Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 49

maize Related Abstracts

49 Examination of the Water and Nutrient Utilization of Maize Hybrids on Chernozem Soil

Authors: L. G. Karancsi


The research was set up on chernozem soil at the Látókép AGTC MÉK research area of the University of Debrecen in Hungary. We examined the yield, the yield production per 1kg NPK fertilizer and the water and nutrient utilization of hybrid PR37N01 and PR37M81 in 2013. We found that PR37N01 produced the most yield at the level of N120+P (17,476kg ha-1) while PR37M81 reached the highest yield at level N150+PK (16,754kg ha-1). Studies related to yield production per 1kg NPK indicated that the best results were achieved at level N30+PK compared to the control treatment. Yield production per 1kg NPK was17.6kg kg-1 by P37N01 and 44.2kg kg-1 by PR37M81. By comparing the water utilization of hybrids we found that the worst water utilization results were reached in the control treatment (PR37N01: 26.2kg mm-1, PR37M81: 19.5kg mm-1). The best water utilization values were produced at level N120+PK in the case of hybrid PR37N01 (32.1kg mm-1) and at N150+PK in the case of hybrid PR37M81 (30.8kg mm-1). We established the values of the nutrient reaction and the fertilizer optimum of hybrids. We discovered a strong relationship between the amount of fertilizer applied and the yield produced (r2= 0.8228–0.9515). The best nutrient response was induced by hybrid PR37N01, while the weakest results were reached by hybrid PR37M81.

Keywords: Hybrid, nutrient, Yield, maize, water utilization

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48 Application of Crude Palm Oil Liquid Sludge Sewage On Maize (Zea mays. L) as Re-Cycle Possibility to Fertilizer

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin, Henni Rosneti, Agusnimar


Crude palm oil liquid sludge sewage was treated to maize with 400 cc/plant could be increased mean relative growth rates, net assimilation rate, leaf area and dry weight of seed. There are indicated that 400 cc / plant treated to maize significantly increase the average of mean relative growth rates into 0.32 Net assimilation rates increase from 13.5 into 34.5, leaf area at 50 days after planting increase from 1419 cm-2 into 2458 cm-2 and dry weight of seed from 38 g per plant into 43 g per plant. Crude palm oil liquid sludge waste chemical analysis indicated that, there are no exceed threshold content of dangerous metals and biology effects. Cadmium content as heavy metal is lower than threshold of human healthy tolerance. Therefore, it has no syndrome effect to human health. Biological oxygen demands and chemical oxygen demands as indicators for micro-organism activities, there are under the threshold of human healthy tolerance.

Keywords: Waste, fertilizer, pollutant, maize, crude-palm-oil, liquid-sludge

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47 Effect of Tillage Technology on Species Composition of Weeds in Monoculture of Maize

Authors: Svetlana Chovancova, Frantisek Illek, Jan Winkler


The effect of tillage technology of maize on intensity of weed infestation and weed species composition was observed at experimental field. Maize is grown consecutively since 2001. The experimental site is situated at an altitude of 230 m above sea level in the Czech Republic. Variants of tillage technology are CT: plowing – conventional tillage 0.22 m, MT: loosening – disc tillage on the depth of 0.1 – 0.12 m, NT: direct sowing – without tillage. The evaluation of weed infestation was carried out by numerical method in years 2012 and 2013. Within the monitoring were found 20 various species of weeds. Conventional tillage (CT) primarily supports the occurrence of perennial weeds (Cirsium arvense, Convolvulus arvensis). Late spring species (Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crus-galli) were more frequently noticed on variants of loosening (MT) and direct sowing (NT). Different tillage causes a significant change of weed species spectrum in maize.

Keywords: Weeds, tillage, maize, loosening, direct sowing

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46 Mapping QTLs Associated with Salinity Tolerance in Maize at Seedling Stage

Authors: Mohammad Muhebbullah Ibne Hoque, Zheng Jun, Wang Guoying


Salinity stress is one of the most important abiotic factors contributing to crop growth and yield loss. Exploring the genetic basis is necessary to develop maize varieties with salinity tolerance. In order to discover the inherent basis for salinity tolerance traits in maize, 121 polymorphic SSR markers were used to analyze 163 F2 individuals derived from a single cross of inbred line B73 (a salt susceptible inbred line) and CZ-7 (a salt tolerant inbred line). A linkage map was constructed and the map covered 1195.2 cM of maize genome with an average distance of 9.88 cM between marker loci. Ten salt tolerance traits at seedling stage were evaluated for QTL analysis in maize seedlings. A total of 41 QTLs associated with seedling shoot and root traits were detected, with 16 and 25 QTLs under non-salinity and salinity condition, respectively. And only 4 major stable QTLs were detected in two environments. The detected QTLs were distributed on chromosomes 1, 2, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and chromosome 10. Phenotypic variability for the identified QTLs for all the traits was in the range from 6.27 to 21.97%. Fourteen QTLs with more than 10% contributions were observed. Our results and the markers associated with the major QTL detected in this study have the potential application for genetic improvement of salt tolerance in maize through marker-assisted selection.

Keywords: maize, salt tolerance, seedling stage, root shoot traits, quantitative trait loci, simple sequence repeat

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45 Inheritance of Protein Content and Grain Yield in Half Diallel Maize (Zea mays L.) Populations

Authors: Gül Ebru Orhun


A half diallel crossing design was carried out during 2011 and 2012 growing seasons under Çanakkale-Turkey ecological conditions. In this research, 20 F1 maize hybrids obtained by 6x6 half diallel crossing were used. Gene action for protein content and grain yield traits were explored in half set involving six elite inbred lines. According to the results diallel analysis dominance and additive gene variances were determined for protein content. Variance/Co-variance graphs revealed for grain yield and protein content traits. In this study, inheritance of grain yield and protein content demonstrated over-dominance type of gene action.

