Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 12

magnetization Related Abstracts

12 The Effect of the Crystal Field Interaction on the Critical Temperatures and the Sublattice Magnetizations of a Mixedspin-3/2 and Spin-5/2 Ferromagnetic System

Authors: Fathi Abubrig, Mohamed Delfag, Suad Abuzariba


The influence of the crystal field interactions on the mixed spin-3/2 and spin-5/2 ferromagnetic Ising system is considered by using the mean field theory based on Bogoliubov inequality for the Gibbs free energy. The ground-state phase diagram is constructed, the phase diagrams of the second-order critical temperatures are obtained, and the thermal variation of the sublattice magnetizations is investigated in detail. We find some interesting phenomena for the sublattice magnetizations at particular values of the crystal field interactions.

Keywords: Phase diagrams, magnetization, crystal field, Ising system, ferromagnetic

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11 Torque Magnetometry of Low Anisotropic CaCo2As2 Single Crystals

Authors: Kashif Nadeem, W. Zhang, X. G. Qiu


Role of Co spins in CaCo2As2 single crystal is systematically studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque measurements. A spin-flop transition in the antiferromagnetism (AFM) CaCo2As2 single crystal is studied by using dc magnetization and magnetic torque. Field dependent and angle dependent torque magnetometry confirmed the existence of spin-flop transition in this compound which is in agreement with the dc magnetization studies. A comparison of dc magnetization and torque magnetometry measurements for CaCo2As2 single crystal is done in detail. In conclusion, torque magnetometry can be a useful tool to study the spin flop transition in low anisotropic compounds analogous to dc magnetization studies.

Keywords: magnetization, anisotropic, spin flop transition, torque magnetometry

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10 Separating Permanent and Induced Magnetic Signature: A Simple Approach

Authors: O. J. G. Somsen, G. P. M. Wagemakers


Magnetic signature detection provides sensitive detection of metal objects, especially in the natural environment. Our group is developing a tabletop setup for magnetic signatures of various small and model objects. A particular issue is the separation of permanent and induced magnetization. While the latter depends only on the composition and shape of the object, the former also depends on the magnetization history. With common deperming techniques, a significant permanent signature may still remain, which confuses measurements of the induced component. We investigate a basic technique of separating the two. Measurements were done by moving the object along an aluminum rail while the three field components are recorded by a detector attached near the center. This is done first with the rail parallel to the Earth magnetic field and then with anti-parallel orientation. The reversal changes the sign of the induced- but not the permanent magnetization so that the two can be separated. Our preliminary results on a small iron block show excellent reproducibility. A considerable permanent magnetization was indeed present, resulting in a complex asymmetric signature. After separation, a much more symmetric induced signature was obtained that can be studied in detail and compared with theoretical calculations.

Keywords: Data Analysis, magnetization, magnetic signature, deperming techniques

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9 Synthesis, Structural and Magnetic Properties of CdFe2O4 Ferrite

Authors: Justice Zakhele Msomi


Nanoparticles of CdFe2O4 with particle size of about 10 nm have been synthesized by high energy ball milling and co-precipitation processes. The synthesis route appears to have some effects on the properties. The compounds have been characterized by X-ray diffraction, Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Mössbauer and magnetization measurements. The XRD pattern of CdFe2O4 provides information about single-phase formation of spinel structure with cubic symmetry. The FTIR measurements between 400 and 4000 cm-1 indicate intrinsic cation vibration of the spinel structure. The Mössbauer spectra were recorded at 4 K and 300 K. The hyperfine fields appear to be highly sensitive on particle size. The evolution of the properties as a function of particle size is also presented.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, magnetization, ferrite, Mössbauer

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8 Deposition of Cr-doped ZnO Thin Films and Their Ferromagnetic Properties

Authors: Namhyun An, Byungho Lee, Hwauk Lee, Youngmin Lee, Deuk Young Kim, Sejoon Lee


