Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

magnetite Related Abstracts

4 Rapid and Efficient Removal of Lead from Water Using Chitosan/Magnetite Nanoparticles

Authors: Othman M. Hakami, Abdul Jabbar Al-Rajab

Abstract:

Occurrence of heavy metals in water resources increased in the recent years albeit at low concentrations. Lead (PbII) is among the most important inorganic pollutants in ground and surface water. However, removal of this toxic metal efficiently from water is of public and scientific concern. In this study, we developed a rapid and efficient removal method of lead from water using chitosan/magnetite nanoparticles. A simple and effective process has been used to prepare chitosan/magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) (CS/Mag NPs) with effect on saturation magnetization value; the particles were strongly responsive to an external magnetic field making separation from solution possible in less than 2 minutes using a permanent magnet and the total Fe in solution was below the detection limit of ICP-OES (<0.19 mg L-1). The hydrodynamic particle size distribution increased from an average diameter of ~60 nm for Fe3O4 NPs to ~75 nm after chitosan coating. The feasibility of the prepared NPs for the adsorption and desorption of Pb(II) from water were evaluated using Chitosan/Magnetite NPs which showed a high removal efficiency for Pb(II) uptake, with 90% of Pb(II) removed during the first 5 minutes and equilibrium in less than 10 minutes. Maximum adsorption capacities for Pb(II) occurred at pH 6.0 and under room temperature were as high as 85.5 mg g-1, according to Langmuir isotherm model. Desorption of adsorbed Pb on CS/Mag NPs was evaluated using deionized water at different pH values ranged from 1 to 7 which was an effective eluent and did not result the destruction of NPs, then, they could subsequently be reused without any loss of their activity in further adsorption tests. Overall, our results showed the high efficiency of chitosan/magnetite nanoparticles (NPs) in lead removal from water in controlled conditions, and further studies should be realized in real field conditions.

Keywords: Water, treatment, chitosan, magnetite

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3 Preparation of Superparamagnetic Functionalized Magnetite Nanoparticles for Magnetically Separable Catalysis

Authors: Priya Arora, Jaspreet K. Rajput

Abstract:

Superparamagnetism has accelerated the research and use of more economical and ecological magnetically separable catalysts due to their more efficient isolation by response to an applied magnetic field. Magnetite nanomaterials coated by SiO2 shell have received a great deal of focus in the last decades as it provides high stability and also easy further surface functionalization depending upon the application. In this protocol, Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles have been synthesized by co-precipitation combined with sonication method. Further, Fe3O4 superparamagnetic nanoparticles have been functionalized by various moieties to serve as efficient catalysts for multicomponent reactions. The functionalized nanoparticles were characterized by techniques like Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface area analysis. The as prepared nanocatalysts can be reused for several times without any significant loss in its activity. The utilization of magnetic nanoparticles as catalysts for this reaction is one approach i.e. green, inexpensive, facile and widely applicable.

Keywords: Multicomponent Reactions, functionalized, superparamagnetic, magnetite

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2 Evaluation of Cytotoxic Effect of Mitoxantrone Conjugated Magnetite Nanoparticles and Graphene Oxide-Magnetite Nanocomposites on Mesenchymal Stem Cells

Authors: Abbas Jafarizad, Duygu Ekinci

Abstract:

