Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 28

Malnutrition Related Abstracts

28 How to Empower People to Provide Good Nutrition to Children: Bengkel Gizi Terpadu (Integrated Nutrition Workshop)

Authors: Anggun Yuliana Putri, Melisa Rahmadini


The Ministry of National Development Planning in Indonesia has reported that more than eight million Indonesian children are still malnourished. Based on national statistics, and a recent ranking from NGO Save the Children, Indonesia is one of 15 countries making the fastest gains in cutting child malnutrition among 165 developing countries. According to a United Nations Children’s Fund, at least 7.6 million Indonesian children under the age of 5 or one out of every three suffer from stunted growth, a primary manifestation of malnutrition in early childhood, the report ranked Indonesia as having the fifth largest number of children under 5 suffering from stunted growth worldwide. Addressing the problem of malnutrition in Indonesia, Aksi Cepat Tanggap (ACT) Foundation, a humanitarian organization working with Carrefour, acts as donor and pursues several solutions to the problem, especially of malnourished children and infants in South Tangerang area, Indonesia. The objective of this study was to examine the community empowerment driven by ACT Foundation in order to maintain the good status continuity of child and toddler after the children malnutrition recovered. Research was conducted using qualitative approach through in-depth interview and observation to find out how the Bengkel Gizi Terpadu (Integrated Nutrion Workshop) programs make people empowered. Bengkel Gizi Terpadu (BGT) is divided into 3 sequences of activities, there were: integrated malnutrition rehabilitation; provision of health education to mothers of infants and young children; and family economic empowerment to head of household. Results showed that after empowerment process has been done through training and provision of knowledge to the mothers and families about the important of nutrition and health, there were 30 of 100 mothers who participated actively. Then, there were 45 of 100 heads of household who participated in business training were able to open a business on their own which provided and controlled by ACT as stakeholder in this program. The further findings revealed that BGT programs are able to form community health workers and provide employment opportunities to community. This study believes that integrated nutrition workshop program is the solution to maintain good nutrition among children in South Tangerang, through empowerment of parents and community members, via education and business training program. Both programs prepared parents with economic sustenance and necessary information, a pre-requisite to end malnutrition in children.

Keywords: Malnutrition, training, Community, Empowerment

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27 Exploration of Sweet Potato Cultivar Markets Availability in North West Province, South Africa

Authors: V. M. Mmbengwa, J. R. M. Mabuso, C. P. Du Plooy, S. Laurrie, H. D. van Schalkwyk


Sweet potato products are necessary for the provision of essential nutrients in every household, regardless of their poverty status. Their consumption appears to be highly influenced by socio-economic factors, such as malnutrition, food insecurity and unemployment. Therefore, market availability is crucial for these cultivars to resolve some of the socio-economic factors. The aim of the study was to investigate market availability of sweet potato cultivars in the North West Province. In this study, both qualitative and quantitative research methodologies were used. Qualitative methodology was used to explain the quantitative outcomes of the variables. On the other hand, quantitative results were used to test the hypothesis. The study used SPSS software to analyse the data. Cross-tabulation and Chi-square statistics were used to obtain the descriptive and inferential analyses, respectively. The study found that the Blesbok cultivar is dominating the markets of the North West Province, with the Monate cultivar dominating in the Bojanala Platinum (75 %) and Dr Ruth Segomotsi Mompati (25 %) districts. It is also found that a unit increase in the supply of sweet potato cultivars in both local and district municipal markets is accompanied by a reduced demand of 28 % and 33 % at district and local markets, respectively. All these results were found to be significant at p<0.05. The results further revealed that in four out of nine local municipality markets, the Blesbok cultivar seems to be solely available in those four local municipal markets of North West Province. It can be concluded that Blesbok, relative to other cultivars, is the most commercialised sweet potato variety and that consumers across this Province are highly aware of it. For other cultivars to assume market prominence in this Province, a well-designed marketing campaign for creating awareness may be required. This campaign may be based on nutritional advantages of different cultivars, of which Blesbok is relatively inferior, compared to orange-fleshed sweet potato varieties.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Markets, sweet potato, cultivar

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26 Developing the P1-P7 Management and Analysis Software for Thai Child Evaluation (TCE) of Food and Nutrition Status

Authors: S. Damapong, C. Kingkeow, W. Kongnoo, P. Pattapokin, S. Pruenglamphu


As the presence of Thai children double burden malnutrition, we conducted a project to promote holistic age-appropriate nutrition for Thai children. Researchers developed P1-P7 computer software for managing and analyzing diverse types of collected data. The study objectives were: i) to use software to manage and analyze the collected data, ii) to evaluate the children nutritional status and their caretakers’ nutrition practice to create regulations for improving nutrition. Data were collected by means of questionnaires, called P1-P7. P1, P2 and P5 were for children and caretakers, and others were for institutions. The children nutritional status, height-for-age, weight-for-age, and weight-for-height standards were calculated using Thai child z-score references. Institution evaluations consisted of various standard regulations including the use of our software. The results showed that the software was used in 44 out of 118 communities (37.3%), 57 out of 240 child development centers and nurseries (23.8%), and 105 out of 152 schools (69.1%). No major problems have been reported with the software, although user efficiency can be increased further through additional training. As the result, the P1-P7 software was used to manage and analyze nutritional status, nutrition behavior, and environmental conditions, in order to conduct Thai Child Evaluation (TCE). The software was most widely used in schools. Some aspects of P1-P7’s questionnaires could be modified to increase ease of use and efficiency.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Nutritional status, P1-P7 software, Thai child evaluation

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25 Latest Advances in the Management of Liver Diseases

Authors: Rabab Makki, Deputy Chief Dietitian


Malnutrition is commonly seen in Liver Disease patients. Prevalence of malnutrition in cirrhosis, is as high as 65-90%. Protein depletion and reduced muscle function are common. There are many mechanisms of malnutrition in liver cirrhosis e.g. insulin resistance, low respiratory quotient, increased glucogenesis etc. Nutrition support improves outcome in patients unable to maintain an intake of 35-40 Kcal/kg and 1.2-1.5 gm/kg/day. Simple methods of assessment such as subjective global assessment, calorie counting, MMC are useful. The value of BCAAs remains uncertain despite a considerable number of studies. Normal protein diets have been given safely to patients with hepatic encephalopathy. Restriction of protein not more than 48 hours pre- and pro-biotic, glutamine, fish oil etc are all part of the latest advanced techniques used.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Liver Cirrhosis, nutrition management, omega 3 for liver disease

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24 The Important of Nutritional Status in Rehabilitation of Children with CP: Saudi Perspective

