Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

MALDI-TOF Related Abstracts

2 Antibiotic Susceptibility Pattern of the Pathogens Isolated from Hospital Acquired Acute Bacterial Meningitis in a Tertiary Health Care Centre in North India

Authors: V. Sreenivas, M. S. Raza, A. Kapil, Sonu Tyagi, H. Gautam, S. Mohapatra, R. Chaudhry, S. Sood, V. Goyal, R. Lodha, B. K. Das

Abstract:

Background: Acute bacterial meningitis remains the major cause of mortality and morbidity. More than half of the survivors develop the significant lifelong neurological abnormalities. Diagnosis of the hospital acquired acute bacterial meningitis (HAABM) is challenging as it appears either in the post operative patients or patients acquire the organisms from the hospital environment. In both the situations, pathogens are exposed to high dose of antibiotics. Chances of getting multidrug resistance organism are very high. We have performed this experiment to find out the etiological agents of HAABM and its antibiotics susceptibility pattern. Methodology: A perspective study was conducted at the Department of Microbiology, All India Institute of Medical Sciences, New Delhi. From March 2015 to April 2018 total 400 Cerebro spinal fluid samples were collected aseptically. Samples were processed for cell count, Gram staining, and culture. Culture plates were incubated at 37°C for 18-24 hours. Organism grown on blood and MacConkey agar were identified by MALDI-TOF Vitek MS (BioMerieux, France) and antibiotic susceptibility tests were performed by Kirby Bauer disc diffusion method as per CLSI 2015 guideline. Results: Of the 400 CSF samples processed, 43 (10.75%) were culture positive for different bacteria. Out of 43 isolates, the most prevalent Gram-positive organisms were S. aureus 4 (9.30%) followed by E. faecium 3 (6.97%) & CONS 2 (4.65%). Similarly, E. coli 13 (30.23%) was the commonest Gram-negative isolates followed by A. baumannii 12 (27.90%), K. pneumonia 5 (11.62%) and P. aeruginosa 4(9.30%). Most of the antibiotics tested against the Gram-negative isolates were resistance to them. Colistin was most effective followed by Meropenem and Imepenim for all Gram-negative HAABM isolates. Similarly, most of antibiotics tested were susceptible to S. aureus and CONS. However, E. faecium (100%) were only susceptible to vancomycin and teicoplanin. Conclusion: Hospital acquired acute bacterial meningitis (HAABM) is becoming the emerging challenge as most of isolates are showing resistance to commonly used antibiotics. Gram-negative organisms are emerging as the major player of HAABM. Great care needs to be taken especially in tertiary care hospitals. Similarly, antibiotic stewardship should be followed and antibiotic susceptibility test (AST) should be performed regularly to update the antibiotic patter and to prevent from the emergence of resistance. Updated information of the AST will be helpful for the better management of the meningitis patient.

Keywords: CSF, AST, MALDI-TOF, hospital acquired acute bacterial meningitis

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1 Characterization of Antibiotic Resistance in Cultivable Enterobacteriaceae Isolates from Different Ecological Niches in the Eastern Cape, South Africa

Authors: Anthony I. Okoh, Martins A. Adefisoye, Mpaka Lindelwa, Fadare Folake

Abstract:

Evolution and rapid dissemination of antibiotic resistance from one ecosystem to another has been responsible for wide-scale epidemic and endemic spreads of multi-drug resistance pathogens. This study assessed the prevalence of Enterobacteriaceae in different environmental samples, including river water, hospital effluents, abattoir wastewater, animal rectal swabs and faecal droppings, soil, and vegetables, using standard microbiological procedure. The identity of the isolates were confirmed using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrophotometry (MALDI-TOF) while the isolates were profiled for resistance against a panel of 16 antibiotics using disc diffusion (DD) test, and the occurrence of resistance genes (ARG) was determined by polymerase chain reactions (PCR). Enterobacteriaceae counts in the samples range as follows: river water 4.0 × 101 – 2.0 × 104 cfu/100 ml, hospital effluents 1.5 × 103 – 3.0 × 107 cfu/100 ml, municipal wastewater 2.3 × 103 – 9.2 × 104 cfu/100 ml, faecal droppings 3.0 × 105 – 9.5 × 106 cfu/g, animal rectal swabs 3.0 × 102 – 2.9 × 107 cfu/ml, soil 0 – 1.2 × 105 cfu/g and vegetables 0 – 2.2 × 107 cfu/g. Of the 700 randomly selected presumptive isolates subjected to MALDI-TOF analysis, 129 (18.4%), 68 (9.7%), 67 (9.5%), 41 (5.9%) were E. coli, Klebsiella spp., Enterobacter spp., and Citrobacter spp. respectively while the remaining isolates belong to other genera not targeted in the study. The DD test shows resistance ranging between 91.6% (175/191) for cefuroxime and (15.2%, 29/191) for imipenem The predominant multiple antibiotic resistance phenotypes (MARP), (GM-AUG-AP-CTX-CXM-CIP-NOR-NI-C-NA-TS-T-DXT) occurred in 9 Klebsiella isolates. The multiple antibiotic resistance indices (MARI) the isolates (range 0.17–1.0) generally showed >95% had MARI above the 0.2 thresholds, suggesting that most of the isolates originate from high-risk environments with high antibiotic use and high selective pressure for the emergence of resistance. The associated ARG in the isolates include: bla TEM 61.9 (65), bla SHV 1.9 (2), bla OXA 8.6 (9), CTX-M-2 8.6 (9), CTX-M-9 6.7 (7), sul 2 26.7 (28), tet A 16.2 (17), tet M 17.1 (18), aadA 59.1 (62), strA 34.3 (36), aac(3)A 19.1 (20), (aa2)A 7.6 (8), and aph(3)-1A 10.5 (11). The results underscore the need for preventative measures to curb the proliferation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria including Enterobacteriaceae to protect public health.

Keywords: Public Health, resistance genes, enterobacteriaceae, MARP, MALDI-TOF, antibiotic-resistance, MARI

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