Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Makkah Related Abstracts

4 A Comparison of Air Quality in Arid and Temperate Climatic Conditions – a Case Study of Leeds and Makkah

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Atef M. F. Mohammed, Essam A. Morsy, Said Munir, Karl Ropkins, Abdulaziz R. Seroji

Abstract:

In this paper air quality conditions in Makkah and Leeds are compared. These two cities have totally different climatic conditions. Makkah climate is characterised as hot and dry (arid) whereas that of Leeds is characterised as cold and wet (temperate). This study uses air quality data from year 2012 collected in Makkah, Saudi Arabia and Leeds, UK. The concentrations of all pollutants, except NO are higher in Makkah. Most notable, the concentrations of PM10 are much higher in Makkah than in Leeds. This is probably due to the arid nature of climatic conditions in Makkah and not solely due to anthropogenic emission sources, otherwise like PM10 some of the other pollutants, such as CO, NO, and SO2 would have shown much greater difference between Leeds and Makkah. Correlation analysis is performed between different pollutants at the same site and the same pollutants at different sites. In Leeds the correlation between PM10 and other pollutants is significantly stronger than in Makkah. Weaker correlation in Makkah is probably due to the fact that in Makkah most of the gaseous pollutants are emitted by combustion processes, whereas most of the PM10 is generated by other sources, such as windblown dust, re-suspension, and construction activities. This is in contrast to Leeds where all pollutants including PM10 are predominantly emitted by combustions, such as road traffic. Furthermore, in Leeds frequent rains wash out most of the atmospheric particulate matter and supress re-suspension of dust. Temporal trends of various pollutants are compared and discussed. This study emphasises the role of climatic conditions in managing air quality, and hence the need for region-specific controlling strategies according to the local climatic and meteorological conditions.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Particulate Matter, Climatic Conditions, Makkah, Leeds

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
3 When Creativity Is the Solution: How to Transform Makkah into a Creative City

Authors: Saeed Al Amoudy

Abstract:

During the last decade, the rapidly growing prestige of so-called Creative Cities has inspired many other cities seeking to enhance their attractiveness, creativity, and success. However, the concept of a creative city seems to be an elusive one because it reflects a set of distinct ideologies which apply distinct ideas of creativity to physical and economic urban development. The main aim of this study is to investigate the ways in which the theoretical concept of the creative city can be usefully and practically employed to develop the urban services and global identity of Makkah, Saudi Arabia. This is a challenging prospect since no research on creative cities in the Middle East has previously been conducted. The city of Makkah and its holy sites is known as the focus of religious devotion for one and half billion Muslims around the globe, with millions travelling there on annual pilgrimage. The ideas of three of the key authors who have addressed relevant aspects of the concept of the creative city, Landry, Howkins and Florida, were explored in depth for the purpose of identifying the model which would be best suited to Makkah’s identity as a sacred city. Of these, it was the approach of Landry and others whose work was originally focused on finding creative solutions to the problems faced by cities which proved most suitable for the context of Makkah. The development strategies of five case studies of Creative Cities situated in different parts of the world, namely Vancouver, Yokohama, Glasgow, Barcelona, and Sydney, were also examined. Inspired by their diverse experiences, a model, referred to by the acronym CREATIVE, was developed by bringing together the key elements which seemed to ,account for the success of these five creative cities: Concept, Resources, Events, Attractiveness, Technology, Involvement, Vision and Enthusiasm. Expert opinion was sought on the model by presenting this for discussion at five international conferences. This model was used to guide both the process of data collection via interviews, documentation and field notes, and for analysing this, revealing that Makkah has great potential to become a Creative City. The results suggested that implementation of the CREATIVE model in Makkah would help produce creative solutions to address the problems that the city currently faces due to the growing number of pilgrims every year.

Keywords: Creative City, Makkah, city imaging, sacred city

Procedia PDF Downloads 281
2 Risk Assessment of Particulate Matter (PM10) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Turki M. Habeebullah, Atef M. F. Mohammed, Essam A. Morsy

Abstract:

In recent decades, particulate matter (PM10) have received much attention due to its potential adverse health impact and the subsequent need to better control or regulate these pollutants. The aim of this paper is focused on study risk assessment of PM10 in four different districts (Shebikah, Masfalah, Aziziyah, Awali) in Makkah, Saudi Arabia during the period from 1 Ramadan 1434 AH - 27 Safar 1435 AH. samples was collected by using Low Volume Sampler (LVS Low Volume Sampler) device and filtration method for estimating the total concentration of PM10. The study indicated that the mean PM10 concentrations were 254.6 (186.1 - 343.2) µg/m3 in Shebikah, 184.9 (145.6 - 271.4) µg/m3 in Masfalah, 162.4 (92.4 - 253.8) µg/m3 in Aziziyah, and 56.0 (44.5 - 119.8) µg/m3 in Awali. These values did not exceed the permissible limits in PME (340 µg/m3 as daily average). Furthermore, health assessment is carried out using AirQ2.2.3 model to estimate the number of hospital admissions due to respiratory diseases. The cumulative number of cases per 100,000 were 1534 (18-3050 case), which lower than that recorded in the United States, Malaysia. The concentration response coefficient was 0.49 (95% CI 0.05 - 0.70) per 10 μg/m3 increase of PM10.

Keywords: Air Pollution, Respiratory Diseases, Makkah, airQ2.2.3

Procedia PDF Downloads 286
1 Rock Slope Stabilization and Protection for Roads and Multi-Storey Structures in Jabal Omar, Saudi Arabia

Authors: Abdelazim Ibrahim, Ibrahim Abdel Gadir Malik, Dafalla Siddig Dafalla

Abstract:

Jabal Omar is located in the western side of Makkah city in Saudi Arabia. The proposed Jabal Omar Development project includes several multi-storey buildings, roads, bridges and below ground structures founded at various depths. In this study, geological mapping and site inspection which covered pre-selected areas were carried out within the easily accessed parts. Geological features; including rock types, structures, degree of weathering, and geotechnical hazards were observed and analyzed with specified software and also were documented in form of photographs. The presence of joints and fractures in the area made the rock blocks small and weak. The site is full of jointing; it was observed that, the northern side consists of 3 to 4 jointing systems with 2 random fractures associated with dykes. The southern part is affected by 2 to 3 jointing systems with minor fault and shear zones. From the field measurements and observations, it was concluded that, the Jabal Omar intruded by andesitic and basaltic dykes of different thickness and orientation. These dykes made the outcrop weak, highly deformed and made the rock masses sensitive to weathering.

Keywords: Protection, rock, Stabilization, slope, Makkah

Procedia PDF Downloads 423