Authors: Reem Al-Garni


Malnutrition is a global epidemic, but the under-weight or Failure-To-Thrive risk is increasing in rehabilitation setting and considered one of the contribution factor for developmental delay. Beside the consequences of malnutrition on children growth and development, there are other side-effects that might delay or hold the progress of rehabilitation. The awareness for malnutrition must be raised and discussed by the rehabilitation team, to promote the treatment and to optimize the client care. The solution can start from food supplements intake and / or Enteral Nutrition plan, depending on the malnutrition level and to reach the goal, the medical team should to work together in order to provide comprehensive treatment and to help the family to be able to manage their child condition. We have explore the outcomes of rehabilitation between the children with CP whose diagnosed with malnutrition and children with normal body Wight Over a period of 4 months who received 4-6 weeks of rehabilitation two hours daily by using WeeFIM score to measure rehabilitation outcomes. WeeFIM measures and covers various domains, such as: self-care, mobility, locomotion, communication and other psycho-social aspects. Our findings reported that children with normal body Wight has better outcomes and improvement comparing with children with malnutrition for the entire study sample.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Rehabilitation, pediatric Functional Independent Measure (WeeFIM), Cerebral Palsy (CP)

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23 Prevalence of Malnutrition and Associated Factors among Children Aged 6-59 Months at Hidabu Abote District, North Shewa, Oromia Regional State

Authors: Kebede Mengistu, Kassahun Alemu, Bikes Destaw


Introduction: Malnutrition continues to be a major public health problem in developing countries. It is the most important risk factor for the burden of diseases. It causes about 300, 000 deaths per year and responsible for more than half of all deaths in children. In Ethiopia, child malnutrition rate is one of the most serious public health problem and the highest in the world. High malnutrition rates in the country pose a significant obstacle to achieving better child health outcomes. Objective: To assess prevalence of malnutrition and associated factors among children aged 6-59 months at Hidabu Abote district, North shewa, Oromia. Methods: A community based cross sectional study was conducted on 820 children aged 6-59 months from September 8-23, 2012 at Hidabu Abote district. Multistage sampling method was used to select households. Children were selected from each kebeles by simple random sampling. Anthropometric measurements and structured questioners were used. Data was processed using EPi-info soft ware and exported to SPSS for analysis. Then after, sex, age, months, height, and weight transferred with HHs number to ENA for SMART 2007software to convert nutritional data into Z-scores of the indices; H/A, W/H and W/A. Bivariate and multivariate logistic regressions were used to identify associated factors of malnutrition. Results: The analysis this study revealed that, 47.6%, 30.9% and 16.7% of children were stunted, underweight and wasted, respectively. The main associated factors of stunting were found to be child age, family monthly income, children were received butter as pre-lacteal feeding and family planning. Underweight was associated with number of children HHs and children were received butter as per-lacteal feeding but un treatment of water in HHs only associated with wasting. Conclusion and recommendation: From the findings of this study, it is concluded that malnutrition is still an important problem among children aged 6-59 months. Therefore, especial attention should be given on intervention of malnutrition.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Public Health, Children, Hidabu Abote district

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22 Concurrent Micronutrient Deficiencies in Lactating Mothers and Their Infants 6-23 Months of Age in Two Agro-Ecological Zones of Rural Ethiopia

Authors: Kedir Teji Roba, Thomas P. O’Connor, Tefera Belachew, Nora M. O’Brien


Micronutrient deficiencies of ferritin, zinc and haemoglobin are prevalent among the mothers and their infants in developing countries. But little attention has been given to these vulnerable groups. No study has been done on co-existence of the deficiencies among lactating mothers and their breast feeding infants in two different agro-ecological zones of rural Ethiopia. Methods: Data were collected from 162 lactating mothers and their breast feeding infants (aged 6-23 months) who were living in two different agro-ecological zones. The data were collected via a structured interview, anthropometric measurements, and blood test for Zinc, ferritin and anaemia. Correlation and Chi square test were used to determine the association among nutritional status and agro ecological zones. Results: Iron deficiency was found in 44.4% of the infants and 19.8% of the mothers. Zinc deficiency was found in 72.2% of the infants and 67.3% of the mothers. Of the study subject 52.5% of the infants and 19.1% of the mothers were anaemic, and 29.6% of the infants and 10.5% of the mothers had iron deficiency anaemia. Among the mothers with iron deficiency, 81.2% and 56.2% of their children were deficient in zinc and iron respectively. Similarly, among the zinc deficient mothers, 75.2% and 45.3% of their children were deficient in zinc and iron. There was a strong correlation between the micronutrient status of the mothers and the infants on status of ferritin, zinc and anaemia (P < 0.001). There is also statistically significant association between micronutrient deficiency and agro-ecological zones among the mothers (p < 0.001) but not with their infants. Deficiency in one, two, or three, micronutrients was observed in 48.1%, 16.7% and 9.9% of the mothers and 35.8%, 29.0%, and 23.5%, of their infants respectively. Conclusion: This study shows that iron and zinc deficiencies are the prevalent micronutrient deficiencies among the lactating mothers and their infants, with variation of the magnitude across the agro-ecological zones. This finding calls for a need to design effective preventive public health nutrition programs to address both the mothers’ and their infants’ needs.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Agroecology, zinc, anaemia, ferritin/iron

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21 Re-Evaluation of Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (Appetite Scale) with Nutritional Intake of Cancer Patients

Authors: Amena Omer Syeda, Harita Shyam


Background: Anorexia a common symptom among patients with prolonged illness leading to anorexia-cachexia syndrome with a prevalence rate of 70%. In order to provide effective health care and better response to treatment, appetite should be assessed on admission and then periodically for earlier nutrition intervention. Functional Assessment of Anorexia/Cachexia Therapy (FAACT) appetite scale is 12 questions, patient-rated, symptom specific measure for appetite, and distress from anorexia. It assigns a score ranging from 0 (worst response) to 4 (best response). Therefore, proposing a total score of ≤24 may be sufficient to make a diagnosis of anorexia. Objectives: To assess the FAACT scale by co-relating the scores with the Nutritional intake and BMI of Cancer Patients. Methods: The FAACT scores of 100 cancer in-patients receiving chemotherapy or radiation as treatment, their 24-hour calorie and protein intake and BMI were recorded. The data was then statistically analyzed. Results: The calorie and protein intake and FAACT scores both showed a significant positive co-relation (p<0.001), inferring that the patients with a FAACT score of ≤24 where not meeting their calorie as well as protein requirements, hence rightly categorizing them as anorexic. The co-relation between BMI and FAACT scores showed a weak co-relation and was not statistically significant (p > 0.05).The FAACT scale thus is not sensitive to distinguish patients being under-weight, normal weight or obese. Conclusion: The FAACT scale helps in providing better palliative and nutritional care as it correctly assessed anorexia /cachexia in cancer patients and co-related significantly with their nutrient intake.