Keywords: Protein, maize, inheritance, gene action

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44 Production and Evaluation of Enriched Aadun (a Local Maize Snack)

Authors: E. Oluwasola, E. Bamidele, E. Ogunbusola


Enriched “aadun” was produced from maize with, supplemented with cray fish and beans. Sodium chloride (Nacl) was also added to the product which acts as preservatives. The produced enriched “aadun” was compared with commercial “aadun” organoleptically the result of the sensory evaluation carried out on the product showed that there is a statistical significant difference between the mouth feel of enriched and commercial “aadun” at 0.05 level of significance (t=5.499, P<0.05) Similarly, the mean difference between enriched and commercial “aadun” in terms of aroma (t=4.403, P<0.05), taste (t=4.592, P<0.05) colour (t=2.788, P<0.05) and general acceptability (t=3.894, P<0.05) is statistically significant at 95% confidence level in each case, therefore, it is clearly revealed that product 321 (Enriched “aadun”) is more acceptable and significant better than product 432 (commercial “aadun”) in all the attributes evaluated. The proximate analysis using standard methods of analysis was carried out which include the moisture content, ash and protein content for both the enriched aadun and commercial aadun the result showed moisture content 9%, ash 6.2%, protein 19.6% and 12.9% moisture content, 4%ash content, 8.75% protein for the commercial and improved aadun respectively.

Keywords: maize, aadun, enriched, supplemented

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43 Exploitation of Variability for Salinity Tolerance in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Early Growth Stage

Authors: Abdul Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat


Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germplasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: Variation, Salinity, Hybrids, maize

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42 Evaluation of Genetic Diversity for Salt Stress in Maize Hybrids (Zea Mays L.) at Seedling Stage

Authors: Abdu Qayyum, Hafiz Muhammad Saeed, Mamoona Hanif, Etrat Noor, Waqas Malik, Shoaib Liaqat


Salinity is extremely serious problem that has a drastic effect on maize crop, environment and causes economic losses of country. An advance technique to overcome salinity is to develop salt tolerant geno types which require screening of huge germ plasm to start a breeding program. Therefore, present study was undertaken to screen out 25 maize hybrids of different origin for salinity tolerance at seedling stage under three levels of salt stress 250 and 300 mM NaCl including one control. The existence of variation for tolerance to enhanced NaCl salinity levels at seedling stage in maize proved that hybrids had differing ability to grow under saline environment and potential variability within specie. Almost all the twenty five maize hybrids behaved varyingly in response to different salinity levels. However, the maize hybrids H6, H13, H21, H23 and H24 expressed better performance under salt stress in terms of all six characters and proved to be as highly tolerant while H22, H17 H20, H18, H4, H9, and H8 were identified as moderately tolerant. Hybrids H14, H5, H11 and H3 H12, H2, were expressed as most sensitive to salinity suggesting that screening is an effective tool to exploit genetic variation among maize hybrids and salt tolerance in maize can be enhanced through selection and breeding procedure.

Keywords: Variation, Salinity, Hybrids, maize

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41 Effect of Selenite and Selenate Uptake by Maize Plants on Specific Leaf Area

Authors: F. Garousi, Sz. Veres, É. Bódi, Sz. Várallyay, B. Kovács


Specific leaf area (SLA; cm2leaf g-1leaf) is a key ecophysiological parameter influencing leaf physiology, photosynthesis, and whole plant carbon gain and also can be used as a rapid and diagnostic tool. In this study, two species of soluble inorganic selenium forms, selenite (SeIV) and selenate (SeVI) at different concentrations were investigated on maize plants that were growing in nutrient solutions during 2 weeks and at the end of the experiment, amounts of SLA for first and second leaves of maize were measured. In accordance with the results we observed that our regarded Se concentrations in both forms of SeIV and SeVI were not effective on maize plants’ SLA significantly although high level of 3 SeIV had negative affect on growth of the samples that had been treated by it but about SeVI samples we did not observe this state and our different considered SeVI concentrations were not toxic for maize plants.

Keywords: maize, sodium selenate, sodium selenite, specific leaf area

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40 Effects of Molybdenum Treatments on Maize and Sunflower Seedlings

Authors: Eva Bodi, Szilvia Veres, Farzaneh Garousi, Szilvia Varallay, Bela Kovacs


The aim of the present study was to examine whether increasing molybdenum (Mo) concentration affects on the growth and Mo concentration of maize and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. cv Arena PR) seedlings within laboratory conditions. In this experiment calcareous chernozem soil was used and Mo was supplemented into the soil as ammonium molybdate [(NH4)6Mo7O24.4H2O] in four different concentrations as follow: 0 (control), 30, 90 and 270 mg/kg. In this study we found that molybdenum in small amount (30 mg/kg) affects positively on growth of maize and sunflower seedlings, however, higher concentration of Mo reduces the dry weights of shoots and roots. In the case of maize the highest Mo treatment (270 mg/kg) and in sunflower 90 mg/kg treatment caused significant reduction in plant growth. In addition, we observed that molybdenum contents in the roots and shoots were very low in case of control soil but were significantly elevated with increasing concentration of Mo treatment. Only in case of sunflower the highest 270 mg/kg Mo treatment caused decrease in Mo concentration.

