Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 8

mangrove Related Abstracts

8 Hyperspectral Mapping Methods for Differentiating Mangrove Species along Karachi Coast

Authors: Sher Muhammad, Mirza Muhammad Waqar

Abstract:

It is necessary to monitor and identify mangroves types and spatial extent near coastal areas because it plays an important role in coastal ecosystem and environmental protection. This research aims at identifying and mapping mangroves types along Karachi coast ranging from 24.79 to 24.85 degree in latitude and 66.91 to 66.97 degree in longitude using hyperspectral remote sensing data and techniques. Image acquired during February, 2012 through Hyperion sensor have been used for this research. Image preprocessing includes geometric and radiometric correction followed by Minimum Noise Fraction (MNF) and Pixel Purity Index (PPI). The output of MNF and PPI has been analyzed by visualizing it in n-dimensions for end-member extraction. Well-distributed clusters on the n-dimensional scatter plot have been selected with the region of interest (ROI) tool as end members. These end members have been used as an input for classification techniques applied to identify and map mangroves species including Spectral Angle Mapper (SAM), Spectral Feature Fitting (SFF), and Spectral Information Diversion (SID). Only two types of mangroves namely Avicennia Marina (white mangroves) and Avicennia Germinans (black mangroves) have been observed throughout the study area.

Keywords: Hyperspectral, mangrove, hyperion, SAM, SFF, SID

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7 Biodegradation of Cellulosic Materials by Marine Fungi Isolated from South Corniche of Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Fuad Ameen, Mohamed Moslem, Sarfaraz Hadi

Abstract:

Twenty-eight fungal isolates belonging to 12 genera were derived from debris, sediment and water samples collected from Avicennia marina stands 25km south of Jeddah city on the Red Sea coast of Saudi Arabia. Eight of these isolates were found to be able to grow in association cellulosic waste materials under in vitro conditions in the absence of any carbon source. Isolates were further tested for their potential to degrade paper and clothes wastes by co-cultivation under aeration on a rotary shaker. These fungi accumulated significantly higher biomass, produced ligninolytic and cellulase enzymes, and liberated larger volumes of CO2. These observations indicated that the selected isolates were able to break down and consume the waste materials.

Keywords: biodegradation, Waste Materials, Enzyme Activity, mangrove

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6 Application of Remote Sensing for Monitoring the Impact of Lapindo Mud Sedimentation for Mangrove Ecosystem, Case Study in Sidoarjo, East Java

Authors: Akbar Cahyadhi Pratama Putra, Tantri Utami Widhaningtyas, M. Randy Aswin

Abstract:

Indonesia as an archipelagic nation have very long coastline which have large potential marine resources, one of that is the mangrove ecosystems. Lapindo mudflow disaster in Sidoarjo, East Java requires mudflow flowed into the sea through the river Brantas and Porong. Mud material that transported by river flow is feared dangerous because they contain harmful substances such as heavy metals. This study aims to map the mangrove ecosystem seen from its density and knowing how big the impact of a disaster on the Lapindo mud to mangrove ecosystem and accompanied by efforts to address the mangrove ecosystem that maintained continuity. Mapping coastal mangrove conditions of Sidoarjo was done using remote sensing products that Landsat 7 ETM + images with dry months of recording time in 2002, 2006, 2009, and 2014. The density of mangrove detected using NDVI that uses the band 3 that is the red channel and band 4 that is near IR channel. Image processing was used to produce NDVI using ENVI 5.1 software. NDVI results were used for the detection of mangrove density is 0-1. The development of mangrove ecosystems of both area and density from year to year experienced has a significant increase. Mangrove ecosystems growths are affected by material deposition area of Lapindo mud on Porong and Brantas river estuary, where the silt is growing medium suitable mangrove ecosystem and increasingly growing. Increasing the density caused support by public awareness to prevent heavy metals in the material so that the Lapindo mud mangrove breeding done around the farm.

Keywords: mangrove, NDVI, archipelagic nation, Lapindo mudflow disaster

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5 Evidence of Total Mercury Biomagnification in Tropical Estuary Lagoon in East Coast of Peninsula, Malaysia

Authors: Quang Dung Le, Kentaro Tanaka, Viet Dung Luu, Kotaro Shirai

Abstract:

Mercury pollutant is great concerns in globe due to its toxicity and biomagnification through the food web. Recently increasing approaches of stable isotope analyses which have applied in food-web structure are enabled to elucidate more insight trophic transfer of pollutants in ecosystems. In this study, the integration of total mercury (Hg) and stable isotopic analyses (δ13C and δ15N) were measured from basal food sources to invertebrates and fishes in order to determine Hg transfer in Setiu lagoon food webs. The average Hg concentrations showed the increasing trend from low to high trophic levels. The result also indicated that potential Hg exposure from inside mangrove could be higher than that from the tidal flat of mangrove creek. Fish Hg concentrations are highly variable, and many factors driving this variability need further examinations. A positive correlation found between Hg concentrations and δ15N values (the trophic magnification factor was 3.02), suggesting Hg biomagnification through the lagoon food web. Almost all Hg concentrations in fishes and mud crabs did not present a risk for human consumption, however, the Hg concentrations of Caranx ignobilis exceed the permitted level could raise a concern of the potential risk for the marine system. Further investigations should be done to elucidate whether trophic relay relates to high Hg concentrations of some fish species in coastal systems.