Keywords: Cancer, Malnutrition, appetite, cachexia

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20 Validation of Nutritional Assessment Scores in Prediction of Mortality and Duration of Admission in Elderly, Hospitalized Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Christos Lampropoulos, Maria Konsta, Vicky Dradaki, Irini Dri, Konstantina Panouria, Tamta Sirbilatze, Ifigenia Apostolou, Vaggelis Lambas, Christina Kordali, Georgios Mavras


Objectives: Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is related to increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study was to compare various nutritional scores in order to detect the most suitable one for assessing the nutritional status of elderly, hospitalized patients and correlate them with mortality and extension of admission duration, due to patients’ critical condition. Methods: Sample population included 150 patients (78 men, 72 women, mean age 80±8.2). Nutritional status was assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA full, short-form), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and short Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (sNAQ). Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and ROC curves were assessed after adjustment for the cause of current admission, a known prognostic factor according to previously applied multivariate models. Primary endpoints were mortality (from admission until 6 months afterwards) and duration of hospitalization, compared to national guidelines for closed consolidated medical expenses. Results: Concerning mortality, MNA (short-form and full) and SNAQ had similar, low sensitivity (25.8%, 25.8% and 35.5% respectively) while MUST had higher sensitivity (48.4%). In contrast, all the questionnaires had high specificity (94%-97.5%). Short-form MNA and sNAQ had the best positive predictive value (72.7% and 78.6% respectively) whereas all the questionnaires had similar negative predictive value (83.2%-87.5%). MUST had the highest ROC curve (0.83) in contrast to the rest questionnaires (0.73-0.77). With regard to extension of admission duration, all four scores had relatively low sensitivity (48.7%-56.7%), specificity (68.4%-77.6%), positive predictive value (63.1%-69.6%), negative predictive value (61%-63%) and ROC curve (0.67-0.69). Conclusion: MUST questionnaire is more advantageous in predicting mortality due to its higher sensitivity and ROC curve. None of the nutritional scores is suitable for prediction of extended hospitalization.

Keywords: Malnutrition, duration of admission, nutritional assessment scores, prognostic factors for mortality

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19 A Cross-Sectional Study on the Correlation between Body Mass Index and Self-Esteem among Children Ages 9-12 Years Old in a Public Elementary School in Makati, Philippines

Authors: Jerickson Abbie Flores, Jana Fragante, Jan Paolo Dipasupil, Jan Jorge Francisco


Malnutrition is one of the rapidly growing health problems affecting the world at present. Children affected are not only at risk for significant health problems, but are also faced with psychological and social consequences, including low self-esteem. School-age children are specifically vulnerable to develop poor self-esteem especially when their peers find them physically unattractive. Thus, malnutrition, whether obesity or undernourishment, contributes a significant role to a developing child’s health and behavior. This research aims to determine if there is a significant difference on the level of self-esteem among Filipino children ages 9-12 years old with abnormal body mass index (BMI) and those children with desirable BMI. Using a cross-sectional study design, the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and self-esteem was observed among children ages 9-12 years old. Participants took the Hare self esteem questionnaire, which is specifically designed to measure self-esteem in school age children. The lowest possible score is 15 and the highest possible score is 45. A total of 1140 students with ages 9-12 years old from Cembo Elementary School (public school) participated in the study. Among the participants, 239 out of the 1140 have desirable body mass index, 878 are underweight, and 23 are overweight. Using the test questionnaire, the computed mean scores were 36.599, 36.045 and 36.583 for normal, underweight and overweight categories respectively. Using Pearson’s Correlation Test and Spearman’s Correlation Coefficient Test, the study showed positive correlation (p value of 0.047 and 0.004 respectively) between BMI and Self-esteem scores which indicates that the higher the BMI, the higher the self-esteem of the participants.

Keywords: Malnutrition, body mass index, school-age children, self-esteem

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18 Prognostic Factors for Mortality and Duration of Admission in Malnourished Hospitalized, Elderly Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Christos E. Lampropoulos, Maria Konsta, Vicky Dradaki, Irini Dri, Tamta Sirbilatze, Ifigenia Apostolou, Christina Kordali, Konstantina Panouria, Kostas Argyros, Georgios Mavras


Malnutrition in hospitalized patients is related to increased morbidity and mortality. Purpose of our study was to assess nutritional status of hospitalized, elderly patients with various nutritional scores and to detect unfavorable prognostic factors, related to increased mortality and extended duration of admission. Methods: 150 patients (78 men, 72 women, mean age 80±8.2) were included in this cross-sectional study. Nutritional status was assessed by Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA full, short-form), Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool (MUST) and short Nutritional Appetite Questionnaire (sNAQ). The following data were incorporated in analysis: Anthropometric and laboratory data, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaires, IPAQ), smoking status, dietary habits and mediterranean diet (assessed by MedDiet score), cause and duration of current admission, medical history (co-morbidities, previous admissions). Primary endpoints were the mortality (from admission until 6 months afterwards) and duration of admission, compared to national guidelines for closed consolidated medical expenses. Mann-Whitney two-sample statistics or t-test was used for group comparisons and Spearman or Pearson coefficients for testing correlation between variables. Results: Normal nutrition was assessed in 54/150 (36%), 92/150 (61.3%) and in 106/150 (70.7%) of patients, according to full MNA, MUST and sNAQ questionnaires respectively. Mortality rate was 20.7% (31/150 patients). The patients who died until 6 months after admission had lower BMI (24±4.4 vs 26±4.8, p=0.04) and albumin levels (2.9±0.7 vs 3.4±0.7, p=0.002), significantly lower full MNA (14.5±7.3 vs 20.7±6, p<0.0001) and short-form MNA scores (7.3±4.2 vs 10.5±3.4, p=0.0002) compared to non-dead one. In contrast, the aforementioned patients had higher MUST (2.5±1.8 vs 0.5±1.02, p=<0.0001) and sNAQ scores (2.9±2.4 vs 1.1±1.3, p<0.0001). Additionally, they showed significantly lower MedDiet (23.5±4.3 vs 31.1±5.6, p<0.0001) and IPAQ scores (37.2±156.2 vs 516.5±1241.7, p<0.0001) compared to remaining one. These patients had extended hospitalization [5 (0-13) days vs 0 (-1-3) days, p=0.001]. Patients who admitted due to cancer depicted higher mortality rate (10/13, 77%), compared to those who admitted due to infections (12/73, 18%), stroke (4/15, 27%) or other causes (4/49, 8%) (p<0.0001). Extension of hospitalization was negatively correlated to both full (Spearman r=-0.35, p<0.0001) and short-form MNA (Spearman r=-0.33, p<0.0001) and positively correlated to MUST (Spearman r=0.34, p<0.0001) and sNAQ (Spearman r=0.3, p=0.0002). Additionally, the extension was inversely related to MedDiet score (Spearman r=-0.35, p<0.0001), IPAQ score (Spearman r=-0.34, p<0.0001), albumin levels (Pearson r=-0.36, p<0.0001), Ht (Pearson r=-0.2, p=0.02) and Hb (Pearson r=-0.18, p=0.02). Conclusion: A great proportion of elderly, hospitalized patients are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition. All nutritional scores, physical activity and albumin are significantly related to mortality and increased hospitalization.