Keywords: Molybdenum, Sunflower, maize, dry weight

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39 Process Optimization and Microbial Quality of Provitamin A-Biofortified Amahewu, a Non-Alcoholic Maize Based Beverage

Authors: Temitope D. Awobusuyi, Eric O. Amonsou, Muthulisi Siwela, Oluwatosin A. Ijabadeniyi


Provitamin A-biofortified maize has been developed to alleviate Vitamin A deficiency; a major public health problem in developing countries. Amahewu, a non-alcoholic fermented maize based beverage is produced using white maize, which is deficient in Vitamin A. In this study, the suitable processing conditions for the production of amahewu using provitamin A-biofortified maize and the microbial quality of the processed products were evaluated. Provitamin A-biofortified amahewu was produced with reference to traditional processing method. Processing variables were Inoculum types (Malted provitamin A maize, Wheat bran, and lactobacillus mixed starter culture with either malted provitamin A or wheat bran) and concentration (0.5 %, 1 % and 2 %). A total of four provitamin A-biofortified amahewu products after fermentation were subjected to different storage conditions: 4ᴼC, 25ᴼC and 37ᴼC. pH and TTA were monitored throughout the storage period. Sample of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu were plated and observed every day for 5 days to assess the presence of Aerobic and Anaerobic spore formers, E.coli, Lactobacillus and Mould. The addition of starter culture substantially reduced the fermentation time (6 hour, pH 3.3) compared to those with no addition of starter culture (24 hour pH 3.5). It was observed that Lactobacillus were present from day 0 for all the storage temperatures. The presence of aerobic spore former and mould were observed on day 3. E.coli and Anaerobic spore formers were not present throughout the storage period. These microbial growth were minimal at 4ᴼC while 25ᴼC had higher counts of growth with 37ᴼC having the highest colony count. Throughout the storage period, pH of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu was stable. Provitamin A-biofortified amahewu stored under refrigerated condition (4ᴼC) had better storability compared to 25ᴼC and 37ᴼC. The production and microbial quality of provitamin A-biofortified amahewu might be important in combating Vitamin A Deficiency.

Keywords: Fermentation, biofortification, maize, vitamin A deficiency

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38 Bacteriological Quality of Commercially Prepared Fermented Ogi (AKAMU) Sold in Some Parts of South Eastern Nigeria

Authors: Alloysius C. Ogodo, Ositadinma C. Ugbogu, Uzochukwu G. Ekeleme


Food poisoning and infection by bacteria are of public health significance to both developing and developed countries. Samples of ogi (akamu) prepared from white and yellow variety of maize sold in Uturu and Okigwe were analyzed together with the laboratory prepared ogi for microbial quality using the standard microbiological methods. The analyses showed that both white and yellow variety had total bacterial counts (cfu/g) of 4.0 ×107 and 3.9 x 107 for the laboratory prepared ogi while the commercial ogi had 5.2 x 107 and 4.9 x107, 4.9 x107 and 4.5 x107, 5.4 x107 and 5.0 x107 for Eke-Okigwe, Up-gate and Nkwo-Achara market respectively. The Staphylococcal counts ranged from 2.0 x 102 to 5.0 x102 and 1.0 x 102 to 4.0 x102 for the white and yellow variety from the different markets while Staphylococcal growth was not recorded on the laboratory prepared ogi. The laboratory prepared ogi had no Coliform growth while the commercially prepared ogi had counts of 0.5 x103 to 1.6 x 103 for white variety and 0.3 x 103 to 1.1 x103 for yellow variety respectively. The Lactic acid bacterial count of 3.5x106 and 3.0x106 was recorded for the laboratory ogi while the commercially prepared ogi ranged from 3.2x106 to 4.2x106 (white variety) and 3.0 x106 to 3.9 x106 (yellow). The presence of bacteria isolates from the commercial and laboratory fermented ogi showed that Lactobacillus sp, Leuconostoc sp and Citrobacter sp were present in all the samples, Micrococcus sp and Klebsiella sp were isolated from Eke-Okigwe and ABSU-up-gate markets varieties respectively, E. coli and Staphylococcus sp were present in Eke-Okigwe and Nkwo-Achara markets while Salmonella sp were isolated from the three markets. Hence, there are chances of contracting food borne diseases from commercially prepared ogi. Therefore, there is the need for sanitary measures in the production of fermented cereals so as to minimize the rate of food borne pathogens during processing and storage.

Keywords: Lactic Acid Bacteria, Fermentation, maize, ogi, bacterial quality

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37 Role of Selenite and Selenate Uptake by Maize Plants in Chlorophyll A and B Content

Authors: F. Garousi, S. Veres, É. Bódi, S. Várallyay, B. Kovács


Extracting and determining chlorophyll pigments (chlorophyll a and b) in green leaves are the procedures based on the solvent extraction of pigments in samples using N,N-dimethylformamide as the extractant. In this study, two species of soluble inorganic selenium forms, selenite (Se( IV)) and selenate (Se( VI)) at different concentrations were investigated on maize plants that were growing in nutrient solutions during 2 weeks and at the end of the experiment, amounts of chlorophyll a and b for first and second leaves of maize were measured. In accordance with the results we observed that our regarded Se concentrations in both forms of Se( IV) and Se( VI) were not effective on maize plants’ chlorophyll a and b significantly although high level of 3 Se( IV) had negative affect on growth of the samples that had been treated by it but about Se( VI) samples we did not observe this state and our different considered Se( VI) concentrations were not toxic for maize plants.

Keywords: maize, sodium selenate, sodium selenite, chlorophyll a and b

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36 Cultivation of Stenocereus Spp. as an Option to Reduce Crop Loss Problems in High Marginalization States in Mexico

Authors: Abraham Castro-Alvarez, Luisaldo Sandate-Flores, Roberto Parra-Saldivar


The losing of crops during the whole production process is a problem that is affecting farmers in the whole world, as climate change affects the weather behavior. Stenocereus spp. is a tropical, exotic and endemic columnar cacti, it produces a colored and expensive fruit known how “pitaya”. The quality and value of the fruit, these species represent an attractive option for economical development in arid and semi-arid regions. This fruits are produced in Mexico, mainly in 4 regions, Mixteca Oaxaca-Puebla, Michoacan, Sinaloa-Sonora, Jalisco-Zacatecas. Pitaya can be an option to try mixed crop in this states due to the resistance to hard weather conditions. And also because of the marginalization problems that exist in these townships. As defined by the Population National Council it consists in the absence of development opportunities and the lack of capacity to get them. According to an analysis done in EsriPress ArcGis 10.1 the potential area in the country is almost the half of the territory being the total area of Mexico 1,965,249 km2 and the area with potential to produce pitaya 960,527 km2. This area covers part of the most affected townships that also have a few options of maize varieties making even harder the production of maize and exposing farmers to crop losing if conditions are good enough. Making pitaya a good option for these farmers to have an economic backup in their productions.

