Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Magnetic resonance imaging Related Abstracts

21 Evaluation of Longitudinal Relaxation Time (T1) of Bone Marrow in Lumbar Vertebrae of Leukaemia Patients Undergoing Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: M. G. R. S. Perera, B. S. Weerakoon, L. P. G. Sherminie, M. L. Jayatilake, R. D. Jayasinghe, W. Huang


The aim of this study was to measure and evaluate the Longitudinal Relaxation Times (T1) in bone marrow of an Acute Myeloid Leukaemia (AML) patient in order to explore the potential for a prognostic biomarker using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) which will be a non-invasive prognostic approach to AML. MR image data were collected in the DICOM format and MATLAB Simulink software was used in the image processing and data analysis. For quantitative MRI data analysis, Region of Interests (ROI) on multiple image slices were drawn encompassing vertebral bodies of L3, L4, and L5. T1 was evaluated using the T1 maps obtained. The estimated bone marrow mean value of T1 was 790.1 (ms) at 3T. However, the reported T1 value of healthy subjects is significantly (946.0 ms) higher than the present finding. This suggests that the T1 for bone marrow can be considered as a potential prognostic biomarker for AML patients.

Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging, acute myeloid leukaemia, longitudinal relaxation time, prognostic biomarker

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20 Magnetic Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWCNTs) as Novel Theranostic Nanocarriers: Enhanced Targeting and Noninvasive MRI Tracking

Authors: Achraf Al Faraj, Asma Sultana Shaik, Baraa Al Sayed


Specific and effective targeting of drug delivery systems (DDS) to cancerous sites remains a major challenge for a better diagnostic and therapy. Recently, SWCNTs with their unique physicochemical properties and the ability to cross the cell membrane show promising in the biomedical field. The purpose of this study was first to develop a biocompatible iron oxide tagged SWCNTs as diagnostic nanoprobes to allow their noninvasive detection using MRI and their preferential targeting in a breast cancer murine model by placing an optimized flexible magnet over the tumor site. Magnetic targeting was associated to specific antibody-conjugated SWCNTs active targeting. The therapeutic efficacy of doxorubicin-conjugated SWCNTs was assessed, and the superiority of diffusion-weighted (DW-) MRI as sensitive imaging biomarker was investigated. Short Polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) stabilized water soluble SWCNTs were first developed, tagged with iron oxide nanoparticles and conjugated with Endoglin/CD105 monoclonal antibodies. They were then conjugated with doxorubicin drugs. SWCNTs conjugates were extensively characterized using TEM, UV-Vis spectrophotometer, dynamic light scattering (DLS) zeta potential analysis and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy. Their MR relaxivities (i.e. r1 and r2*) were measured at 4.7T and their iron content and metal impurities quantified using ICP-MS. SWCNTs biocompatibility and drug efficacy were then evaluated both in vitro and in vivo using a set of immunological assays. Luciferase enhanced bioluminescence 4T1 mouse mammary tumor cells (4T1-Luc2) were injected into the right inguinal mammary fat pad of Balb/c mice. Tumor bearing mice received either free doxorubicin (DOX) drug or SWCNTs with or without either DOX or iron oxide nanoparticles. A multi-pole 10x10mm high-energy flexible magnet was maintained over the tumor site during 2 hours post-injections and their properties and polarity were optimized to allow enhanced magnetic targeting of SWCNTs toward the primary tumor site. Tumor volume was quantified during the follow-up investigation study using a fast spin echo MRI sequence. In order to detect the homing of SWCNTs to the main tumor site, susceptibility-weighted multi-gradient echo (MGE) sequence was used to generate T2* maps. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) measurements were also performed as a sensitive imaging biomarker providing early and better assessment of disease treatment. At several times post-SWCNT injection, histological analysis were performed on tumor extracts and iron-loaded SWCNT were quantified using ICP-MS in tumor sites, liver, spleen, kidneys, and lung. The optimized multi-poles magnet revealed an enhanced targeting of magnetic SWCNTs to the primary tumor site, which was found to be much higher than the active targeting achieved using antibody-conjugated SWCNTs. Iron-loading allowed their sensitive noninvasive tracking after intravenous administration using MRI. The active targeting of doxorubicin through magnetic antibody-conjugated SWCNTs nanoprobes was found to considerably decrease the primary tumor site and may have inhibited the development of metastasis in the tumor-bearing mice lung. ADC measurements in DW-MRI were found to significantly increase in a time-dependent manner after the injection of DOX-conjugated SWCNTs complexes.

