Commenced in January 2007
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Paper Count: 3

manganese oxide Related Abstracts

3 Study on the Controlled Growth of Lanthanum Hydroxide and Manganese Oxide Nano Composite under the Presence of Cationic Surfactant

Authors: Neeraj Kumar Verma

Abstract:

Lanthanum hydroxide and manganese oxide nanocomposite are synthesized by chemical routes. Physical characterization is done by TEM to look at the size and dispersion of the nanoparticles in the composite. Chemical characterization is done by X-ray diffraction technique and FTIR to ascertain the attachment of the functionalities and bond stretching. Further thermal analysis is done by thermogravimetric analysis to find the tendency of the thermal decomposition in the elevated temperature range of 0-1000°C. Proper analysis and correlation of the various results obtained suggested the controlled growth of crystalline without agglomeration and good stability in the various temperature ranges of the composite.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, XRD, TEM, lanthanum hydroxide, manganese oxide

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2 Comparative Evaluation of High Pure Mn3O4 Preparation Technique between the Conventional Process from Electrolytic Manganese and a Sustainable Approach Directly from Low-Grade Rhodochrosite

Authors: Fang Lian, Zefang Chenli, Laijun Ma, Lei Mao

Abstract:

Up to now, electrolytic process is a popular way to prepare Mn and MnO2 (EMD) with high purity. However, the conventional preparation process of manganese oxide such as Mn3O4 with high purity from electrolytic manganese metal is characterized by long production-cycle, high-pollution discharge and high energy consumption especially initially from low-grade rhodochrosite, the main resources for exploitation and applications in China. Moreover, Mn3O4 prepared from electrolytic manganese shows large particles, single morphology beyond the control and weak chemical activity. On the other hand, hydrometallurgical method combined with thermal decomposition, hydrothermal synthesis and sol-gel processes has been widely studied because of its high efficiency, low consumption and low cost. But the key problem in direct preparation of manganese oxide series from low-grade rhodochrosite is to remove completely the multiple impurities such as iron, silicon, calcium and magnesium. It is urgent to develop a sustainable approach to high pure manganese oxide series with character of short process, high efficiency, environmentally friendly and economical benefit. In our work, the preparation technique of high pure Mn3O4 directly from low-grade rhodochrosite ore (13.86%) was studied and improved intensively, including the effective leaching process and the short purifying process. Based on the same ion effect, the repeated leaching of rhodochrosite with sulfuric acid is proposed to improve the solubility of Mn2+ and inhibit the dissolution of the impurities Ca2+ and Mg2+. Moreover, the repeated leaching process could make full use of sulfuric acid and lower the cost of the raw material. With the aid of theoretical calculation, Ba(OH)2 was chosen to adjust the pH value of manganese sulfate solution and BaF2 to remove Ca2+ and Mg2+ completely in the process of purifying. Herein, the recovery ratio of manganese and removal ratio of the impurity were evaluated via chemical titration and ICP analysis, respectively. Comparison between conventional preparation technique from electrolytic manganese and a sustainable approach directly from low-grade rhodochrosite have also been done herein. The results demonstrate that the extraction ratio and the recovery ratio of manganese reached 94.3% and 92.7%, respectively. The heavy metal impurities has been decreased to less than 1ppm, and the content of calcium, magnesium and sodium has been decreased to less than 20ppm, which meet standards of high pure reagent for energy and electronic materials. In compare with conventional technique from electrolytic manganese, the power consumption has been reduced to ≤2000 kWh/t(product) in our short-process approach. Moreover, comprehensive recovery rate of manganese increases significantly, and the wastewater generated from our short-process approach contains low content of ammonia/ nitrogen about 500 mg/t(product) and no toxic emissions. Our study contributes to the sustainable application of low-grade manganese ore. Acknowledgements: The authors are grateful to the National Science and Technology Support Program of China (No.2015BAB01B02) for financial support to the work.

Keywords: Leaching, manganese oxide, high purity, low-grade rhodochrosite, purifying process, recovery ratio

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1 Comparative and Combined Toxicity of NiO and Mn₃O₄ Nanoparticles as Assessed in vitro and in vivo

Authors: Ilzira A. Minigalieva, Tatiana V. Bushueva, Eleonore Frohlich, Vladimir Panov, Ekaterina Shishkina, Boris A. Katsnelson

Abstract:

Background: The overwhelming majority of the experimental studies in the field of metal nanotoxicology have been performed on cultures of established cell lines, with very few researchers focusing on animal experiments, while a juxtaposition of conclusions inferred from these two types of research is blatantly lacking. The least studied aspect of this problem relates to characterizing and predicting the combined toxicity of metallic nanoparticles. Methods: Comparative and combined toxic effects of purposefully prepared spherical NiO and Mn₃O₄ nanoparticles (mean diameters 16.7 ± 8.2 nm and 18.4 ± 5.4 nm respectively) were estimated on cultures of human cell lines: MRC-5 fibroblasts, THP-1 monocytes, SY-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells, as well as on the latter two lines differentiated to macrophages and neurons, respectively. The combined cytotoxicity was mathematically modeled using the response surface methodology. Results: The comparative assessment of the studied NPs unspecific toxicity previously obtained in vivo was satisfactorily reproduced by the present in vitro tests. However, with respect to manganese-specific brain damage which had been demonstrated by us in animal experiment with the same NPs, the testing on neuronall cell culture showed only a certain enhancing effect of Mn₃O₄-NPs on the toxic action of NiO-NPs, while the role of the latter prevailed. Conclusion: From the point of view of the preventive toxicology, the experimental modeling of metallic NPs combined toxicity on cell cultures can give non-reliable predictions of the in vivo action’s effects.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, manganese oxide, nickel oxide, in vitro toxicity

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