Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

major ions Related Abstracts

4 Evaluation of Major and Minor Components in Dakahlia Water Resources for Drinking Purposes

Authors: R. A. Mandour

Abstract:

The physical, chemical, and microbiological analyses of fifty Quaternary water samples representing the different types of drinking water (surface and wells) in the governorate were carried-out. This paper aims to evaluate the drinking water in Dakahlia governorate in comparison with the national and international standards as a step to handle water pollutants affecting human health in this governorate. All investigated water samples were chemically considered suitable for drinking except two samples for iron, two samples for lead and one water sample for manganese having values higher than the permissible limit of EMH and WHO. Also microbiologically there were five water samples having a high total count of bacteria and three samples having high coli form than the permissible limit of EMH. Obviously, groundwater samples from Mit-Ghamr, El-Sinbillawin and Aga districts of Dakahlia governorate should have special attention for treatment.

Keywords: Microbiology, major ions, minor elements, EMH, WHO

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3 Lake Bardawil Water Quality

Authors: Mohamed Elkashouty, Mohamed Elkammar, Mohamed Gomma, Menal Elminiami

Abstract:

Lake Bardawil is considered as one of the major morphological features of northern Sinai. It represents the largest fish production lake for export in Egypt. Nineteen and thirty one samples were collected from lake water during winter and summer (2005). TDS, cations, anions, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Co and Pb concentrations were measured within winter and summer seasons. During summer, in the eastern sector of the lake, TDS concentration is decreased due northeastern part (38000 ppm), it is attributed to dilution from seawater through Boughaz II. The TDS concentration increased generally in the central and southern parts of the lake (44000 and 42000 ppm, respectively). It is caused by they are far from dilution from seawater, disconnected water body, shallow depth (mean 2 m), and high evaporation rate. In the western sector, the TDS content ranged from low (38000 ppm) in the northeastern part to high (50000 ppm) in the western part. Generally, the TDS concentration in the western sector is higher than those in the eastern. It is attributed to low volume of water body for the former, high evaporation rate, and therefore increase in TDS content in the lake water.During winter season, in the eastern sector, the wind velocity is high which enhance the water current to inflow into the lake through Boughaz I and II. The resultant water lake is diluted by seawater and rainfall in the winter season. The TDS concentration increased due southern part of the lake (42000 ppm) and declined in the northern part (36000 ppm). The concentration of Co, Ni, Pb, Fe, Cd, Zn, Cu, Mn and Pb within winter and summery seasons, in lake water are low, which considered as background concentrations with respect to seawater. Therefore, there are no industrial, agricultural and sanitary wastewaters dump into the lake. This confirms the statement that has been written at the entrance of Lake Bardawil at El-Telool area "Lake Bardawil, one of the purest lakes in the world". It indicate that the Lake Bardawil is excellent area for fish production for export (current state) and is the second main fish source in Egypt after the Mediterranean Sea after the illness of Lake Manzala.

Keywords: Water Quality, major ions, lake Bardawil, toxic metals

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2 Anthropogenic Impact on Surface and Groundwaters Quality in the Western Part of the River Nile, Elsaff Village, Giza

Authors: Mohamed Elkashouty, Mohamed Yehia, Ahmed Tawfuk

Abstract:

The study area is located in the southern part of Giza Governorate at both side of the Nile Valley. A combination of major and trace elements have been used to classify surface- and ground-waters in El Kurimat village, Egypt. The main purpose of the project is to investigate the surface-and ground-waters quality and hydrochemical evaluation. The situation is further complicated by contamination with lithogenic and anthropogenic (agricultural and sewage wastewaters) sources and low groundwater management strategies. The Quaternary aquifer consists of sands and gravels of Pleistocene age intercalated with clay lenses and overlain by silty clay aquitard (Holocene). The semi-pervious silty clay aquitard of the Holocene Nile sediments cover the Quaternary aquifer in most areas. The groundwater flows generally from southwest to northeast. To achieve this target, thirty five and seventy three samples were collected from surface– and ground-waters within summer and winter seasons 2009-2010). Total dissolved solids (TDS), cations, anions, NO2, NO3, PO4 , Al, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, Zn, As, F, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr and V) were determined in water samples. Grain size analysis was achieved to eight soil samples and measured the organic matter percent in different fractions. The TDS concentration is high in Arab El Ein canal by lithogenic and anthropogenic sources. The average concentrations of TDS in the River Nile are 245 (summer) and 254 ppm (winter). NO3 content ranges from 1.7 to 12 mg/l (summer), while in winter it ranges from 0.4 to 2.4. Most of the toxic metal concentrations are below the drinking and irrigation guidelines except Mn, V, Cr, Al, and Fe, which are higher than the guidelines in some canals and drains. The TDS concentration in groundwater increases toward northeastern and northwestern part of the study area (i.e. toward limestone plateau). It is due to hydrogeological interconnection between Quaternary and Eocene aquifer (saline water), wastewater dump and recharge from wadi El Atfihi wastewater. There is a good match between the hydrogeology and the hydrogeochemistry. Total dissolved solid in groundwater increases toward southwestern part, may be due to hydrogeological interconnection between Quaternary and Eocene aquifer and leakage from agricultural waste water of El Mohut drain. Fe, Mn, Cr, Al, PO4 and NO3 concentrations are high due to anthropogenic sources, therefore they are unsuitable for drinking. The average concentration of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn &Zn are higher in winter than those in summer due to winter drought. The organic matter content in soil are increases in the northeastern and southwestern part, with different fractions, sue to agricultural wastewaters. Reused of contaminated surface- and ground-waters samples by mixing with fresh water (By AquaChem) was estimated to increase the income per capita.

Keywords: Groundwater, Surface Water, major ions, toxic metals

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1 Hydro-Geochemistry of Qare-Sou Catchment and Gorgan Gulf, Iran: Examining Spatial and Temporal Distribution of Major Ions and Determining the River’s Hydro-Chemical Type

Authors: Hadi Farhadian, Milad Kurdi, Teymour Eslamkish

Abstract:

This study examined the hydro-geochemistry of Qare-Sou catchment and Gorgan Gulf in order to determine the spatial distribution of major ions. In this regard, six hydrometer stations in the catchment and four stations in Gorgan Gulf were chosen and the samples were collected. Results of spatial and temporal distribution of major ions have shown similar variation trends for calcium, magnesium, and bicarbonate ions. Also, the spatial trend of chloride, sulfate, sodium and potassium ions were same as Electrical Conductivity (EC) and Total Dissolved Solid (TDS). In Nahar Khoran station, the concentrations of ions were more than other stations which may be related to human activities and the role of geology. The Siah Ab station’s ions showed high concentration which is may be related to the station’s close proximity to Gorgan Gulf and the return of water to Qare-Sou River. In order to determine the interaction of water and rock, the Gibbs diagram was used and the results showed that water of the river falls in the rock range and it is affected more by weathering and reaction between water and stone and less by evaporation and crystallization. Assessment of the quality of river water by using graphic methods indicated that the type of water in this area is Ca-HCO3-Mg. Major ions concentration in Qare-Sou in the universal average was more than but not more than the allowed limit by the World Health Organization and China Standard Organization. A comparison of ions concentration in Gorgan Gulf, seas and oceans showed that the pH in Gorgan Gulf was more than the other seas but in Gorgan Gulf the concentration of anion and cation was less than other seas.

Keywords: Water Quality, Hydro-geochemistry, major ions, Qare-Sou river, Gorgan gulf, Gibbs diagram, graphical methods

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