Keywords: Malnutrition, dietary habits, duration of admission, prognostic factors for mortality

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17 Full Mini Nutritional Assessment Questionnaire and the Risk of Malnutrition and Mortality in Elderly, Hospitalized Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Christos E. Lampropoulos, Maria Konsta, Tamta Sirbilatze, Ifigenia Apostolou, Vicky Dradaki, Konstantina Panouria, Irini Dri, Christina Kordali, Vaggelis Lambas, Georgios Mavras


Objectives: Full Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) questionnaire is one of the most useful tools in diagnosis of malnutrition in hospitalized patients, which is related to increased morbidity and mortality. The purpose of our study was to assess the nutritional status of elderly, hospitalized patients and examine the hypothesis that MNA may predict mortality and extension of hospitalization. Methods: One hundred fifty patients (78 men, 72 women, mean age 80±8.2) were included in this cross-sectional study. The following data were taken into account in analysis: anthropometric and laboratory data, physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaires, IPAQ), smoking status, dietary habits, cause and duration of current admission, medical history (co-morbidities, previous admissions). Primary endpoints were mortality (from admission until 6 months afterwards) and duration of admission. The latter was compared to national guidelines for closed consolidated medical expenses. Logistic regression and linear regression analysis were performed in order to identify independent predictors for mortality and extended hospitalization respectively. Results: According to MNA, nutrition was normal in 54/150 (36%) of patients, 46/150 (30.7%) of them were at risk of malnutrition and the rest 50/150 (33.3%) were malnourished. After performing multivariate logistic regression analysis we found that the odds of death decreased 20% per each unit increase of full MNA score (OR=0.8, 95% CI 0.74-0.89, p < 0.0001). Patients who admitted due to cancer were 23 times more likely to die, compared to those with infection (OR=23, 95% CI 3.8-141.6, p=0.001). Similarly, patients who admitted due to stroke were 7 times more likely to die (OR=7, 95% CI 1.4-34.5, p=0.02), while these with all other causes of admission were less likely (OR=0.2, 95% CI 0.06-0.8, p=0.03), compared to patients with infection. According to multivariate linear regression analysis, each increase of unit of full MNA, decreased the admission duration on average 0.3 days (b:-0.3, 95% CI -0.45 - -0.15, p < 0.0001). Patients admitted due to cancer had on average 6.8 days higher extension of hospitalization, compared to those admitted for infection (b:6.8, 95% CI 3.2-10.3, p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Mortality and extension of hospitalization is significantly increased in elderly, malnourished patients. Full MNA score is a useful diagnostic tool of malnutrition.

Keywords: Malnutrition, duration of admission, prognostic factors for mortality, mini nutritional assessment score

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16 Mediterranean Diet, Duration of Admission and Mortality in Elderly, Hospitalized Patients: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Christos Lampropoulos, Maria Konsta, Ifigenia Apostolou, Vicky Dradaki, Tamta Sirbilatze, Irini Dri, Christina Kordali, Vaggelis Lambas, Kostas Argyros, Georgios Mavras


Objectives: Mediterranean diet has been associated with lower incidence of cardiovascular disease and cancer. The purpose of our study was to examine the hypothesis that Mediterranean diet may protect against mortality and reduce admission duration in elderly, hospitalized patients. Methods: Sample population included 150 patients (78 men, 72 women, mean age 80±8.2). The following data were taken into account in analysis: anthropometric and laboratory data, dietary habits (MedDiet score), patients’ nutritional status [Mini Nutritional Assessment (MNA) score], physical activity (International Physical Activity Questionnaires, IPAQ), smoking status, cause and duration of current admission, medical history (co-morbidities, previous admissions). Primary endpoints were mortality (from admission until 6 months afterwards) and duration of admission, compared to national guidelines for closed consolidated medical expenses. Logistic regression and linear regression analysis were performed in order to identify independent predictors for mortality and admission duration difference respectively. Results: According to MNA, nutrition was normal in 54/150 (36%) of patients, 46/150 (30.7%) of them were at risk of malnutrition and the rest 50/150 (33.3%) were malnourished. After performing multivariate logistic regression analysis we found that the odds of death decreased 30% per each unit increase of MedDiet score (OR=0.7, 95% CI:0.6-0.8, p < 0.0001). Patients with cancer-related admission were 37.7 times more likely to die, compared to those with infection (OR=37.7, 95% CI:4.4-325, p=0.001). According to multivariate linear regression analysis, admission duration was inversely related to Mediterranean diet, since it is decreased 0.18 days on average for each unit increase of MedDiet score (b:-0.18, 95% CI:-0.33 - -0.035, p=0.02). Additionally, the duration of current admission increased on average 0.83 days for each previous hospital admission (b:0.83, 95% CI:0.5-1.16, p<0.0001). The admission duration of patients with cancer was on average 4.5 days higher than the patients who admitted due to infection (b:4.5, 95% CI:0.9-8, p=0.015). Conclusion: Mediterranean diet adequately protects elderly, hospitalized patients against mortality and reduces the duration of hospitalization.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Nutritional status, mediterranean diet, prognostic factors for mortality

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15 Factors Affecting Nutritional Status of Elderly People of Rural Nepal: A Community-Based Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Man Kumar Tamang, Uday Narayan Yadav


Background and objectives: Every country in the world is facing a demographic challenge due to drastic growth of population over 60 years. Adequate diet and nutritional status are important determinants of health in elderly populations. This study aimed to assess the nutritional status among the elderly population and factors associated with malnutrition at the community setting in rural Nepal. Methods: This is a community-based cross-sectional study among elderly of age 60 years or above in the three randomly selected VDCs of Morang district in eastern Nepal, between August and November, 2016. A multi stage cluster sampling was adopted with sample size of 345 of which 339 participated in the study. Nutritional status was assessed by MNA tool and associated socio-economic, demographic, psychological and nutritional factors were checked by binary logistic regression analysis. Results: Among 339 participants, 24.8% were found to be within normal nutritional status, 49.6% were at risk of malnutrition and 24.8% were malnourished. Independent factors associated with malnutrition status among the elderly people after controlling the cofounders in the bivariate analysis were: elderly who were malnourished were those who belonged to backward caste according to traditional Hindu caste system [OR=2.69, 95% CI: 1.17-6.21), being unemployed (OR=3.23, 95% CI: 1.63-6.41),who experienced any mistreatment from caregivers (OR=4.05, 95% CI: 1.90-8.60), being not involved in physical activity (OR=4.67, 95% CI: 1.87-11.66) and those taking medication for any co-morbidities. Conclusion: Many socio-economic, psychological and physiological factors affect nutritional status in our sample population and these issues need to be addressed for bringing improvement in elderly nutrition and health status.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Nutritional status, Elderly, eastern Nepal