Keywords: maize, pitaya, rain fed, Stenocereus

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35 Determination of Critical Period for Weed Control in the Second Crop Forage Maize (454 Cultivar)

Authors: Farhad Farahvash, Parya Mobaseri


Weeds control based on their critical period leads to less production costs and risks of wide chemical application of weeds control methods. The present study considered effect of weeds control time (weeds interference after 20, 40 and 60 days, weeds full control, weeds interference and weeds control after 20, 40 and 60 days) on growth and yield of forage maize 454. The experiment based on full-randomized blocks design with three replications was conducted at research farm of Islamic Azad University of Tabriz located at 15th km of East Tabriz in 2013. According to the results, weeds interference after 40 and 60 days as well as weeds control after 20 days prevented from decrease of maize biomass resulted from weeds presence while weeds interference after 20 days, weeds interference and weeds control after 40 and 60 days led respectively to 41.2%, 35%, 25% and 32.5% decrease of forage maize biomass. The weeds-influenced decrease was manifested at different parts of the plant depending on presence period of weeds. Decrease of fresh weight of ear and fresh weight of leaf and stem was observed due to weeds interference after 20 days and weeds interference. If weeds are controlled after 60 days, decrease of ear weight and fresh weight of stem will lead to biomass decrease. Also, if weeds are controlled after 40 days, decrease of fresh weight of maize stems will result in biomass decrease. Ear traits were affected by weeds control treatment. Being affected by treatments of weeds interference after 20 days, weeds non-interference, weeds control after 40 and 60 days, ear length was shortened 29.9 %, 41.4 %, 27.6 % and 37.2 %, respectively. The stem diameter demonstrated a significant decrease although it was only affected by treatments of weeds interference and weeds control after 60 days. Considering results of the present study, generally, it is suggested to control weeds during initial 20-60 days of maize growth in order to prevent undesirable effect of weeds on growth, production and production biomass of maize and decrease of production costs.

Keywords: biomass, Competition, maize, weed

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34 Role of Physical Properties of Maize Grains Towards Resistance to Sitotroga Cerealella (OLIV.) (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) in No Choice

Authors: Sohail Ahmed, Ahmad Raza


Physical properties of maize grains were correlated with levels of the life history of Sitotroga cerealella (Oliv.) (Gelechiidae: Lepidoptera) in no choice test to find out relative resistance in different varieties. Eight maize varieties /lines (EV-6089, Sahiwal-2002, Golden, 34N43, EV-1098, Sultan, China-1, EV-20) including seven yellow and one white were obtained from Maize and Millet Research Institute, Yousaf Wala, Sahiwal, Punjab, Pakistan. Freshly laid eggs (one day old) of S. cerealella were obtained and cultured on a susceptible maize variety for two generations for later on shifting to test varieties. Results showed that maximum moth emergence (10.33), fecundity (35.66), hatching (87.66%), moth weight (5.05 mg), development time (36.0 days) damage (93.35%) and grain weight loss (38.84%) was found in varieties, 34N43 and Golden, Sultan, Sahiwal 2002, 34N43, EV-6089, 34N43 and EV-1089, respectively. Varieties had significant difference with other varieties in these parameters (P<0.05). The varieties had positive as well as negative correlation between hardness index, grain weight and bulk density with the biological parameters of S. cerealella, percent grain damage and weight loss. Possible involvement of these grain properties in the resistance of maize grains towards S. cerealella is discussed.

Keywords: maize, varieties, sitotroga cerealella, hardness index, grain damage

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33 Effects of Microbiological and Physicochemical Processes on the Quality of Complementary Foods Based on Maize (Zea mays) Fortification with Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea)

Authors: T. I. Mbata, M. J. Ikenebomeh


Background: The study was aim at formulating a complementary foods based on maize and bambara groundnut with a view of reducing malnutrition in low income families. Protein-energy malnutrition is a major health challenge attributed to the inappropriate complementary feeding practices, low nutritional quality of traditional complementary foods and high cost of quality protein-based complementary foods. Methods: The blends 70% maize, 30% bambara groundnut were evaluated for proximate analyses, minerals, amino acids profile, and antinutritional factors, using proprietary formula (‘Nutrend’) as standard. Antinutritional factors, amino acids, microbiological properties and sensory attributes were determined using standard methods. Results; For Protein, the results were 15.0% for roasted bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (RBMGF), 13.80% for cooked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (CBMGF), 15.18% for soaked bambara groundnut maize germinated flour (SBMGF); values for maize flour and nutrend had 10.4% and 23.21% respectively. With respect to energy value, RBMGF, CBMGF, SBMGF, maize flour and nutrend had 494.9, 327.58, 356.49, 366.8 and 467.2 kcal respectively. The percentages of total essential amino acids in the composition of the blends were 36.9%, 40.7% and 38.9% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF, respectively, non-essential amino acids contents were 63.1%, 59.3% and 61.1% for CBMGF, SBMGF and RBMGF respectively. The mineral content, that is, calcium, potassium, magnesium and sodium, of formulated samples were higher than those obtained for maize flour and Nutrend. The antinutrient composition of RBMGF and CBMGF were lower than of SBMGF. The rats fed with the control diet exhibited better growth performance such as feed intake (1527 g) and body weight gain (93.8 g). For the microbial status, microflora gradually changed from gram negative enteric bacteria, molds, lactic acid bacteria and yeast to be dominated by gram positive lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts. Yeasts and LAB growth counts in the complementary food varied between 4.44 and 7.36 log cfu/ml. LAB number increased from 5.40 to 7.36 log cfu/ml during fermentation. Yeasts increased from 4.44 to 5.60 log cfu/ml. Organoleptic evaluation revealed that the foods were well accepted. Conclusion: Based on the findings the application of bambara groundnut fortification to traditional foods can promote the nutritional quality of African maize - based traditional foods with acceptable rheological and cooking qualities.