In this work targeted drug delivery is proposed to decrease adverse effect of drugs with concomitant reduces in consumption and treatment outgoings. Nanoparticles (NPs) can be prepared from a variety of materials such as lipid, biodegradable polymer that prevent the drugs cytotoxicity in healthy cells, etc. One of the most important drugs used in chemotherapy is mitoxantrone (MTX) which prevents cell proliferation by inhibition of topoisomerase II and DNA repair; however, it is not selective and has some serious side effects. In this study, mentioned aim is achieved by using several nanocarriers like magnetite (Fe3O4) and their composites with magnetic graphene oxide ([email protected]). Also, cytotoxic potential of Fe3O4, Fe3O4-MTX, and [email protected] nanocomposite were evaluated on mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). In this study, we reported the synthesis of monodisperse Fe3O4 NPs and [email protected] nanocomposite and their structures were investigated by using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, atomic force microscopy (AFM), Brauneur Emmet Teller (BET) isotherm and contact angle studies. Moreover, we used 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay to evaluate cytotoxic effects of MTX, Fe3O4 NPs, Fe3O4-MTX and [email protected] nanocomposite on MSCs. The in-vitro MTT results indicated that all concentrations of MTX and [email protected] nanocomposites showed cytotoxic effects while all concentrations of Fe3O4 NPs and Fe3O4-MTX NPs did not show any cytotoxic effect on stem cells. The results from this study indicated that using Fe3O4 NPs as anticancer drug delivery systems could be a trustworthy method for cancer treatment. But for reaching excellent and accurate results, further investigation is necessary.

Keywords: mesenchymal stem cells, MTT assay, magnetite, mitoxantrone, magnetic graphene oxide

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1 Bioinspired Green Synthesis of Magnetite Nanoparticles Using Room-Temperature Co-Precipitation: A Study of the Effect of Amine Additives on Particle Morphology in Fluidic Systems

Authors: Laura Norfolk, Georgina Zimbitas, Jan Sefcik, Sarah Staniland

Abstract:

Magnetite nanoparticles (MNP) have been an area of increasing research interest due to their extensive applications in industry, such as in carbon capture, water purification, and crucially, the biomedical industry. The use of MNP in the biomedical industry is rising, with studies on their effect as Magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, drug delivery systems, and as hyperthermic cancer treatments becoming prevalent in the nanomaterial research community. Particles used for biomedical purposes must meet stringent criteria; the particles must have consistent shape and size between particles. Variation between particle morphology can drastically alter the effective surface area of the material, making it difficult to correctly dose particles that are not homogeneous. Particles of defined shape such as octahedral and cubic have been shown to outperform irregular shaped particles in some applications, leading to the need to synthesize particles of defined shape. In nature, highly homogeneous MNP are found within magnetotactic bacteria, a unique bacteria capable of producing magnetite nanoparticles internally under ambient conditions. Biomineralisation proteins control the properties of the MNPs, enhancing their homogeneity. One of these proteins, Mms6, has been successfully isolated and used in vitro as an additive in room-temperature co-precipitation reactions (RTCP) to produce particles of defined mono-dispersed size & morphology. When considering future industrial scale-up it is crucial to consider the costs and feasibility of an additive, as an additive that is not readily available or easily synthesized at a competitive price will not be sustainable. As such, additives selected for this research are inspired by the functional groups of biomineralisation proteins, but cost-effective, environmentally friendly, and compatible with scale-up. Diethylenetriamine (DETA), triethylenetetramine (TETA), tetraethylenepentamine (TEPA), and pentaethylenehexamine (PEHA) have been successfully used in RTCP to modulate the properties of particles synthesized, leading to the formation of octahedral nanoparticles with no use of organic solvents, heating, or toxic precursors. By extending this principle to a fluidic system, ongoing research will reveal whether the amine additives can also exert morphological control in an environment which is suited toward higher particle yield. Two fluidic systems have been employed; a peristaltic turbulent flow mixing system suitable for the rapid production of MNP, and a macrofluidic system for the synthesis of tailored nanomaterials under a laminar flow regime. The presence of the amine additives in the turbulent flow system in initial results appears to offer similar morphological control as observed under RTCP conditions, with higher proportions of octahedral particles formed. This is a proof of concept which may pave the way to green synthesis of tailored MNP on an industrial scale. Mms6 and amine additives have been used in the macrofluidic system, with Mms6 allowing magnetite to be synthesized at unfavourable ferric ratios, but no longer influencing particle size. This suggests this synthetic technique while still benefiting from the addition of additives, may not allow additives to fully influence the particles formed due to the faster timescale of reaction. The amine additives have been tested at various concentrations, the results of which will be discussed in this paper.

Keywords: Green Synthesis, bioinspired, Scale-up, magnetite, fluidic, morphological control

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