, in which validation on the attachment needs, ex-couple reconciliation, and acknowledgement on the disenfranchised grief are essential for social work practice on this group of clienteles specifically in Hong Kong cultural context.

Keywords: marriage, divorce, changing family, disenfranchised grief, ex-spousal death

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2 Analysing Representations of ‘Leftover’ Women in Chinese Media: Taking the Film ‘The Last Woman Standing’ and ‘I Do’ as Examples

Authors: Ting Li Liu

Abstract:

‘Leftover woman’ or ‘3S’ woman is the term used to describe a well-educated, high income, independent woman who is single and never married around 30 years in Chinese society. With the naming of this demographic of ‘leftover women’, their family, dating culture, mate selection and marriage attract public concern. Massive media representations of ‘leftover women’ occur daily; the research aims to present several media representations of women’s anxiety about their singlehood and related marital issues around thirty. The research triangulates two areas of media representation of ‘leftover women’: films and audience reviews on ‘Douban Movie’ website. Drawing on traditional media studies, Fairclough’s critical discourse analysis combined with multimodal techniques is applied to the research to analyze the representations of ‘leftover women’ and their implications for marital culture in China, in conjunction with a feminist perspective. The conference paper will discuss two case studies: the film ‘The last woman standing’ and ‘I Do’. Paying attention to different aspects of ‘leftover women’, the research aims to re-examine the representations of ‘leftover women’ in selected scenes, such as their age anxiety, family, marriage, dating process, careers, etc. The paper also includes public beliefs about ‘leftover women’ from online audience reviews. In conclusion, the emergence of ‘leftover women’ is a reflection of Chinese tradition’s impact on people’s lives and new changes in Chinese families and their attitude to marriage.

Keywords: Family, marriage, China, media culture, leftover women

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1 Troubling Depictions of Gambian Womanhood in Dayo Forster’s Reading the Ceiling

Authors: A. Wolfe

Abstract:

Dayo Forster’s impressively crafted Reading the Ceiling (2007) enjoys a relatively high profile among Western readers. It is one of only a handful of Gambian novels to be published by an international publisher, Simon and Schuster of London, and was subsequently shortlisted for the Commonwealth Writer’s Best First Book Prize in 2008. It is currently available to US readers in print and as an e-book and has 167 ratings on Goodreads. This paper addresses the possible influence of the book on Western readers’ perception of The Gambia, or Africa in general, through its depiction of the conditions of Gambian women’s lives. Through a close reading of passages and analysis of imagery, intertextuality, and characterization in the book, the paper demonstrates that Forster portrays the culture of The Gambia as oppressively patriarchal and the prospects for young girls who stay in the country as extremely limited. Reading the Ceiling starts on Ayodele’s 18th birthday, the day she has planned to have sex for the first time. Most of the rest of the book is divided into three parts, each following the chain of events that occur after sex with a potential partner. Although Ayodele goes abroad for her education in each of the three scenarios, she ultimately capitulates to the patriarchal politics and demands of marriage and childrearing in The Gambia, settling for relationships with men she does not love, cooking and cleaning for husbands and children, and silencing her own opinions and desires in exchange for the familiar traditions of patriarchal—and, in one case, polygamous—marriage. Each scenario ends with resignation to death, as, after her mother’s funeral, Ayodele admits to herself that she will be next. Forster uses dust and mud imagery throughout the novel to indicate the dinginess of Ayodele’s life as a young woman, and then wife and mother, in The Gambia as well as the inescapability of this life. This depiction of earthen material is also present in the novel’s recounting of an oral tale about a mermaid captured by fishermen, a story that mirrors Ayodele’s ensnarement by traditional marriage customs and gender norms. A review of the fate of other characters in the novel reveals that Ayodele is not the only woman who becomes trapped by the expectations for women in The Gambia, as those who stay in the country end up subservient to their husbands and/or victims of men’s habitual infidelity. It is important to note that Reading the Ceiling is focused on the experiences of a minority—The Gambia’s middle class, Christian urban dwellers with money for education. Regardless of its limited scope, the novel clearly depicts The Gambia as a place where women are simply unable to successfully contend against traditional patriarchal norms. Although this novel evokes vivid imagery of The Gambia through original and compelling descriptions of food preparation, clothing, and scenery, it perhaps does little to challenge stereotypical perceptions of the lives of African women among a Western readership.

Keywords: Women, marriage, African literature, stereotypes, commonwealth literature

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