Keywords: fortification, maize, bambara groundnut, complementary food

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32 Predicting Stem Borer Density in Maize Using RapidEye Data and Generalized Linear Models

Authors: Elfatih M. Abdel-Rahman, Tobias Landmann, Richard Kyalo, George Ong’amo, Bruno Le Ru


Maize (Zea mays L.) is a major staple food crop in Africa, particularly in the eastern region of the continent. The maize growing area in Africa spans over 25 million ha and 84% of rural households in Africa cultivate maize mainly as a means to generate food and income. Average maize yields in Sub Saharan Africa are 1.4 t/ha as compared to global average of 2.5–3.9 t/ha due to biotic and abiotic constraints. Amongst the biotic production constraints in Africa, stem borers are the most injurious. In East Africa, yield losses due to stem borers are currently estimated between 12% to 40% of the total production. The objective of the present study was therefore to predict stem borer larvae density in maize fields using RapidEye reflectance data and generalized linear models (GLMs). RapidEye images were captured for a test site in Kenya (Machakos) in January and in February 2015. Stem borer larva numbers were modeled using GLMs assuming Poisson (Po) and negative binomial (NB) distributions with error with log arithmetic link. Root mean square error (RMSE) and ratio prediction to deviation (RPD) statistics were employed to assess the models performance using a leave one-out cross-validation approach. Results showed that NB models outperformed Po ones in all study sites. RMSE and RPD ranged between 0.95 and 2.70, and between 2.39 and 6.81, respectively. Overall, all models performed similar when used the January and the February image data. We conclude that reflectance data from RapidEye data can be used to estimate stem borer larvae density. The developed models could to improve decision making regarding controlling maize stem borers using various integrated pest management (IPM) protocols.

Keywords: Density, maize, GLM, stem borers, RapidEye

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31 Effect of Silicon in Mitigating Cadmium Toxicity in Maize

Authors: Ghulam Hasan Abbasi, Moazzam Jamil, M. Anwar-Ul-Haq


Heavy metals are significant pollutants in environment and their toxicity is a problem for survival of living things while Silicon (Si) is one of the most ubiquitous macroelements, performing an essential function in healing plants in response to environmental stresses. A hydroponic experiment was conducted to investigate the role of exogenous application of silicon under cadmium stress in six different maize hybrids with five treatments comprising of control, 7.5 µM Cd + 5 mM Si, 7.5 µM Cd + 10 mM Si, 15 µM Cd + 5 mM Si and 15 µM Cd + 10 mM Si. Results revealed that treatments of plants with 10mM Si application under both 7.5µM Cd and 15 µM Cd stress resulted in maximum improvement in plant morphological attributes (root and shoot length, root and shoot fresh and dry weight, leaf area and relative water contents) and antioxidant enzymes (POD and CAT) relative to 5 mM Si application in all maize hybrids. Results regarding Cd concentrations showed that Cd was more retained in roots followed by shoots and then leaves and maximum reduction in Cd uptake was observed at 10mM Si application. Maize hybrid 6525 showed maximum growth and least concentration of Cd whereas maize hybrid 1543 showed the minimum growth and maximum Cd concentration among all maize hybrids.

Keywords: Silicon, cadmium, antioxidant, maize

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30 Assessment of Physical Characteristics of Maize (Zea Mays) Stored in Metallic Silos

Authors: B. A. Alabadan, E. S. Ajayi, C. A. Okolo


The storage losses recorded globally in maize (Zea mays) especially in the developing countries is worrisome. Certain degenerating changes in the physical characteristics (PC) of the grain occur due to the interaction between the stored maize and the immediate environment especially during long storage period. There has been tremendous reduction in the storage losses since the evolution of metallic silos. This study was carried out to assess the physical quality attributes of maize stored in 2500 MT and 1 MT metallic silos for a period of eight months. The PC evaluated includes percentage moisture content MC, insect damage ID, foreign matters FM, hectolitre weight HC, mould M and germinability VG. The evaluation of data obtained was done using statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 20) for windows evaluation version to determine significant levels and trend of deterioration (P < 0.05) for all the values obtained using Multiple Analysis of Variance (MANOVA) and Duncan’s multivariate test. The result shows that the PC are significant with duration of storage at (P < 0.05) except MI and FM that are significant at (P > 0.05) irrespective of the size of the metallic silos. The average mean deviation for physical properties from the control in respect to duration of storage are as follows: MC 10.0 ±0.00%, HC 72.9 ± 0.44% ID 0.29 ± 0.00%, BG 0.55±0.05%, MI 0.00 ± 0.65%, FM 0.80± 0.20%, VG 100 ± 0.03%. The variables that were found to be significant (p < 0.05) with the position of grain in the bulk are VG, MI and ID while others are insignificant at (p > 0.05). Variables were all significant (p < 0.05) with the duration of storage with (0.00) significant levels, irrespective of the size of the metallic silos, but were insignificant with the position of the grain in the bulk (p > 0.05). From the results, it can be concluded that there is a slight decrease of the following variables, with time, HC, MC, and V, probably due to weather fluctuations and grain respiration, while FM, BG, ID and M were found to increase slightly probably due to insect activity in the bigger silos and loss of moisture. The size of metallic silos has no remarkable influence on the PC of stored maize (Zea mays). Germinability was found to be better with the 1 MT silos probably due to its hermetic nature. Smaller size metallic silos are preferred for storage of seeds but bigger silos largely depend on the position of the grains in the bulk.