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14 Effect of Different Processing Methods on the Quality Attributes of Pigeon Pea Used in Bread Production

Authors: B. F. Olanipekun, O. J. Oyelade, C. O. Osemobor


Pigeon pea is a very good source of protein and micronutrient, but it is being underutilized in Nigeria because of several constraints. This research considered the effect of different processing methods on the quality attributes of pigeon pea used in bread production towards enhancing its utility. Pigeon pea was obtained at a local market and processed into the flour using three processing methods: soaking, sprouting and roasting and were used to bake bread in different proportions. Chemical composition and sensory attributes of the breads were thereafter determined. The highest values of protein and ash contents were obtained from 20 % substitution of sprouted pigeon pea in wheat flour and may be attributable to complex biochemical changes occurring during hydration, to invariably lead to protein constituent being broken down. Hydrolytic activities of the enzymes from the sprouted sample resulted in improvement in the constituent of total protein probably due to reduction in the carbohydrate content. Sensory qualities analyses showed that bread produced with soaked and roasted pigeon pea flours at 5 and 10% inclusion, respectively were mostly accepted than other blends, and products with sprouted pigeon pea flour were least accepted. The findings of this research suggest that supplementing wheat flour with sprouted pigeon peas have more nutritional potentials. However, with sensory analysis indices, the soaked and roasted pigeon peas up to 10% are majorly accepted, and also can improve the nutritional status. Overall, this will be very beneficial to population dependent on plant protein in order to combat malnutrition problems.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Protein, Processing, Pigeon pea

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13 Perception, Knowledge and Practices on Balanced Diet among Adolescents, Their Parents and Frontline Functionaries in Rural Sites of Banda, Varanasi and Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh,India

Authors: Gunjan Razdan, Priyanka Sreenath, Jagannath Behera, S. K. Mishra, Sunil Mehra


Uttar Pradesh is one of the poor performing states with high Malnutrition and Anaemia among adolescent girls resulting in high MMR, IMR and low birth weight rate. The rate of anaemia among adolescent girls has doubled in the past decade. Adolescents gain around 15-20% of their optimum height, 25-50% of the ideal adult weight and 45% of the skeletal mass by the age of 19. Poor intake of energy, protein and other nutrients is one of the factors for malnutrition and anaemia. METHODS: The cross-sectional survey using a mixed method (quantitative and qualitative) was adopted in this study. The respondents (adolescents, parents and frontline health workers) were selected randomly from 30 villages and surveyed through a semi-structured questionnaire for qualitative information and FGDs and IDIs for qualitative information. A 24 hours dietary recall method was adopted to estimate their dietary practices. A total of 1069 adolescent girls, 1067 boys, 1774 parents and 69 frontline functionaries were covered under the study. Percentages and mean were calculated for quantitative variable, and content analysis was carried out for qualitative data. RESULTS: Over 80 % of parents provided assertions that they understood the term balanced diet and strongly felt that their children were having balanced diet. However, only negligible 1.5 % of parents could correctly recount essential eight food groups and 22% could tell about four groups which was the minimum response expected to say respondents had fair knowledge on a balanced diet. Only 10 percent of parents could tell that balanced diet helps in physical and mental growth and only 2% said it has a protective role. Besides, qualitative data shows that the perception regarding balanced diet is having costly food items like nuts and fruits. The dietary intake of adolescents is very low despite the increased iron needs associated with physical growth and puberty.The consumption of green leafy vegetables (less than 35 %) and citrus fruits (less than 50%) was found to be low. CONCLUSIONS: The assertions on an understanding of term balanced diet are contradictory to the actual knowledge and practices. Knowledge on essential food groups and nutrients is crucial to inculcate healthy eating practices among adolescents. This calls for comprehensive communication efforts to improve the knowledge and dietary practices among adolescents.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Knowledge, Anemia, perceptions

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12 Correlation between Nutritional Status and Length of Stay and Hospital Costs in Critical Care and IPD Patients of Somdech Phra Debaratana Medical Center (SDMC), Faculty of Medicine, Ramathibodi Hospital

Authors: Nuttapimon Bhirommuang, Kulapong Jayanama


Background: Prevalence of malnutrition in hospitalized patient is higher than general population. As a result of the unawareness of consequence and the more concerning in the other aspects of care, many patients with high risk of malnutrition are unrecognized. Even if malnutrition has been identified as affecting in many patient outcomes, the impact may differ in each population and group of patients. Objectives: The aims of this study were to examine the association between the nutritional status and the length of stay and hospital costs in hospitalized patients, to investigate the factors related these outcomes and to determine the frequency of malnutrition in hospitals. Method: This retrospective cohort study enrolled all patients aged 15 years old or older and admitted in SDMC, Ramathibodi Hospital between 1st January 2016 and 30th September 2016. The nutritional status assessment by Nutrition Alert Form (NAF) was performed by well-trained nurses in all patients at admission. Baseline characteristics were recorded. Length of stay and hospital costs were collected during their hospitalization. Univariate analysis, nonparametric rank test, Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare means in the case of nonnormally and noncontinuously distributed data. Chi-square used to analyze categorical variables, the nutritional status and the length of stay and hospital costs and identify possible confounding factors (data were analyzed using SPSS version 18.0). Result: Of the 2,906 patients, 3.9% were severe malnutrition (NAF-C score > 10) and 11.4% were moderate malnutrition (NAF-B score 6 - 10). Both length of stay and hospital costs were found significantly higher in more severe malnutrition group (p < 0.001), NAF = A: 3.21 days, 95% CI 3.06-3.35 and 111,544.25 THB, 95% CI 106,994.41 – 116,094.1; NAF = B: 7.54 days, 95% CI 6.32 – 8.76 and 162,302.4 THB, 95% CI 129,557.88 – 195,046.92; NAF =C: 14.77 days, 95% CI 11.34 – 18.2 and 323,572.11 THB, 95% CI 226,958.1 – 420,096.13 (1 THB = 0.03019 USD). Age of each nutritional status group had also significant increase from NAF A to NAF C (p < 0.001): 55.07, 67.03 and 73.88 years old, respectively. Conclusion: The prevalence of malnutrition in Ramathibodi hospital is voluminous. Severe malnutrition screening by NAF is significantly correlated with worse clinical outcome, especially higher length of stay and hospital costs. Elderly is also a significant factor which correlates with malnutrition. The results of this study could change the awareness of health personnel and the practice protocol. Moreover, the further study concerning nutritional support in high-risk group of malnutrition is ongoing to confirm this hypothesis.