In this study, the Cr-doped ZnO thin films have been deposited by reactive magnetron sputtering method with different Cr-contents (1.0at.%, 2.5at.% and 12.5at.%) and their ferromagnetic properties have been characterized. All films revealed clear ferromagnetism above room temperature. However, the spontaneous magnetization of the films was observed to depend on the Cr contents in the films. Namely, the magnitude of effective magnetic moment (per each Cr ion) was exponentially decreased with increasing the Cr contents. We attributed the decreased spontaneous magnetization to the degraded crystal magnetic anisotropy. In other words, we found out that the high concentration of magnetic ions causes the lattice distortion in the magnetic ion-doped thin film, and it consequently degrades ferromagnetic channeling in the solid-state material system.

Keywords: magnetization, thin film, sputtering, ferromagnetic properties, Cr-doped ZnO

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7 Measurement of Magnetic Properties of Grainoriented Electrical Steels at Low and High Fields Using a Novel Single

Authors: Nkwachukwu Chukwuchekwa, Joy Ulumma Chukwuchekwa


Magnetic characteristics of grain-oriented electrical steel (GOES) are usually measured at high flux densities suitable for its typical applications in power transformers. There are limited magnetic data at low flux densities which are relevant for the characterization of GOES for applications in metering instrument transformers and low frequency magnetic shielding in magnetic resonance imaging medical scanners. Magnetic properties such as coercivity, B-H loop, AC relative permeability and specific power loss of conventional grain oriented (CGO) and high permeability grain oriented (HGO) electrical steels were measured and compared at high and low flux densities at power magnetising frequency. 40 strips comprising 20 CGO and 20 HGO, 305 mm x 30 mm x 0.27 mm from a supplier were tested. The HGO and CGO strips had average grain sizes of 9 mm and 4 mm respectively. Each strip was singly magnetised under sinusoidal peak flux density from 8.0 mT to 1.5 T at a magnetising frequency of 50 Hz. The novel single sheet tester comprises a personal computer in which LabVIEW version 8.5 from National Instruments (NI) was installed, a NI 4461 data acquisition (DAQ) card, an impedance matching transformer, to match the 600  minimum load impedance of the DAQ card with the 5 to 20  low impedance of the magnetising circuit, and a 4.7 Ω shunt resistor. A double vertical yoke made of GOES which is 290 mm long and 32 mm wide is used. A 500-turn secondary winding, about 80 mm in length, was wound around a plastic former, 270 mm x 40 mm, housing the sample, while a 100-turn primary winding, covering the entire length of the plastic former was wound over the secondary winding. A standard Epstein strip to be tested is placed between the yokes. The magnetising voltage was generated by the LabVIEW program through a voltage output from the DAQ card. The voltage drop across the shunt resistor and the secondary voltage were acquired by the card for calculation of magnetic field strength and flux density respectively. A feedback control system implemented in LabVIEW was used to control the flux density and to make the induced secondary voltage waveforms sinusoidal to have repeatable and comparable measurements. The low noise NI4461 card with 24 bit resolution and a sampling rate of 204.8 KHz and 92 KHz bandwidth were chosen to take the measurements to minimize the influence of thermal noise. In order to reduce environmental noise, the yokes, sample and search coil carrier were placed in a noise shielding chamber. HGO was found to have better magnetic properties at both high and low magnetisation regimes. This is because of the higher grain size of HGO and higher grain-grain misorientation of CGO. HGO is better CGO in both low and high magnetic field applications.