Keywords: Storage, maize, physical characteristics, silo

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29 Storage of Maize Grains Using Powder and Oils of Commonly Used Medicinal Plants (Aframomum melegueta, Garcinia kola and Piper guineense)

Authors: T. O. Adejumo, O. S. Akinyemi


Powders and oils of Aframomum melegueta, Garcinia kola and Piper guineense were tested as preservatives for the storage of maize grains for four weeks. The concentrations of the powders were 32.5gkg-1, 65.0gkg-1 and 97.5gkg-1 maize, while those of oils were 0.85mlkg-1, 0.50mlkg-1 and 0.75mlkg-1 maize respectively. Powders of the three botanicals at 97.5gkg-1 maize possessed insecticidal effect on Sitophilus zeamais and also inhibitory activities on Aspergillus flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger and Fusarium verticillioides, while little effect was observed for other concentrations. Oils of the three botanicals at 0.50mlkg-1 and 0.75mlkg-1 maize showed an insecticidal effect on S. zeamais and also inhibitory activities on A. flavus, A. fumigatus, A. niger, F. verticillioides, Penicillium and Rhizopus species. Oils showed more potential as a protectant against fungal and insect pest in storage maize grains than powders. Powders and oils of A. melegueta, G. kola and P. guineense could be successfully used as biopesticides.

Keywords: Oils, Powder, maize, Garcinia kola, piper guineense, aframomum melegueta

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28 The Potential of Fly Ash Wastes to Improve Nutrient Levels in Agricultural Soils: A Material Flow Analysis Case Study from Riau District, Indonesia

Authors: Hasan Basri Jumin


Fly ash sewage of pulp and paper industries when processed with suitable process and true management may possibly be used fertilizer agriculture purposes. The objective of works is to evaluate re-cycling possibility of fly ash waste to be applied as a fertilizer for agriculture use. Fly ash sewage was applied to maize with 28 g/plant could be increased significantly the average of dry weigh from dry weigh of seed increase from 6.7 g/plant into 10.3 g/plant, and net assimilation rates could be increased from 14.5 into 35.4 mg.m-2 day-1. Therefore, production per hectare was reached 3.2 ton/ha. The chemical analyses of fly ash waste indicated that, there are no exceed threshold content of dangerous metals and biology effects. Mercury, arsenic, cadmium, chromium, cobalt, lead, and molybdenum contents as heavy metal are lower than the threshold of human healthy tolerance. Therefore, it has no syndrome effect to human health. This experiment indicated that fly ash sewage in lower doses until 28 g/plant could be applied as substitution fertilizer for agriculture use and it could be eliminate the environment pollution.

Keywords: Waste, fertilizer, maize, fly-ash, sludge-sewage pollutant

Procedia PDF Downloads 462
27 Assessment of Drought Tolerance Maize Hybrids at Grain Growth Stage in Mediterranean Area

Authors: Ayman El Sabagh, Celaleddin Barutçular, Hirofumi Saneoka


Drought is one of the most serious problems posing a grave threat to cereals production including maize. Maize improvement in drought-stress tolerance poses a great challenge as the global need for food and bio-enegry increases. Thus, the current study was planned to explore the variations and determine the performance of target traits of maize hybrids at grain growth stage under drought conditions during 2014 under Adana, Mediterranean climate conditions, Turkey. Maize hybrids (Sancia, Indaco, 71May69, Aaccel, Calgary, 70May82, 72May80) were evaluated under (irrigated and water stress). Results revealed that, grain yield and yield traits had a negative effects because of water stress conditions compared with the normal irrigation. As well as, based on the result under normal irrigation, the maximum biological yield and harvest index were recorded. According to the differences among hybrids were found that, significant differences were observed among hybrids with respect to yield and yield traits under current research. Based on the results, grain weight had more effect on grain yield than grain number during grain filling growth stage under water stress conditions. In this concern, according to low drought susceptibility index (less grain yield losses), the hybrid (Indaco) was more stable in grain number and grain weight. Consequently, it may be concluded that this hybrid would be recommended for use in the future breeding programs for production of drought tolerant hybrids.

Keywords: water stress, maize, grain yield, drought susceptibility index, grain growth

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26 The Effects of Soil Chemical Characteristics on Accumulation of Native Selenium by Zea mays Grains in Maize Belt in Kenya

Authors: S. B. Otieno, T. S. Jayne, M. Muyanga


Selenium which is an-antioxidant is important for human health enters food chain through crops. In Kenya Zea mays is consumed by 96% of population hence is a cheap and convenient method to provide selenium to large number of population. Several soil factors are known to have antagonistic effects on selenium speciation hence the uptake by Zea mays. No investigation in Kenya has been done to determine the effects of soil characteristics (pH, Tcarbon, CEC, Eh) affect accumulation of selenium in Zea mays grains in Maize Belt in Kenya. About 100 Zea mays grain samples together with 100 soil samples were collected from the study site, put in separate labeled Ziplocs and were transported to laboratories at room temperature for analysis. Maize grains were analyzed for selenium while soil samples were analyzed for pH, Cat Ion Exchange Capacity, total carbon, and electrical conductivity. The mean selenium in Zea mays grains varied from 1.82 ± 0.76 mg/Kg to 11±0.86 mg/Kg. There was no significant difference between selenium levels between different grain batches {χ (Df =76) = 26.04 P= 1.00} The pH levels varied from 5.43± 0.58 to 5.85± 0.32. No significant correlations between selenium in grains and soil pH (Pearson’s correlations = - 0.143), and between selenium levels in grains and the four (pH,Tcarbon,CEC,Eh) soil chemical characteristics {F (4,91) = 0.721 p = 0.579} was observed.It can be concluded that the soil chemical characteristics in the study site did not significantly affect the accumulation of native selenium in Zea mays grains.