Keywords: Nanomedicine, Magnetic resonance imaging, single-walled carbon nanotubes, cancer diagnosis and therapy

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19 MRI R2* of Liver in an Animal Model

Authors: Jo-Chi Jao, Po-Chou Chen, Chiung-Yun Chang, Jiun-Shiang Tzeng, Ka-Wai Mac, Chia-Chi Hsiao


This study aimed to measure R2* relaxation rates in the liver of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. R2* relaxation rate has been widely used in various hepatic diseases for iron overload by quantifying iron contents in liver. R2* relaxation rate is defined as the reciprocal of T2* relaxation time and mainly depends on the composition of tissue. Different tissues would have different R2* relaxation rates. The signal intensity decay in Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be characterized by R2* relaxation rates. In this study, a 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MR scanner equipped with an 8-channel high resolution knee coil was used to observe R2* values in NZW rabbit’s liver and muscle. Eight healthy NZW rabbits weighted 2 ~ 2.5 kg were recruited. After anesthesia using Zoletil 50 and Rompun 2% mixture, the abdomen of rabbit was landmarked at the center of knee coil to perform 3-plane localizer scan using fast spoiled gradient echo (FSPGR) pulse sequence. Afterward, multi-planar fast gradient echo (MFGR) scans were performed with 8 various echo times (TEs) (2/4/6/8/10/12/14/16 ms) to acquire images for R2* calculations. Regions of interest (ROIs) at liver and muscle were measured using Advantage workstation. Finally, the R2* was obtained by a linear regression of ln(SI) on TE. The results showed that the longer the echo time, the smaller the signal intensity. The R2* values of liver and muscle were 44.8  10.9 s-1 and 37.4  9.5 s-1, respectively. It implies that the iron concentration of liver is higher than that of muscle. In conclusion, R2* is correlated with iron contents in tissue. The correlations between R2* and iron content in NZW rabbit might be valuable for further exploration.

Keywords: Liver, Muscle, Magnetic resonance imaging, R2* relaxation rate

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18 Monitoring the Effect of Doxorubicin Liposomal in VX2 Tumor Using Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Jo-Chi Jao, Po-Chou Chen, Ren-Jy Ben, Chiu-Ya Liao, Ya-Ru Tsai, Lain-Chyr Hwang


Cancer is still one of the serious diseases threatening the lives of human beings. How to have an early diagnosis and effective treatment for tumors is a very important issue. The animal carcinoma model can provide a simulation tool for the study of pathogenesis, biological characteristics and therapeutic effects. Recently, drug delivery systems have been rapidly developed to effectively improve the therapeutic effects. Liposome plays an increasingly important role in clinical diagnosis and therapy for delivering a pharmaceutic or contrast agent to the targeted sites. Liposome can be absorbed and excreted by the human body, and is well known that no harm to the human body. This study aimed to compare the therapeutic effects between encapsulated (doxorubicin liposomal, LipoDox) and un-encapsulated (doxorubicin, Dox) anti-tumor drugs using Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI). Twenty-four New Zealand rabbits implanted with VX2 carcinoma at left thigh were classified into three groups: control group (untreated), Dox-treated group and LipoDox-treated group, 8 rabbits for each group. MRI scans were performed three days after tumor implantation. A 1.5T GE Signa HDxt whole body MRI scanner with a high resolution knee coil was used in this study. After a 3-plane localizer scan was performed, Three-Dimensional (3D) Fast Spin Echo (FSE) T2-Weighted Images (T2WI) was used for tumor volumetric quantification. And Two-Dimensional (2D) spoiled gradient recalled echo (SPGR) dynamic Contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI was used for tumor perfusion evaluation. DCE-MRI was designed to acquire four baseline images, followed by contrast agent Gd-DOTA injection through the ear vein of rabbits. Afterwards, a series of 32 images were acquired to observe the signals change over time in the tumor and muscle. The MRI scanning was scheduled on a weekly basis for a period of four weeks to observe the tumor progression longitudinally. The Dox and LipoDox treatments were prescribed 3 times in the first week immediately after VX2 tumor implantation. ImageJ was used to quantitate tumor volume and time course signal enhancement on DCE images. The changes of tumor size showed that the growth of VX2 tumors was effectively inhibited for both LipoDox-treated and Dox-treated groups. Furthermore, the tumor volume of LipoDox-treated group was significantly lower than that of Dox-treated group, which implies that LipoDox has better therapeutic effect than Dox. The signal intensity of LipoDox-treated group is significantly lower than that of the other two groups, which implies that targeted therapeutic drug remained in the tumor tissue. This study provides a radiation-free and non-invasive MRI method for therapeutic monitoring of targeted liposome on an animal tumor model.

Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging, doxorubicin, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, lipodox, VX2 tumor model

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17 Mineralized Nanoparticles as a Contrast Agent for Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Jae Won Lee, Kyung Hyun Min, Hong Jae Lee, Sang Cheon Lee


To date, imaging techniques have attracted much attention in medicine because the detection of diseases at an early stage provides greater opportunities for successful treatment. Consequently, over the past few decades, diverse imaging modalities including magnetic resonance (MR), positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and ultrasound (US) have been developed and applied widely in the field of clinical diagnosis. However, each of the above-mentioned imaging modalities possesses unique strengths and intrinsic weaknesses, which limit their abilities to provide accurate information. Therefore, multimodal imaging systems may be a solution that can provide improved diagnostic performance. Among the current medical imaging modalities, US is a widely available real-time imaging modality. It has many advantages including safety, low cost and easy access for patients. However, its low spatial resolution precludes accurate discrimination of diseased region such as cancer sites. In contrast, MR has no tissue-penetrating limit and can provide images possessing exquisite soft tissue contrast and high spatial resolution. However, it cannot offer real-time images and needs a comparatively long imaging time. The characteristics of these imaging modalities may be considered complementary, and the modalities have been frequently combined for the clinical diagnostic process. Biominerals such as calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium phosphate (CaP) exhibit pH-dependent dissolution behavior. They demonstrate pH-controlled drug release due to the dissolution of minerals in acidic pH conditions. In particular, the application of this mineralization technique to a US contrast agent has been reported recently. The CaCO3 mineral reacts with acids and decomposes to generate calcium dioxide (CO2) gas in an acidic environment. These gas-generating mineralized nanoparticles generated CO2 bubbles in the acidic environment of the tumor, thereby allowing for strong echogenic US imaging of tumor tissues. On the basis of this previous work, it was hypothesized that the loading of MR contrast agents into the CaCO3 mineralized nanoparticles may be a novel strategy in designing a contrast agent for dual imaging. Herein, CaCO3 mineralized nanoparticles that were capable of generating CO2 bubbles to trigger the release of entrapped MR contrast agents in response to tumoral acidic pH were developed for the purposes of US and MR dual-modality imaging of tumors. Gd2O3 nanoparticles were selected as an MR contrast agent. A key strategy employed in this study was to prepare Gd2O3 nanoparticle-loaded mineralized nanoparticles (Gd2O3-MNPs) using block copolymer-templated CaCO3 mineralization in the presence of calcium cations (Ca2+), carbonate anions (CO32-) and positively charged Gd2O3 nanoparticles. The CaCO3 core was considered suitable because it may effectively shield Gd2O3 nanoparticles from water molecules in the blood (pH 7.4) before decomposing to generate CO2 gas, triggering the release of Gd2O3 nanoparticles in tumor tissues (pH 6.4~7.4). The kinetics of CaCO3 dissolution and CO2 generation from the Gd2O3-MNPs were examined as a function of pH and pH-dependent in vitro magnetic relaxation; additionally, the echogenic properties were estimated to demonstrate the potential of the particles for the tumor-specific US and MR imaging.

Keywords: Ultrasound Imaging, Magnetic resonance imaging, Mineralization, calcium carbonate

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16 Minimal Incision Cochlear Implantation in Congenital Abnormality: A Case Report

Authors: Munish Saroch, Amit Saini


Introduction: Many children with congenital malformation of inner ear have undergone cochlear implant (CI) surgery. The results for cochlear implant surgery in these children are very encouraging and provide a ray of hope for these patients. Objective: The main objective of this presentation is to prove that even in Mondini’s deformity Minimal incision cochlear implantation improves cosmesis, reduces post-operative infection and earliest switch on of device. Methods: We report a case of two-year-old child suffering from Mondini’s deformity who underwent CI with minimal incision cochlear implantation (MICI). MICI has been developed with the aims of reducing the impact of surgery on the patient without any preoperative shaving of hairs. Results: Patient after surgery with MICI showed better looking postauricular scar, low post-operative morbidity in comparison to conventional wider access approach and hence earliest switch on of device (1st post operative day). Conclusion: We are of opinion that MICI is safe and successful in Mondini’s deformity.