Keywords: Malnutrition, NaF, length of stay, hospital costs

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11 Feeding Practices and Malnutrition among under Five Children in Communities of Kuje Area Council, Federal Capital Territory Abuja, Nigeria

Authors: Clementina Ebere Okoro, Olumuyiwa Adeyemi Owolabi, Doris Bola James, Aloysius Nwabugo Maduforo, Andrew Lingililani Mbewe, Christopher Osaruwanmwen Isokpunwu


Poor dietary practices and malnutrition, including severe acute malnutrition among under-five children in Nigeria has remained a great public health concern. This study assessed infant and young child feeding practices and nutritional status of under-five children to determine the prevalence of malnutrition of under-five children in Kuje area council, Abuja. The study was a cross-sectional study. Multi-stage sampling techniques was used in selecting the population that was studied. Probability proportion by size was applied in choosing 30 clusters for the survey using ENA for SMART software 2011 version. Questionnaires were used to obtain information from the population, while appropriate equipment was used for measurements of anthropometric parameters. The data was also subjected to statistical analysis. Results were presented in tables and figures. The result showed that 96.7% of the children were breastfed, 30.6% had early initiation to breastfeeding within first hour of birth and 22.4% were breastfed exclusively up to 6 months, 69.8% fed infants’ colostrum, while 30.2% discarded colostrum. About half of the respondents (49.1%) introduced complementary feeding before six months and 23.2% introduced it after six months while 27.7% had age appropriate timely introduction of complementary feeding. The anthropometric result showed that the prevalence of global acute malnutrition (GAM) was 12.8%, severe wasting prevalence was 5.4%, moderate wasting was 7.4%, underweight was 24.4%, stunting was 40.3% and overweight was 7.0%. The result showed that there is a high prevalence of malnutrition among under-five children in Kuje

Keywords: Malnutrition, Breastfeeding, complementary feeding, under five children

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10 Main Cause of Children's Deaths in Indigenous Wayuu Community from Department of La Guajira: A Research Developed through Data Mining Use

Authors: Isaura Esther Solano Núñez, David Suarez


The main purpose of this research is to discover what causes death in children of the Wayuu community, and deeply analyze those results in order to take corrective measures to properly control infant mortality. We consider important to determine the reasons that are producing early death in this specific type of population, since they are the most vulnerable to high risk environmental conditions. In this way, the government, through competent authorities, may develop prevention policies and the right measures to avoid an increase of this tragic fact. The methodology used to develop this investigation is data mining, which consists in gaining and examining large amounts of data to produce new and valuable information. Through this technique it has been possible to determine that the child population is dying mostly from malnutrition. In short, this technique has been very useful to develop this study; it has allowed us to transform large amounts of information into a conclusive and important statement, which has made it easier to take appropriate steps to resolve a particular situation.

Keywords: Data Mining, Malnutrition, Analytical, Population, Indigenous, descriptive, Wayuu

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9 Wealth-Based Inequalities in Child Health: A Micro-Level Analysis of Maharashtra State in India

Authors: V. Rekha, Rama Pal


The study examines the degree and magnitude of wealth-based inequalities in child health and its determinants in India. Despite making strides in economic growth, India has failed to secure a better nutritional status for all the children. The country currently faces the double burden of malnutrition as well as the problems of overweight and obesity. Child malnutrition, obesity, unsafe water, sanitation among others are identified as the risk factors for Non-Communicable Diseases (NCDs). Eliminating malnutrition in all its forms will catalyse improved health and economic outcomes. The assessment of the distributive dimension of child health across various segments of the population is essential for effective policy intervention. The study utilises the fourth round of District Level Health Survey for 2012-13 to analyse the inequalities among children in the age group 0-14 years in Maharashtra, a state in the western region of India with a population of 11.24 crores which constitutes 9.3 percent of the total population of India. The study considers the extent of health inequality by state, districts, sector, age-groups, and gender. The z-scores of four child health outcome variables are computed to assess the nutritional status of pre-school and school children using WHO reference. The descriptive statistics, concentration curves, concentration indices, correlation matrix, logistic regression have been used to analyse the data. The results indicate that magnitude of inequality is higher in Maharashtra and child health inequalities manifest primarily among the weaker sections of society. The concentration curves show that there exists a pro-poor inequality in child malnutrition measured by stunting, wasting, underweight, anaemia and a pro-rich overweight inequality. The inequalities in anaemia are observably lower due to the widespread prevalence. Rural areas exhibit a higher incidence of malnutrition, but greater inequality is observed in the urban areas. Overall, the wealth-based inequalities do not vary significantly between age groups. It appears that there is no gender discrimination at the state level. Further, rural-urban differentials in gender show that boys from the rural area and girls living in the urban region experience higher disparities in health. The relative distribution of undernutrition across districts in Maharashtra reveals that malnutrition is rampant and considerable heterogeneity also exists. A negative correlation is established between malnutrition prevalence and human development indicators. The findings of logistic regression analysis reveal that lower economic status of the household is associated with a higher probability of being malnourished. The study recognises household wealth, education of the parent, child gender, and household size as factors significantly related to malnutrition. The results suggest that among the supply-side variables, child-oriented government programmes might be beneficial in tackling nutrition deficit. In order to bridge the health inequality gap, the government needs to target the schemes better and should expand the coverage of services.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Obesity, Inequality, Child Health

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8 Eradicating Micronutrient Deficiency through Biofortification

Authors: Ihtasham Hamza


In the contemporary world, where the West is afflicted by the diseases of excess nutrition, much of the rest globe suffers at the hands of hunger. A troubling constituent of hunger is micronutrient deficiency, also called hidden hunger. Major dependence on calorie-rich diets and low diet diversification are responsible for high malnutrition rates, especially in African and Asian countries. But the dilemma isn’t immune to solutions. Highlighting the substantial cause to be sole dependence on staples for food, biofortification has emerged as a novel tool to confront the widely distributed jeopardize of hidden hunger. Biofortification potentials the better nutritional approachability to commonalities overcoming various difficulties and reaching the doorstep. The crops associated with biofortification offer a rural-based involvement that, proposal, primarily reaches these more remote populations, which comprise a majority of the malnourished in many countries, and then penetrates to urban populations as assembly overages are marketed. Initial investments in agricultural research at a central location can generate high recurrent benefits at low cost as adapted biofortified cultivars become widely available in countries across time at low recurrent costs as opposed to supplementation which is comparatively expensive and requires continued financing over time, which may be imperilled by fluctuating political curiosity.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Hunger, Agricultural Practices, biofortified crops

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7 Use of Nutritional Screening Tools in Cancer-Associated Malnutrition

Authors: Meryem Saban Guler, Saniye Bilici


Malnutrition is a problem that significantly affects patients with cancer throughout the course of their illness, and it may be present from the moment of diagnosis until the end of treatment. We searched electronic databases using key terms such as ‘malnutrition in cancer patients’ or ‘nutritional status in cancer’ or ‘nutritional screening tools’ etc. Decline in nutritional status and continuing weight loss are associated with an increase in number and severity of complications, impaired quality of life and decreased survival rate. Nutrition is an important factor in the treatment and progression of cancer. Cancer patients are particularly susceptible to nutritional depletion due to the combined effects of the malignant disease and its treatment. With increasing incidence of cancer, identification and management of nutritional deficiencies are needed. Early identification of malnutrition, is substantial to minimize or prevent undesirable outcomes throughout clinical course. In determining the nutritional status; food consumption status, anthropometric methods, laboratory tests, clinical symptoms, psychosocial data are used. First-line strategies must include routine screening and identification of inpatients or outpatients at nutritional risk with the use of a simple and standardized screening tool. There is agreement among international nutrition organizations and accredited health care organizations that routine nutritional screening should be a standard procedure for every patient admitted to a hospital. There are f management of all cancer patients therefore routine nutritional screening with validated tools can identify cancer patients at risk.