Keywords: Soil, Selenium, maize, native

Procedia PDF Downloads 266
25 Prediction of Metals Available to Maize Seedlings in Crude Oil Contaminated Soil

Authors: Stella O. Olubodun, George E. Eriyamremu


The study assessed the effect of crude oil applied at rates, 0, 2, 5, and 10% on the fractional chemical forms and availability of some metals in soils from Usen, Edo State, with no known crude oil contamination and soil from a crude oil spill site in Ubeji, Delta State, Nigeria. Three methods were used to determine the bioavailability of metals in the soils: maize (Zea mays) plant, EDTA and BCR sequential extraction. The sequential extract acid soluble fraction of the BCR extraction (most labile fraction of the soils, normally associated with bioavailability) were compared with total metal concentration in maize seedlings as a means to compare the chemical and biological measures of bioavailability. Total Fe was higher in comparison to other metals for the crude oil contaminated soils. The metal concentrations were below the limits of 4.7% Fe, 190mg/kg Cu and 720mg/kg Zn intervention values and 36mg/kg Cu and 140mg/kg Zn target values for soils provided by the Department of Petroleum Resources (DPR) guidelines. The concentration of the metals in maize seedlings increased with increasing rates of crude oil contamination. Comparison of the metal concentrations in maize seedlings with EDTA extractable concentrations showed that EDTA extracted more metals than maize plant.

Keywords: Metals, Availability, maize, EDTA, crude oil contamination

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24 Sustainable Improvement in Soil Properties and Maize Performance by Organic Fertilizers at Different Levels

Authors: Shahid Iqbal, Haroon Z. Khan, Muhammad Arif


A sustainable agricultural system involving the improvement in soil properties and crop performance cannot be developed without organic fertilizer use. The effects of poultry manure compost (PMC) and pressmud compost (PrMC) at different levels on improving the soil properties and maize performance has not been yet described by any study comprehensively. Thus, field experiments (2011 and 2012) were conducted at Agronomy Research Area, University of Agriculture Faisalabad (31°26'5" N and 73°4'6" E) in sandy loam soil to determine the improvement in soil properties and maize performance due to application of PMC and PrMC each at five different levels (2, 4, 6, 8 and 10 t ha-1). A control (unamended) treatment was also included for comparison. The results indicated that performance of PMC levels was superior to PrMC levels. Increasing both composts levels improved soil properties, maize growth, and stover yield. Results showed that during both years’ highest rates of PMC i.e. 10 and 8 t ha-1 improved the soil properties: ECe, pH, inorganic N, OM, and WHC higher than other treatments. While, 10 and 8 t PMC ha-1 also significantly increased leaf area index (LAI), crop growth rate (CGR) and net assimilation rate (NAR), and stover yield. Similarly, 10 and 8 t PMC ha-1 also improved the grain protein content, but contrarily, grain oil was lowest for 10 and 8 t ha-1 PMC during both years. Moreover, in both years highest gross and net income, and benefit cost ratio was also achieved by 10 and 8 t ha-1 PMC. It is concluded that PMC at rate of 10 and 8 t ha-1 sustainably improved soil properties and maize performance.

Keywords: Growth, Soil, Yield, compost, maize

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
23 The Effect of Multi-Stakeholder Extension Services towards Crop Choice and Farmer's Income, the Case of the Arc High Value Crop Programme

Authors: Joseph Sello Kau, Elias Mashayamombe, Brian Washington Madinkana, Cynthia Ngwane


This paper presents the results for the statistical (stepwise linear regression and multiple regression) analyses, carried out on a number of crops in order to evaluate how the decision for crop choice affect the level of farm income generated by the farmers participating in the High Value Crop production (referred to as the HVC). The goal of the HVC is to encourage farmers cultivate fruit crops. The farmers received planting material from different extension agencies, together with other complementary packages such as fertilizer, garden tools, water tanks etc. During the surveys, it was discovered that a significant number of farmers were cultivating traditional crops even when their plot sizes were small. Traditional crops are competing for resources with high value crops. The results of the analyses show that farmers cultivating fruit crops, maize and potatoes were generating high income than those cultivating spinach and cabbage. High farm income is associated with plot size, access to social grants and gender. Choice for a crop is influenced by the availability of planting material and the market potential for the crop. Extension agencies providing the planting materials stand a good chance of having farmers follow their directives. As a recommendation, for the farmers to cultivate more of the HVCs, the ARC must intensify provision of fruit trees.

Keywords: fruit crops, maize, cabbage, farm income, nature of extension services, type of crops cultivated, potato and spinach

Procedia PDF Downloads 178
22 Safe Disposal of Processed Industrial Biomass as Alternative Organic Manure in Agriculture