Keywords: MRI, Magnetic resonance imaging, SCI, Hearing loss, Cochlear implant, MICI, Minimal Incision Cochlear Implantation, HRCT, High Resolution Computer Tomography, Standard cochlear implantation

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15 Uncommon Causes of Acute Abdominal Pain: A Pictorial Essay

Authors: Mahesh Hariharan, Rajan Balasubramaniam, Sharath Kumar Shetty, Shanthala Yadavalli, Mohammed Ahetasham, Sravya Devarapalli


Acute abdomen is one of the most common clinical conditions requiring a radiological investigation. Ultrasound is the primary modality of choice which can diagnose some of the common causes of acute abdomen. However, sometimes the underlying cause for the pain is far more complicated than expected to mandate a high degree of suspicion to suggest further investigation with contrast-enhanced computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Here, we have compiled a comprehensive series of selected cases to highlight the conditions which can be easily overlooked unless carefully sought for. This also emphasizes the importance of multimodality approach to arrive at the final diagnosis with an increased overall diagnostic accuracy which in turn improves patient management and prognosis.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Magnetic resonance imaging, acute abdomen, contrast-enhanced computed tomography scan, plain radiographs

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14 Connecting MRI Physics to Glioma Microenvironment: Comparing Simulated T2-Weighted MRI Models of Fixed and Expanding Extracellular Space

Authors: Pamela R. Jackson, Andrea Hawkins-Daarud, Cassandra R. Rickertsen, Kamala Clark-Swanson, Scott A. Whitmire, Kristin R. Swanson


Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM), the most common primary brain tumor, often presents with hyperintensity on T2-weighted or T2-weighted fluid attenuated inversion recovery (T2/FLAIR) magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This hyperintensity corresponds with vasogenic edema, however there are likely many infiltrating tumor cells within the hyperintensity as well. While MRIs do not directly indicate tumor cells, MRIs do reflect the microenvironmental water abnormalities caused by the presence of tumor cells and edema. The inherent heterogeneity and resulting MRI features of GBMs complicate assessing disease response. To understand how hyperintensity on T2/FLAIR MRI may correlate with edema in the extracellular space (ECS), a multi-compartmental MRI signal equation which takes into account tissue compartments and their associated volumes with input coming from a mathematical model of glioma growth that incorporates edema formation was explored. The reasonableness of two possible extracellular space schema was evaluated by varying the T2 of the edema compartment and calculating the possible resulting T2s in tumor and peripheral edema. In the mathematical model, gliomas were comprised of vasculature and three tumor cellular phenotypes: normoxic, hypoxic, and necrotic. Edema was characterized as fluid leaking from abnormal tumor vessels. Spatial maps of tumor cell density and edema for virtual tumors were simulated with different rates of proliferation and invasion and various ECS expansion schemes. These spatial maps were then passed into a multi-compartmental MRI signal model for generating simulated T2/FLAIR MR images. Individual compartments’ T2 values in the signal equation were either from literature or estimated and the T2 for edema specifically was varied over a wide range (200 ms – 9200 ms). T2 maps were calculated from simulated images. T2 values based on simulated images were evaluated for regions of interest (ROIs) in normal appearing white matter, tumor, and peripheral edema. The ROI T2 values were compared to T2 values reported in literature. The expanding scheme of extracellular space is had T2 values similar to the literature calculated values. The static scheme of extracellular space had a much lower T2 values and no matter what T2 was associated with edema, the intensities did not come close to literature values. Expanding the extracellular space is necessary to achieve simulated edema intensities commiserate with acquired MRIs.

Keywords: Mathematical Modeling, Magnetic resonance imaging, glioblastoma multiforme, extracellular space

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13 An Advanced Automated Brain Tumor Diagnostics Approach

Authors: Berkan Ural, Arif Eser, Sinan Apaydin


Medical image processing is generally become a challenging task nowadays. Indeed, processing of brain MRI images is one of the difficult parts of this area. This study proposes a hybrid well-defined approach which is consisted from tumor detection, extraction and analyzing steps. This approach is mainly consisted from a computer aided diagnostics system for identifying and detecting the tumor formation in any region of the brain and this system is commonly used for early prediction of brain tumor using advanced image processing and probabilistic neural network methods, respectively. For this approach, generally, some advanced noise removal functions, image processing methods such as automatic segmentation and morphological operations are used to detect the brain tumor boundaries and to obtain the important feature parameters of the tumor region. All stages of the approach are done specifically with using MATLAB software. Generally, for this approach, firstly tumor is successfully detected and the tumor area is contoured with a specific colored circle by the computer aided diagnostics program. Then, the tumor is segmented and some morphological processes are achieved to increase the visibility of the tumor area. Moreover, while this process continues, the tumor area and important shape based features are also calculated. Finally, with using the probabilistic neural network method and with using some advanced classification steps, tumor area and the type of the tumor are clearly obtained. Also, the future aim of this study is to detect the severity of lesions through classes of brain tumor which is achieved through advanced multi classification and neural network stages and creating a user friendly environment using GUI in MATLAB. In the experimental part of the study, generally, 100 images are used to train the diagnostics system and 100 out of sample images are also used to test and to check the whole results. The preliminary results demonstrate the high classification accuracy for the neural network structure. Finally, according to the results, this situation also motivates us to extend this framework to detect and localize the tumors in the other organs.