Keywords: Cancer, Nutrition, Malnutrition, nutritional screening

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6 Probable Future Weapon to Turn down Malnutrition in Women and Adolescent Girls

Authors: Manali Chakraborty


In the developing countries the most prevalent pathological state is malnutrition and under nutrition due to deficiency of essential nutrients. This condition is more seen between the woman population, especially in the adolescent girls. It is causing childhood deaths along with others cognitive, degenerative diseases. Born of low weight babies and stillbirth are also major problems associated with the malnutrition. Along with the increased level of population, people not only should concern about their quantity of food but also for the quality of the food to be healthy. Lethargy, depression caused due to iron deficiency often quoted as normal or unimportant issues. Children of malnourished women are more likely associated with cognitive impairment, immune dysfunction leading to a higher risk of being attacked by diseases. Malnourishment also affects the productivity of women. Low social status, lack of proper nutritional education is an important cause of this nutrient deficiency among women. Iron deficiency and anemia are mostly famous nutritional deficiencies among women worldwide. Mostly women from below poverty lined area are anemic due to less consumption of iron-rich foods or having foods that might inhibit the iron absorption. Growing females like adolescents or lactating females need more iron supply. Less supplement causes iron deficiency. Though malaria also might cause anemia, it is more likely endemic one in some specific areas. Folate deficiency in females also may cause neurological defects in the infants. Other Vitamin B, A deficiencies along with low iodine level is also noted in malnourished women. According to tradition, still in some areas in developing countries females have their food at the end. According to some survey and collected data, these females are often into the risk zone of being malnourished. Regularly they have the very lesser amount, or food sometimes may start to lose its nutrients. Women are the one who maintains the responsibility to cook foods in the home. Lack of proper nutritional education and proper food preparation not only make those foods lose the nutrients leading to impairment in proper nutrient intake of the family members but also impairing own nutritional status. Formulation and development of food products from iron or other nutrient affluent sources viz., traditional herbs can be helpful in the prevention of such malnutrition condition in females. Keeping low cost and smooth maintenance of the food product development from the natural sources like pulses, cereals or other vegetation also can be beneficial to sustain socio-economic condition. Consumption of such kind of foodstuff is much healthier rather than taking continuous supplements like capsules. Utilization of proper scientific and cost-effective techniques for this food product development and their distribution among rural women population might be an enormous initiative.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Rural Places, Food Supplements, Anemia, women population

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5 Global Evidence on the Seasonality of Enteric Infections, Malnutrition, and Livestock Ownership

Authors: Aishwarya Venkat, Anastasia Marshak, Ryan B. Simpson, Elena N. Naumova


Livestock ownership is simultaneously linked to improved nutritional status through increased availability of animal-source protein, and increased risk of enteric infections through higher exposure to contaminated water sources. Agrarian and agro-pastoral households, especially those with cattle, goats, and sheep, are highly dependent on seasonally various environmental conditions, which directly impact nutrition and health. This study explores global spatiotemporally explicit evidence regarding the relationship between livestock ownership, enteric infections, and malnutrition. Seasonal and cyclical fluctuations, as well as mediating effects, are further examined to elucidate health and nutrition outcomes of individual and communal livestock ownership. The US Agency for International Development’s Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) and the United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund’s Multi-Indicator Cluster Surveys (MICS) provide valuable sources of household-level information on anthropometry, asset ownership, and disease outcomes. These data are especially important in data-sparse regions, where surveys may only be conducted in the aftermath of emergencies. Child-level disease history, anthropometry, and household-level asset ownership information have been collected since DHS-V (2003-present) and MICS-III (2005-present). This analysis combines over 15 years of survey data from DHS and MICS to study 2,466,257 children under age five from 82 countries. Subnational (administrative level 1) measures of diarrhea prevalence, mean livestock ownership by type, mean and median anthropometric measures (height for age, weight for age, and weight for height) were investigated. Effects of several environmental, market, community, and household-level determinants were studied. Such covariates included precipitation, temperature, vegetation, the market price of staple cereals and animal source proteins, conflict events, livelihood zones, wealth indices and access to water, sanitation, hygiene, and public health services. Children aged 0 – 6 months, 6 months – 2 years, and 2 – 5 years of age were compared separately. All observations were standardized to interview day of year, and administrative units were harmonized for consistent comparisons over time. Geographically weighted regressions were constructed for each outcome and subnational unit. Preliminary results demonstrate the importance of accounting for seasonality in concurrent assessments of malnutrition and enteric infections. Household assets, including livestock, often determine the intensity of these outcomes. In many regions, livestock ownership affects seasonal fluxes in malnutrition and enteric infections, which are also directly affected by environmental and local factors. Regression analysis demonstrates the spatiotemporal variability in nutrition outcomes due to a variety of causal factors. This analysis presents a synthesis of evidence from global survey data on the interrelationship between enteric infections, malnutrition, and livestock. These results provide a starting point for locally appropriate interventions designed to address this nexus in a timely manner and simultaneously improve health, nutrition, and livelihoods.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Livestock, Enteric Infections, Diarrhea, Seasonality, households

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4 Biotechnological Interventions for Crop Improvement in Nutricereal Pearl Millet

Authors: Supriya Ambawat, Subaran Singh, C. Tara Satyavathi, B. S. Rajpurohit, Ummed Singh, Balraj Singh