Authors: V. P. Ramani, K. P. Patel, S. B. Patel


It is necessary to dispose of generated industrial wastes in the proper way to overcome the further pollution for a safe environment. Waste can be used in agriculture for good quality higher food production. In order to evaluate the effect and rate of processed industrial biomass on yield, contents, uptake and soil status in maize, a field experiment was conducted during 2009 - 2011 at Anand on loamy sand soil for two years. The treatments of different levels of NPK i.e. 100% RD, 75% RD and 50% RD were kept to study the possibility of reduction in fertilizer application with the use of processed biomass (BM) in different proportion with FYM. (Where, RD= Recommended dose, FYM= Farm Yard Manure, BM= Processed Biomass.) The significantly highest grain yield of maize was recorded under the treatment of 75% NPK + BM application @ 10t ha-1. The higher (10t ha-1) and lower (5t ha-1) application rate of BM with full dose of NPK was found beneficial being at par with the treatment 75% NPK along with BM application @ 10t ha-1. There is saving of 25% recommended dose of NPK when combined with BM application @ 10.0t ha-1 or 50% saving of organics when applied with full dose (100%) of NPK. The highest straw yield (7734 kg ha-1) of maize on pooled basis was observed under the treatment of recommended dose of NPK along with FYM application at 7.5t ha-1 coupled with BM application at 2.5t ha-1. It was also observed that highest straw yield was at par under all the treatments except control and application of 100% recommended dose of NPK coupled with BM application at 7.5t ha-1. The Fe content of maize straw were found altered significantly due to different treatments on pooled basis and it was noticed that biomass application at 7.5t ha-1 along with recommended dose of NPK showed significant enhancement in Fe content of straw over other treatments. Among heavy metals, Co, Pb and Cr contents of grain were found significantly altered due to application of different treatments variably during the pooled. While, Ni content of maize grain was not altered significantly due to application of different organics. However, at higher rate of BM application i.e. of 10t ha-1, there was slight increase in heavy metal content of grain/ straw as well as DTPA heavy metals in soil; although the increase was not alarming Thus, the overall results indicated that the application of BM at 5t ha-1 along with full dose of NPK is beneficial to get higher yield of maize without affecting soil / plant health adversely. It also indicated that the 5t BM ha-1 could be utilized in place of 10t FYM ha-1 where FYM availability is scarce. The 10t BM ha-1 helps to reduce a load of chemical fertilizer up to 25 percent in agriculture. The lower use of agro-chemicals always favors safe environment. However, the continuous use of biomass needs periodical monitoring to check any buildup of heavy metals in soil/ plant over the years.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, maize, alternate use of industrial waste, processed industrial biomass

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21 Some Quality Parameters of Selected Maize Hybrids from Serbia for the Production of Starch, Bioethanol and Animal Feed

Authors: Marija Milašinović-Šeremešić, Valentina Semenčenko, Milica Radosavljević, Dušanka Terzić, Ljiljana Mojović, Ljubica Dokić


Maize (Zea mays L.) is one of the most important cereal crops, and as such, one of the most significant naturally renewable carbohydrate raw materials for the production of energy and multitude of different products. The main goal of the present study was to investigate a suitability of selected maize hybrids of different genetic background produced in Maize Research Institute ‘Zemun Polje’, Belgrade, Serbia, for starch, bioethanol and animal feed production. All the hybrids are commercial and their detailed characterization is important for the expansion of their different uses. The starches were isolated by using a 100-g laboratory maize wet-milling procedure. Hydrolysis experiments were done in two steps (liquefaction with Termamyl SC, and saccharification with SAN Extra L). Starch hydrolysates obtained by the two-step hydrolysis of the corn flour starch were subjected to fermentation by S. cerevisiae var. ellipsoideus under semi-anaerobic conditions. The digestibility based on enzymatic solubility was performed by the Aufréré method. All investigated ZP maize hybrids had very different physical characteristics and chemical composition which could allow various possibilities of their use. The amount of hard (vitreous) and soft (floury) endosperm in kernel is considered one of the most important parameters that can influence the starch and bioethanol yields. Hybrids with a lower test weight and density and a greater proportion of soft endosperm fraction had a higher yield, recovery and purity of starch. Among the chemical composition parameters only starch content significantly affected the starch yield. Starch yields of studied maize hybrids ranged from 58.8% in ZP 633 to 69.0% in ZP 808. The lowest bioethanol yield of 7.25% w/w was obtained for hybrid ZP 611k and the highest by hybrid ZP 434 (8.96% w/w). A very significant correlation was determined between kernel starch content and the bioethanol yield, as well as volumetric productivity (48h) (r=0.66). Obtained results showed that the NDF, ADF and ADL contents in the whole maize plant of the observed ZP maize hybrids varied from 40.0% to 60.1%, 18.6% to 32.1%, and 1.4% to 3.1%, respectively. The difference in the digestibility of the dry matter of the whole plant among hybrids (ZP 735 and ZP 560) amounted to 18.1%. Moreover, the differences in the contents of the lignocelluloses fraction affected the differences in dry matter digestibility. From the results it can be concluded that genetic background of the selected maize hybrids plays an important part in estimation of the technological value of maize hybrids for various purposes. Obtained results are of an exceptional importance for the breeding programs and selection of potentially most suitable maize hybrids for starch, bioethanol and animal feed production.

Keywords: Starch, Bioethanol, maize, biomass quality

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20 Modulation of Alternative Respiration Pathyway under Salt Stress in Exogenous Estrogen-Treated Maize Seedlings

Authors: Farideh K. Khosroushahi, Serkan Erdal, Mucip Geni̇şel


Soil salinity is one of the major abiotic stress factors that restricts arable land and reduces crop productivity worldwide. High salt concentration adversely affects plant growth and development inducing water deficit, ionic toxicity, nutrient imbalance, and lead to oxidative stress. Although the stimulating role of mammalian sex hormones on various biological and biochemical processes under normal and stress condition have been proven, there is no study regarding with these hormone's effect on modulation of the alternative respiration pathway and AOX gene expression. In this study, changes in alternative respiration pathway in leaves of maize seedlings under salinity and the possible modulating effect of estrogen on these changes were investigated. Maize seedlings were grown in a hydroponic media for 11 days and then were exposed to salt stress for 3 days after being sprayed estrogen. The data obtained from oxygen consumption revealed that salt stress elevated cellular respiration value in the leaves. In addition, a marked increase was observed at alternative respiration level in salt-stressed seedlings. Compared to salt application alone, supplementation with estrogen resulted in a significant rise in alternative oxidase (AOX) activities. Similarly, while salt stress caused to rise in expressions of AOX gene compared to control seedlings, estrogen application resulted in further activation of these genes’ expression compared to stressed-seedlings alone. These data revealed that mitigating role of estrogen against the detrimental effects of salt stress is linked to modulation of alternative respiration pathway.

Keywords: Estrogen, maize, alternative oxidase, Ssalt stress, AOX

Procedia PDF Downloads 98