Keywords: Pattern Recognition, Neural Network, Magnetic resonance imaging, image processing algorithms

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12 Computer-Aided Diagnosis System Based on Multiple Quantitative Magnetic Resonance Imaging Features in the Classification of Brain Tumor

Authors: Chih Jou Hsiao, Chung Ming Lo, Li Chun Hsieh


Brain tumor is not the cancer having high incidence rate, but its high mortality rate and poor prognosis still make it as a big concern. On clinical examination, the grading of brain tumors depends on pathological features. However, there are some weak points of histopathological analysis which can cause misgrading. For example, the interpretations can be various without a well-known definition. Furthermore, the heterogeneity of malignant tumors is a challenge to extract meaningful tissues under surgical biopsy. With the development of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), tumor grading can be accomplished by a noninvasive procedure. To improve the diagnostic accuracy further, this study proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on MRI features to provide suggestions of tumor grading. Gliomas are the most common type of malignant brain tumors (about 70%). This study collected 34 glioblastomas (GBMs) and 73 lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) from The Cancer Imaging Archive. After defining the region-of-interests in MRI images, multiple quantitative morphological features such as region perimeter, region area, compactness, the mean and standard deviation of the normalized radial length, and moment features were extracted from the tumors for classification. As results, two of five morphological features and three of four image moment features achieved p values of <0.001, and the remaining moment feature had p value <0.05. Performance of the CAD system using the combination of all features achieved the accuracy of 83.18% in classifying the gliomas into LGG and GBM. The sensitivity is 70.59% and the specificity is 89.04%. The proposed system can become a second viewer on clinical examinations for radiologists.

Keywords: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, gliomas, Magnetic resonance imaging, brain tumor

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11 Optimization of Surface Coating on Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Xiao-Li Liu, Ling-Yun Zhao, Xing-Jie Liang, Hai-Ming Fan


Owing to their unique properties, magnetic nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for biomedical applications. Highly monodispersed magnetic nanoparticles with controlled particle size and surface coating have been successfully synthesized as a model system to investigate the effect of surface coating on the T2 relaxivity and specific absorption rate (SAR) under an alternating magnetic field, respectively. Amongst, by using mPEG-g-PEI to solubilize oleic-acid capped 6 nm magnetic nanoparticles, the T2 relaxivity could be significantly increased by up to 4-fold as compared to PEG coated nanoparticles. Moreover, it largely enhances the cell uptake with a T2 relaxivity of 92.6 mM-1s-1 for in vitro cell MRI. As for hyperthermia agent, SAR value increase with the decreased thickness of PEG surface coating. By elaborate optimization of surface coating and particle size, a significant increase of SAR (up to 74%) could be achieved with a minimal variation on the saturation magnetization (<5%). The 19 nm magnetic nanoparticles with 2000 Da PEG exhibited the highest SAR of 930 W•g-1 among the samples, which can be maintained in various simulated physiological conditions. This systematic work provides a general strategy for the optimization of surface coating of magnetic core for high performance MRI contrast agent and hyperthermia agent.

Keywords: Surface modification, Magnetic Hyperthermia, magnetic nanoparticles, Magnetic resonance imaging

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10 Connectomic Correlates of Cerebral Microhemorrhages in Mild Traumatic Brain Injury Victims with Neural and Cognitive Deficits

Authors: Kenneth A. Rostowsky, Alexander S. Maher, Nahian F. Chowdhury, Andrei Irimia