Keywords: magnetization, labview, flux density, electrical steel

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6 Processing and Characterization of Oxide Dispersion Strengthened (ODS) Fe-14Cr-3W-0.5Ti-0.3Y₂O₃ (14YWT) Ferritic Steel

Authors: Farha Mizana Shamsudin, Shahidan Radiman, Yusof Abdullah, Nasri Abdul Hamid


Oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) ferritic steels are amongst the most promising candidates for large scale structural materials to be applied in next generation fission and fusion nuclear power reactors. This kind of material is relatively stable at high temperature, possess remarkable mechanical properties and comparatively good resistance from neutron radiation damage. The superior performance of ODS ferritic steels over their conventional properties is attributed to the high number density of nano-sized dispersoids that act as nucleation sites and stable sinks for many small helium bubbles resulting from irradiation, and also as pinning points to dislocation movement and grain growth. ODS ferritic steels are usually produced by powder metallurgical routes involving mechanical alloying (MA) process of Y2O3 and pre-alloyed or elemental metallic powders, and then consolidated by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) or hot extrusion (HE) techniques. In this study, Fe-14Cr-3W-0.5Ti-0.3Y₂O₃ (designated as 14YWT) was produced by mechanical alloying process and followed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) technique. Crystal structure and morphology of this sample were identified and characterized by using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) respectively. The magnetic measurement of this sample at room temperature was carried out by using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). FESEM micrograph revealed a homogeneous microstructure constituted by fine grains of less than 650 nm in size. The ultra-fine dispersoids of size between 5 nm to 19 nm were observed homogeneously distributed within the BCC matrix. The EDS mapping reveals that the dispersoids contain Y-Ti-O nanoclusters and from the magnetization curve plotted by VSM, this sample approaches the behavior of soft ferromagnetic materials. In conclusion, ODS Fe-14Cr-3W-0.5Ti-0.3Y₂O₃ (14YWT) ferritic steel was successfully produced by HIP technique in this present study.

Keywords: Microstructure, magnetization, hot isostatic pressing, ODS ferritic steel

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5 Boundary Layer Control Using a Magnetic Field: A Case Study in the Framework of Ferrohydrodynamics

Authors: C. F. Alegretti, F. R. Cunha, R. G. Gontijo


This work investigates the effects of an applied magnetic field on the geometry-driven boundary layer detachment flow of a ferrofluid over a sudden expansion. Both constitutive equation and global magnetization equation for a ferrofluid are considered. Therefore, the proposed formulation consists in a coupled magnetic-hydrodynamic problem. Computational simulations are carried out in order to explore, not only the viability to control flow instabilities, but also to evaluate the consistency of theoretical aspects. The unidirectional sudden expansion in a ferrofluid flow is investigated numerically under the perspective of Ferrohydrodynamics in a two-dimensional domain using a Finite Differences Method. The boundary layer detachment induced by the sudden expansion results in a recirculating zone, which has been extensively studied in non-magnetic hydrodynamic problems for a wide range of Reynolds numbers. Similar investigations can be found in literature regarding the sudden expansion under the magnetohydrodynamics framework, but none considering a colloidal suspension of magnetic particles out of the superparamagnetic regime. The vorticity-stream function formulation is implemented and results in a clear coupling between the flow vorticity and its magnetization field. Our simulations indicate a systematic decay on the length of the recirculation zone as increasing physical parameters of the flow, such as the intensity of the applied field and the volume fraction of particles. The results all are discussed from a physical point of view in terms of the dynamical non-dimensional parameters. We argue that the decrease/reduction in the recirculation region of the flow is a direct consequence of the magnetic torque balancing the action of the torque produced by viscous and inertial forces of the flow. For the limit of small Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds parameters, the diffusion of vorticity balances the diffusion of the magnetic torque on the flow. These mechanics control the growth of the recirculation region.

Keywords: magnetization, ferrofluid, sudden expansion, boundary layer detachment, ferrohydrodynamics

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4 Anti-Site Disorder Effects on the Magnetic Properties of Sm₂NiMnO₆ Thin Films