Keywords: transfer, Mercury, health risk, Stable Isotopes, mangrove, food web

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4 Using Bamboo Structures for Protecting Mangrove Ecosystems: A Nature-Based Approach

Authors: Sourabh Harihar, Henk Jan Verhagen

Abstract:

The nurturing of a mangrove ecosystem requires a protected coastal environment with adequate drainage of the soil substratum. In a conceptual design undertaken for a mangrove rejuvenation project along the eastern coast of Mumbai (India), various engineering alternatives have been thought of as a protective coastal structure and drainage system. One such design uses bamboo-pile walls in creating shielded compartments in the form of various layouts, coupled with bamboo drains. The bamboo-based design is found to be environmentally and economically advantageous over other designs like sand-dikes which are multiple times more expensive. Moreover, employing a natural material such as bamboo helps the structure naturally blend with the developing mangrove habitat, allaying concerns about dismantling the structure post mangrove growth. A cost-minimising and eco-friendly bamboo structure, therefore, promises to pave the way for large rehabilitation projects in future. As mangrove ecosystems in many parts of the world increasingly face the threat of destruction due to urban development and climate change, protective nature-based designs that can be built in a short duration are the need of the hour.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, Environment, mangrove, bamboo

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3 Spatial Mapping and Change Detection of a Coastal Woodland Mangrove Habitat in Fiji

Authors: Ashneel Ajay Singh, Anish Maharaj, Havish Naidu, Michelle Kumar

Abstract:

Mangrove patches are the foundation species located in the estuarine land areas. These patches provide a nursery, food source and protection for numerous aquatic, intertidal and well as land-based organisms. Mangroves also help in coastal protection, maintain water clarity and are one of the biggest sinks for blue carbon sequestration. In the Pacific Island countries, numerous coastal communities have a heavy socioeconomic dependence on coastal resources and mangroves play a key ecological and economical role in structuring the availability of these resources. Fiji has a large mangrove patch located in the Votua area of the Ba province. Globally, mangrove population continues to decline with the changes in climatic conditions and anthropogenic activities. Baseline information through wetland maps and time series change are essential references for development of effective mangrove management plans. These maps reveal the status of the resource and the effects arising from anthropogenic activities and climate change. In this study, we used remote sensing and GIS tools for mapping and temporal change detection over a period of >20 years in Votua, Fiji using Landsat imagery. Landsat program started in 1972 initially as Earth Resources Technology Satellite. Since then it has acquired millions of images of Earth. This archive allows mapping of temporal changes in mangrove forests. Mangrove plants consisted of the species Rhizophora stylosa, Rhizophora samoensis, Bruguiera gymnorrhiza, Lumnitzera littorea, Heritiera littoralis, Excoecaria agallocha and Xylocarpus granatum. Change detection analysis revealed significant reduction in the mangrove patch over the years. This information serves as a baseline for the development and implementation of effective management plans for one of Fiji’s biggest mangrove patches.

Keywords: Climate Change, GIS, mangrove, landsat, temporal change

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2 Rehabilitation and Conservation of Mangrove Forest as Pertamina Corporate Social Responsibility Approach in Prevention Damage Climate in Indonesia

Authors: Nor Anisa

Abstract:

This paper aims to describe the use of conservation and rehabilitation of Mangrove forests as an alternative area in protecting the natural environment and ecosystems and ecology, community education and innovation of sustainable industrial development such as oil companies, gas and coal. The existence of globalization encourages energy needs such as gas, diesel and coal as an unaffected resource which is a basic need for human life while environmental degradation and natural phenomena continue to occur in Indonesia, especially global warming, sea water pollution, extinction of animal steps. The phenomenon or damage to nature in Indonesia is caused by a population explosion in Indonesia that causes unemployment, the land where the residence will disappear so that this will encourage the exploitation of nature and the environment. Therefore, Pertamina as a state-owned oil and gas company carries out its social responsibility efforts, namely to carry out conservation and rehabilitation and management of Mangrove fruit seeds which will provide an educational effect on the benefits of Mangrove seed maintenance. The method used in this study is a qualitative method and secondary data retrieval techniques where data is taken based on Pertamina activity journals and websites that can be accounted for. So the conclusion of this paper is: the benefits and function of conservation of mangrove forests in Indonesia physically, chemically, biologically and socially and economically and can provide innovation to the CSR (Corporate Social Responsibility) of the company in continuing social responsibility in the scope of environmental conservation and social education.

Keywords: mangrove, environmental damage, conservation and rehabilitation, innovation of corporate social responsibility

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1 Impacts of Aquaculture Farms on the Mangroves Forests of Sundarbans, India (2010-2018): Temporal Changes of NDVI

Authors: Sandeep Thakur, Ismail Mondal, Phani Bhusan Ghosh, Papita Das, Tarun Kumar De

Abstract:

Sundarbans Reserve forest of India has been undergoing major transformations in the recent past owing to population pressure and related changes. This has brought about major changes in the spatial landscape of the region especially in the western parts. This study attempts to assess the impacts of the Landcover changes on the mangrove habitats. Time series imageries of Landsat were used to analyze the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) patterns over the western parts of Indian Sundarbans forest in order to assess the heath of the mangroves in the region. The images were subjected to Land use Land cover (LULC) classification using sub-pixel classification techniques in ERDAS Imagine software and the changes were mapped. The spatial proliferation of aquaculture farms during the study period was also mapped. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out between the obtained NDVI values and the LULC classes. Similarly, the observed meteorological data sets (time series rainfall and minimum and maximum temperature) were also statistically correlated for regression. The study demonstrated the application of NDVI in assessing the environmental status of mangroves as the relationship between the changes in the environmental variables and the remote sensing based indices felicitate an efficient evaluation of environmental variables, which can be used in the coastal zone monitoring and development processes.

Keywords: mangrove, NDVI, LULC, aquaculture farms

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