The clinical significance of cerebral microbleeds (CMBs) due to mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) remains unclear. Here we use magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and connectomic analysis to investigate the statistical association between mTBI-related CMBs, post-TBI changes to the human connectome and neurological/cognitive deficits. This study was undertaken in agreement with US federal law (45 CFR 46) and was approved by the Institutional Review Board (IRB) of the University of Southern California (USC). Two groups, one consisting of 26 (13 females) mTBI victims and another comprising 26 (13 females) healthy control (HC) volunteers were recruited through IRB-approved procedures. The acute Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was available for each mTBI victim (mean µ = 13.2; standard deviation σ = 0.4). Each HC volunteer was assigned a GCS of 15 to indicate the absence of head trauma at the time of enrollment in our study. Volunteers in the HC and mTBI groups were matched according to their sex and age (HC: µ = 67.2 years, σ = 5.62 years; mTBI: µ = 66.8 years, σ = 5.93 years). MRI [including T1- and T2-weighted volumes, gradient recalled echo (GRE)/susceptibility weighted imaging (SWI)] and gradient echo (GE) DWI volumes were acquired using the same MRI scanner type (Trio TIM, Siemens Corp.). Skull-stripping and eddy current correction were implemented. DWI volumes were processed in TrackVis ( and 3D Slicer ( Tensors were fit to DWI data to perform DTI, and tractography streamlines were then reconstructed using deterministic tractography. A voxel classifier was used to identify image features as CMB candidates using Microbleed Anatomic Rating Scale (MARS) guidelines. For each peri-lesional DTI streamline bundle, the null hypothesis was formulated as the statement that there was no neurological or cognitive deficit associated with between-scan differences in the mean FA of DTI streamlines within each bundle. The statistical significance of each hypothesis test was calculated at the α = 0.05 level, subject to the family-wise error rate (FWER) correction for multiple comparisons. Results: In HC volunteers, the along-track analysis failed to identify statistically significant differences in the mean FA of DTI streamline bundles. In the mTBI group, significant differences in the mean FA of peri-lesional streamline bundles were found in 21 out of 26 volunteers. In those volunteers where significant differences had been found, these differences were associated with an average of ~47% of all identified CMBs (σ = 21%). In 12 out of the 21 volunteers exhibiting significant FA changes, cognitive functions (memory acquisition and retrieval, top-down control of attention, planning, judgment, cognitive aspects of decision-making) were found to have deteriorated over the six months following injury (r = -0.32, p < 0.001). Our preliminary results suggest that acute post-TBI CMBs may be associated with cognitive decline in some mTBI patients. Future research should attempt to identify mTBI patients at high risk for cognitive sequelae.

Keywords: traumatic brain injury, Magnetic resonance imaging, diffusion tensor imaging, connectomics

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9 An Aptasensor Based on Magnetic Relaxation Switch and Controlled Magnetic Separation for the Sensitive Detection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Authors: Fei Jia, Xiaowei Zhang, Xingjian Bai, Wenjie Yan, Ruitong Dai, Xingmin Li, Jozef Kokini


Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a Gram-negative, aerobic, opportunistic human pathogen that is present in the soil, water, and food. This microbe has been recognized as a representative food-borne spoilage bacterium that can lead to many types of infections. Considering the casualties and property loss caused by P. aeruginosa, the development of a rapid and reliable technique for the detection of P. aeruginosa is crucial. The whole-cell aptasensor, an emerging biosensor using aptamer as a capture probe to bind to the whole cell, for food-borne pathogens detection has attracted much attention due to its convenience and high sensitivity. Here, a low-field magnetic resonance imaging (LF-MRI) aptasensor for the rapid detection of P. aeruginosa was developed. The basic detection principle of the magnetic relaxation switch (MRSw) nanosensor lies on the ‘T₂-shortening’ effect of magnetic nanoparticles in NMR measurements. Briefly speaking, the transverse relaxation time (T₂) of neighboring water protons get shortened when magnetic nanoparticles are clustered due to the cross-linking upon the recognition and binding of biological targets, or simply when the concentration of the magnetic nanoparticles increased. Such shortening is related to both the state change (aggregation or dissociation) and the concentration change of magnetic nanoparticles and can be detected using NMR relaxometry or MRI scanners. In this work, two different sizes of magnetic nanoparticles, which are 10 nm (MN₁₀) and 400 nm (MN₄₀₀) in diameter, were first immobilized with anti- P. aeruginosa aptamer through 1-Ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC)/N-hydroxysuccinimide (NHS) chemistry separately, to capture and enrich the P. aeruginosa cells. When incubating with the target, a ‘sandwich’ (MN₁₀-bacteria-MN₄₀₀) complex are formed driven by the bonding of MN400 with P. aeruginosa through aptamer recognition, as well as the conjugate aggregation of MN₁₀ on the surface of P. aeruginosa. Due to the different magnetic performance of the MN₁₀ and MN₄₀₀ in the magnetic field caused by their different saturation magnetization, the MN₁₀-bacteria-MN₄₀₀ complex, as well as the unreacted MN₄₀₀ in the solution, can be quickly removed by magnetic separation, and as a result, only unreacted MN₁₀ remain in the solution. The remaining MN₁₀, which are superparamagnetic and stable in low field magnetic field, work as a signal readout for T₂ measurement. Under the optimum condition, the LF-MRI platform provides both image analysis and quantitative detection of P. aeruginosa, with the detection limit as low as 100 cfu/mL. The feasibility and specificity of the aptasensor are demonstrated in detecting real food samples and validated by using plate counting methods. Only two steps and less than 2 hours needed for the detection procedure, this robust aptasensor can detect P. aeruginosa with a wide linear range from 3.1 ×10² cfu/mL to 3.1 ×10⁷ cfu/mL, which is superior to conventional plate counting method and other molecular biology testing assay. Moreover, the aptasensor has a potential to detect other bacteria or toxins by changing suitable aptamers. Considering the excellent accuracy, feasibility, and practicality, the whole-cell aptasensor provides a promising platform for a quick, direct and accurate determination of food-borne pathogens at cell-level.

Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging, P. aeruginosa, meat spoilage, transverse relaxation time

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8 Malignancy Assessment of Brain Tumors Using Convolutional Neural Network

Authors: Chung-Ming Lo, Kevin Li-Chun Hsieh


The central nervous system in the World Health Organization defines grade 2, 3, 4 gliomas according to the aggressiveness. For brain tumors, using image examination would have a lower risk than biopsy. Besides, it is a challenge to extract relevant tissues from biopsy operation. Observing the whole tumor structure and composition can provide a more objective assessment. This study further proposed a computer-aided diagnosis (CAD) system based on a convolutional neural network to quantitatively evaluate a tumor's malignancy from brain magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 30 grade 2, 43 grade 3, and 57 grade 4 gliomas were collected in the experiment. Transferred parameters from AlexNet were fine-tuned to classify the target brain tumors and achieved an accuracy of 98% and an area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (Az) of 0.99. Without pre-trained features, only 61% of accuracy was obtained. The proposed convolutional neural network can accurately and efficiently classify grade 2, 3, and 4 gliomas. The promising accuracy can provide diagnostic suggestions to radiologists in the clinic.

Keywords: Computer-Aided Diagnosis, Magnetic resonance imaging, glioblastoma, convolutional neural network

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7 Mapping Iron Content in the Brain with Magnetic Resonance Imaging and Machine Learning

Authors: Gabrielle Robertson, Matthew Downs, Joseph Dagher


Iron deposition in the brain has been linked with a host of neurological disorders such as Alzheimer’s, Parkinson’s, and Multiple Sclerosis. While some treatment options exist, there are no objective measurement tools that allow for the monitoring of iron levels in the brain in vivo. An emerging Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) method has been recently proposed to deduce iron concentration through quantitative measurement of magnetic susceptibility. This is a multi-step process that involves repeated modeling of physical processes via approximate numerical solutions. For example, the last two steps of this Quantitative Susceptibility Mapping (QSM) method involve I) mapping magnetic field into magnetic susceptibility and II) mapping magnetic susceptibility into iron concentration. Process I involves solving an ill-posed inverse problem by using regularization via injection of prior belief. The end result from Process II highly depends on the model used to describe the molecular content of each voxel (type of iron, water fraction, etc.) Due to these factors, the accuracy and repeatability of QSM have been an active area of research in the MRI and medical imaging community. This work aims to estimate iron concentration in the brain via a single step. A synthetic numerical model of the human head was created by automatically and manually segmenting the human head on a high-resolution grid (640x640x640, 0.4mm³) yielding detailed structures such as microvasculature and subcortical regions as well as bone, soft tissue, Cerebral Spinal Fluid, sinuses, arteries, and eyes. Each segmented region was then assigned tissue properties such as relaxation rates, proton density, electromagnetic tissue properties and iron concentration. These tissue property values were randomly selected from a Probability Distribution Function derived from a thorough literature review. In addition to having unique tissue property values, different synthetic head realizations also possess unique structural geometry created by morphing the boundary regions of different areas within normal physical constraints. This model of the human brain is then used to create synthetic MRI measurements. This is repeated thousands of times, for different head shapes, volume, tissue properties and noise realizations. Collectively, this constitutes a training-set that is similar to in vivo data, but larger than datasets available from clinical measurements. This 3D convolutional U-Net neural network architecture was used to train data-driven Deep Learning models to solve for iron concentrations from raw MRI measurements. The performance was then tested on both synthetic data not used in training as well as real in vivo data. Results showed that the model trained on synthetic MRI measurements is able to directly learn iron concentrations in areas of interest more effectively than other existing QSM reconstruction methods. For comparison, models trained on random geometric shapes (as proposed in the Deep QSM method) are less effective than models trained on realistic synthetic head models. Such an accurate method for the quantitative measurement of iron deposits in the brain would be of important value in clinical studies aiming to understand the role of iron in neurological disease.