Authors: Geetanjali Singh, R. J. Choudhary, Anjana Dogra


Here we report the effects of anti-site disorder, present in the sample, on the magnetic properties of Sm₂NiMnO₆ (SNMO) thin films. To our best knowledge, there are no studies available on the thin films of SNMO. Thin films were grown using pulsed laser deposition technique on SrTiO₃ (STO) substrate under oxygen pressure of 800 mTorr. X-ray diffraction (XRD) profiles show that the film grown is epitaxial. Field cooled (FC) and zero field cooled (ZFC) magnetization curve increase as we decrease the temperature till ~135K. A broad dip was observed in both the curves below this temperature which is more dominating in ZFC curve. An additional sharp cusplike shape was observed at low temperature (~20 K) which is due to the re-entrant spin-glass like properties present in the sample. Super-exchange interaction between Ni²⁺-O-Mn⁴⁺ is attributed to the FM ordering in these samples. The spin-glass feature is due to anti-site disorder within the homogeneous sample which was stated to be due to the mixed valence states Ni³⁺ and Mn³⁺ present in the sample. Anti-site disorder was found to play very crucial role in different magnetic phases of the sample.

Keywords: magnetization, double perovskite, pulsed laser deposition, spin-glass

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3 Morphotropic Phase Boundary in Ferromagnets: Unusual Magnetoelastic Behavior In Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂

Authors: Adil Murtaza, Muhammad Tahir Khan, Awais Ghani, Chao Zhou, Sen Yang, Xiaoping Song


The morphotropic phase boundary (MPB); a boundary between two different crystallographic symmetries in the composition–temperature phase diagram has been widely studied in ferroelectrics and recently has drawn interest in ferromagnets for obtaining enhanced large field-induced strain. At MPB, the system gets a compressed free energy state, which allows the polarization to freely rotate and hence results in a high magnetoelastic response (e.g., high magnetization, low coercivity, and large magnetostriction). Based on the same mechanism, we designed MPB in a ferromagnetic Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ system. The temperature-dependent magnetization curves showed spin reorientation (SR); which can be explained by a two-sublattice model. Contrary to previously reported MPB involved ferromagnetic systems, the MPB composition of Tb₀.₃₅Nd₀.₆₅Co₂ exhibits a low saturation magnetization (MS), indicating a compensation of the Tb and Nd magnetic moments at MPB. The coercive field (HC) under a low magnetic field and first anisotropy constant (K₁) shows a minimum value at MPB composition of x=0.65. A detailed spin configuration diagram is provided for the Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ around the composition for the anisotropy compensation; this can guide the development of novel magnetostrictive materials. The anisotropic magnetostriction (λS) first decreased until x=0.8 and then continuously increased in the negative direction with further increase of Nd concentration. In addition, the large ratio between magnetostriction and the absolute values of the first anisotropy constant (λS/K₁) appears at MPB, indicating that Tb₀.₃₅Nd₀.₆₅Co₂ has good magnetostrictive properties. Present work shows an anomalous type of MPB in ferromagnetic materials, revealing that MPB can also lead to a weakening of magnetoelastic behavior as shown in the ferromagnetic Tb₁₋ₓNdₓCo₂ system. Our work shows the universal presence of MPB in ferromagnetic materials and suggests the differences between different ferromagnetic MPB systems that are important for substantial improvement of magnetic and magnetostrictive properties. Based on the results of this study, similar MPB effects might be achieved in other ferroic systems that can be used for technological applications. The finding of magnetic MPB in the ferromagnetic system leads to some important significances. First, it provides a better understanding of the fundamental concept of spin reorientation transitions (SRT) like ferro-ferro transitions are not only reorientation of magnetization but also crystal symmetry change upon magnetic ordering. Second, the flattened free energy corresponding to a low energy barrier for magnetization rotation and enhanced magnetoelastic response near MPB. Third, to attain large magnetostriction with MPB approach two terminal compounds have different easy magnetization directions below Curie temperature Tc in order to accomplish the weakening of magnetization anisotropy at MPB (as in ferroelectrics), thus easing the magnetic domain switching and the lattice distortion difference between two terminal compounds should be large enough, e.g., lattice distortion of R symmetry ˃˃ lattice distortion of T symmetry). So that the MPB composition agrees to a nearly isotropic state along with large ‘net’ lattice distortion, which is revealed in a higher value of magnetostriction.