Pearl millet [Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.] is an important staple food of the arid and semiarid tropical regions of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. It is rightly termed as nutricereal as it has high nutrition value and a good source of carbohydrate, protein, fat, ash, dietary fiber, potassium, magnesium, iron, zinc, etc. Pearl millet has low prolamine fraction and is gluten free which is useful for people having a gluten allergy. It has several health benefits like reduction in blood pressure, thyroid, diabe¬tes, cardiovascular and celiac diseases but its direct consumption as food has significantly declined due to several reasons. Keeping this in view, it is important to reorient the ef¬forts to generate demand through value-addition and quality improvement and create awareness on the nutritional merits of pearl millet. In India, through Indian Council of Agricultural Research-All India Coordinated Research Project on Pearl millet, multilocational coordinated trials for developed hybrids were conducted at various centers. The gene banks of pearl millet contain varieties with high levels of iron and zinc which were used to produce new pearl millet varieties with elevated iron levels bred with the high‐yielding varieties. Thus, using breeding approaches and biochemical analysis, a total of 167 hybrids and 61 varieties were identified and released for cultivation in different agro-ecological zones of the country which also includes some biofortified hybrids rich in Fe and Zn. Further, using several biotechnological interventions such as molecular markers, next-generation sequencing (NGS), association mapping, nested association mapping (NAM), MAGIC populations, genome editing, genotyping by sequencing (GBS), genome wide association studies (GWAS) advancement in millet improvement has become possible by identifying and tagging of genes underlying a trait in the genome. Using DArT markers very high density linkage maps were constructed for pearl millet. Improved HHB67 has been released using marker assisted selection (MAS) strategies, and genomic tools were used to identify Fe-Zn Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL). The draft genome sequence of millet has also opened various ways to explore pearl millet. Further, genomic positions of significantly associated simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers with iron and zinc content in the consensus map is being identified and research is in progress towards mapping QTLs for flour rancidity. The sequence information is being used to explore genes and enzymatic pathways responsible for rancidity of flour. Thus, development and application of several biotechnological approaches along with biofortification can accelerate the genetic gain targets for pearl millet improvement and help improve its quality.

Keywords: Malnutrition, MAS, Sequencing, pearl millet, Biotechnological approaches, genomic tools, nutricereal

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3 Nutritional Status of Middle School Students and Their Selected Eating Behaviours

Authors: K. Larysz, E. Grochowska-Niedworok, M. Kardas, K. Brukalo, B. Calyniuk, R. Polaniak


Eating behaviours and habits are one of the main factors affecting health. Abnormal nutritional status is a growing problem related to nutritional errors. The number of adolescents presenting excess body weight is also rising. The body's demand for all nutrients increases in the period of intensive development, i.e., during puberty. A varied, well-balanced diet and elimination of unhealthy habits are two of the key factors that contribute to the proper development of a young body. The aim of the study was to assess the nutritional status and selected eating behaviours/habits in adolescents attending middle school. An original questionnaire including 24 questions was conducted. A total of 401 correctly completed questionnaires were qualified for the assessment. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Furthermore, the frequency of breakfast consumption, the number of meals per day, types of snacks and sweetened beverages, as well as the frequency of consuming fruit and vegetables, dairy products and fast-foods were assessed. The obtained results were analysed statistically. The study showed that malnutrition was more of a problem than overweight or obesity among middle school students. More than 71% of middle school students have breakfast, whereas almost 30% of adolescents skip this meal. Up to 57.6% of respondents most often consume sweets at school. A total of 37% of adolescents consume sweetened beverages daily or almost every day. Most of the respondents consume an optimal number of meals daily. Only 24.7% of respondents consume fruit and vegetables more than once daily. The majority of respondents (49.40%) declared that they consumed fast food several times a month. Satisfactory frequency of consuming dairy products was reported by 32.7% of middle school students. Conclusions of our study: 1. Malnutrition is more of a problem than overweight or obesity among middle school students. They consume excessive amounts of sweets, sweetened beverages, and fast foods. 2. The consumption of fruit and vegetables was too low in the study group. The intake of dairy products was also low in some cases. 3. A statistically significant correlation was found between the frequency of fast food consumption and the intake of sweetened beverages. A low correlation was found between nutritional status and the number of meals per day. The number of meals consumed by these individuals decreased with increasing nutritional status.

Keywords: Nutrition, Malnutrition, Obesity, Adolescent, Nutritional status

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2 Medical Nutritional Therapy in Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection with Tuberculosis and Severe Malnutrition: A Case Report

Authors: Lista Andriyati, Nurpudji A Taslim


The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) patients have potential nutritional and metabolic problems. HIV is a virus that attacks cells T helper and impairs the function of immune cells. Infected individuals gradually become immunodeficient, results in increased susceptibility to a wide range of infections such as tuberculosis (TB). Malnutrition has destructive effects on the immune system and host defense mechanisms. Effective and proper nutritional therapies are important to improve medical outcomes and quality of life, which is associated with functional improvement. A case of 38-years old man admitted to hospital with loss of consciousness and was diagnosed HIV infection and relapse lung TB with severe malnutrition, fever, oral candidiasis, anemia (6.3 g/dL), severe hypoalbuminemia (1.9 g/dL), severe hypokalemia (2.2 mmol/L), immune depletion (1085 /µL) and elevated liver enzyme (ALT 1198/AST 375 U/L). Nutritional intervention by giving 2300 kcal of energy, protein 2 g/IBW/day, carbohydrate 350 g, fat 104 g through enteral and parenteral nutrition. Supplementations administered are zinc, vitamin A, vitamin B1, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D, and snakehead fish extract high content of protein albumin (Pujimin®). After 46 days, there are clinical and metabolic improvement in Hb (6.3 to 11.2 g/dL), potassium (2.2 to 3.4 mmol/L), albumin (1.9 to 2.3 g/dL), ALT 1198 to 47/AST 375 to 68 U/L) and improved awareness. In conclusion, nutritional therapy in HIV infection with adequate macronutrients and micronutrients fulfillment and immunonutrition is very important to avoid cachexia and to improve nutritional status and immune disfunction.

Keywords: Malnutrition, Tuberculosis, HIV, hypoalbuminemia

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1 Impacts of Sociological Dynamics on Entomophagy Practice and Food Security in Nigeria

Authors: O. B. Oriolowo, O. J. John


Empirical findings have shown insects to be nutritious and good source of food for man. However, human food preferences are not only determined by nutritional values of food consumed but, more importantly, by sociology and economic pressure. This study examined the interrelation between science and sociology in sustaining the acceptance of entomophagy among college students to combat food insecurity. A twenty items five Likert scale, College Students Entomophagy Questionnaire (CSEQ), was used to elucidate information from the respondents. The reliability coefficient was obtained to be 0.91 using Spearman-Brown Prophecy formula. Three research questions and three hypotheses were raised. Also, quantitative nutritional analysis of few insects and some established conventional protein sources were undertaking in order to compare their nutritional status. The data collected were analyzed using descriptive statistics of percentages and inferential statistics of correlation and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA). The results obtained showed that entomophagy has cultural heritage among different tribes in Nigeria and is an acceptable practice; it cuts across every social stratum and is practiced among both major religions. Moreover, insects compared favourably in term of nutrient contents when compared with the conventional animal protein sources analyzed. However, there is a gradual decline in the practice of entomophagy among students, which may be attributed to the influence of western civilization. This study, therefore, recommended an intensification of research and enlightenment of people on the usefulness of entomophagy so as to preserve its cultural heritage as well as boost human food security.

Keywords: Sociology, Food Security, Malnutrition, Entomophagy, Poverty Alleviation

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