Keywords: magnetization, Magnetostriction, Phase Transition, morphotropic phase boundary (MPB)

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2 Estimation of Particle Size Distribution Using Magnetization Data

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari


Magnetic nanoparticles possess fascinating properties which make their behavior unique in comparison to corresponding bulk materials. Superparamagnetism is one such interesting phenomenon exhibited only by small particles of magnetic materials. In this state, the thermal energy of particles become more than their magnetic anisotropy energy, and so particle magnetic moment vectors fluctuate between states of minimum energy. This situation is similar to paramagnetism of non-interacting ions and termed as superparamagnetism. The magnetization of such systems has been described by Langevin function. But, the estimated fit parameters, in this case, are found to be unphysical. It is due to non-consideration of particle size distribution. In this work, analysis of magnetization data on NiO nanoparticles is presented considering the effect of particle size distribution. Nanoparticles of NiO of two different sizes are prepared by heating freshly synthesized Ni(OH)₂ at different temperatures. Room temperature X-ray diffraction patterns confirm the formation of single phase of NiO. The diffraction lines are seen to be quite broad indicating the nanocrystalline nature of the samples. The average crystallite size are estimated to be about 6 and 8 nm. The samples are also characterized by transmission electron microscope. Magnetization of both sample is measured as function of temperature and applied magnetic field. Zero field cooled and field cooled magnetization are measured as a function of temperature to determine the bifurcation temperature. The magnetization is also measured at several temperatures in superparamagnetic region. The data are fitted to an appropriate expression considering a distribution in particle size following a least square fit procedure. The computer codes are written in PYTHON. The presented analysis is found to be very useful for estimating the particle size distribution present in the samples. The estimated distributions are compared with those determined from transmission electron micrographs.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, magnetization, anisotropy, superparamagnetism

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1 Magnetic Properties of Nickel Oxide Nanoparticles in Superparamagnetic State

Authors: Navneet Kaur, S. D. Tiwari


Superparamagnetism is an interesting phenomenon and observed in small particles of magnetic materials. It arises due to a reduction in particle size. In the superparamagnetic state, as the thermal energy overcomes magnetic anisotropy energy, the magnetic moment vector of particles flip their magnetization direction between states of minimum energy. Superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been attracting the researchers due to many applications such as information storage, magnetic resonance imaging, biomedical applications, and sensors. For information storage, thermal fluctuations lead to loss of data. So that nanoparticles should have high blocking temperature. And to achieve this, nanoparticles should have a higher magnetic moment and magnetic anisotropy constant. In this work, the magnetic anisotropy constant of the antiferromagnetic nanoparticles system is determined. Magnetic studies on nanoparticles of NiO (nickel oxide) are reported well. This antiferromagnetic nanoparticle system has high blocking temperature and magnetic anisotropy constant of order 105 J/m3. The magnetic study of NiO nanoparticles in the superparamagnetic region is presented. NiO particles of two different sizes, i.e., 6 and 8 nm, are synthesized using the chemical route. These particles are characterized by an x-ray diffractometer, transmission electron microscope, and superconducting quantum interference device magnetometry. The magnetization vs. applied magnetic field and temperature data for both samples confirm their superparamagnetic nature. The blocking temperature for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 200 and 172 K, respectively. Magnetization vs. applied magnetic field data of NiO is fitted to an appropriate magnetic expression using a non-linear least square fit method. The role of particle size distribution and magnetic anisotropy is taken in to account in magnetization expression. The source code is written in Python programming language. This fitting provides us the magnetic anisotropy constant for NiO and other magnetic fit parameters. The particle size distribution estimated matches well with the transmission electron micrograph. The value of magnetic anisotropy constants for 6 and 8 nm particles is found to be 1.42 X 105 and 1.20 X 105 J/m3, respectively. The obtained magnetic fit parameters are verified using the Neel model. It is concluded that the effect of magnetic anisotropy should not be ignored while studying the magnetization process of nanoparticles.

Keywords: Nanoparticle, magnetization, anisotropy, superparamagnetic

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