Keywords: Machine Learning, MRI, Magnetic resonance imaging, iron deposition, quantitative susceptibility mapping

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6 Comparison of the Classification of Cystic Renal Lesions Using the Bosniak Classification System with Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound and Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Computed Tomography: A Prospective Study

Authors: Dechen Tshering Vogel, Johannes T. Heverhagen, Bernard Kiss, Spyridon Arampatzis


In addition to computed tomography (CT), contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are being increasingly used for imaging of renal lesions. The aim of this prospective study was to compare the classification of complex cystic renal lesions using the Bosniak classification with CEUS and MRI to CT. Forty-eight patients with 65 cystic renal lesions were included in this study. All participants signed written informed consent. The agreement between the Bosniak classifications of complex renal lesions ( ≥ BII-F) on CEUS and MRI were compared to that of CT and were tested using Cohen’s Kappa. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV/NPV) and the accuracy of CEUS and MRI compared to CT in the detection of complex renal lesions were calculated. Twenty-nine (45%) out of 65 cystic renal lesions were classified as complex using CT. The agreement between CEUS and CT in the classification of complex cysts was fair (agreement 50.8%, Kappa 0.31), and was excellent between MRI and CT (agreement 93.9%, Kappa 0.88). Compared to CT, MRI had a sensitivity of 96.6%, specificity of 91.7%, a PPV of 54.7%, and an NPV of 54.7% with an accuracy of 63.1%. The corresponding values for CEUS were sensitivity 100.0%, specificity 33.3%, PPV 90.3%, and NPV 97.1% with an accuracy 93.8%. The classification of complex renal cysts based on MRI and CT scans correlated well, and MRI can be used instead of CT for this purpose. CEUS can exclude complex lesions, but due to higher sensitivity, cystic lesions tend to be upgraded. However, it is useful for initial imaging, for follow up of lesions and in those patients with contraindications to CT and MRI.

Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging, Computed Tomography, Bosniak classification, contrast enhanced ultrasound, cystic renal lesions

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5 Managing the Magnetic Protection of Workers in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

Authors: Aya Al Masri, Safoin Aktaou, Malorie Martin, Fouad Maaloul, Kamel Guerchouche


Introduction: In the ‘Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)’ department, all workers involved in preparing the patient, setting it up, tunnel cleaning, etc. are likely to be exposed to ‘ElectroMagnetic fields (EMF)’ emitted by the MRI device. Exposure to EMF can cause adverse radio-biological effects to workers. The purpose of this study is to propose an organizational process to manage and control EMF risks. Materials and methods: The study was conducted at seven MRI departments using machines with 1.5 and 3 Tesla magnetic fields. We assessed the exposure of each one by measuring the two electromagnetic fields (static and dynamic) at different distances from the MRI machine both inside and around the examination room. Measurement values were compared with British and American references (those of the UK's ‘Medicines and Healthcare Regulatory Agency (MHRA)’ and the ‘American Radiology Society (ACR)’). Results: Following the results of EMF measurements and their comparison with the recommendations of learned societies, a zoning system that adapts to needs of different MRI services across the country has been proposed. In effect, three risk areas have been identified within the MRI services. This has led to the development of a good practice guide related to the magnetic protection of MRI workers. Conclusion: The guide established by our study is a standard that allows MRI workers to protect themselves against the risk of electromagnetic fields.

Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging, comparison with international references, measurement of electromagnetic fields, magnetic protection of workers

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4 Intracranial Hypotension: A Brief Review of the Pathophysiology and Diagnostic Algorithm

Authors: Ana Bermudez de Castro Muela, Xiomara Santos Salas, Silvia Cayon Somacarrera


The aim of this review is to explain what is the intracranial hypotension and its main causes, and also to approach to the diagnostic management in the different clinical situations, understanding radiological findings, and physiopathological substrate. An approach to the diagnostic management is presented: what are the guidelines to follow, the different tests available, and the typical findings. We review the myelo-CT and myelo-RM studies in patients with suspected CSF fistula or hypotension of unknown cause during the last 10 years in three centers. Signs of intracranial hypotension (subdural hygromas/hematomas, pachymeningeal enhancement, venous sinus engorgement, pituitary hyperemia, and lowering of the brain) that are evident in baseline CT and MRI are also sought. The intracranial hypotension is defined as a lower opening pressure of 6 cmH₂O. It is a relatively rare disorder with an annual incidence of 5 per 100.000, with a female to male ratio 2:1. The clinical features it’s an orthostatic headache, which is defined as development or aggravation of headache when patients move from a supine to an upright position and disappear or typically relieve after lay down. The etiology is a decrease in the amount of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), usually by loss of it, either spontaneous or secondary (post-traumatic, post-surgical, systemic disease, post-lumbar puncture etc.) and rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea may exist. The pathophysiological mechanisms of hypotension and CSF hypertension are interrelated, as a situation of hypertension may lead to hypotension secondary to spontaneous CSF leakage. The diagnostic management of intracranial hypotension in our center includes, in the case of being spontaneous and without rhinorrhea and/or otorrhea and according to necessity, a range of available tests, which will be performed from less to more complex: cerebral CT, cerebral MRI and spine without contrast and CT/MRI with intrathecal contrast. If we are in a situation of intracranial hypotension with the presence of rhinorrhea/otorrhea, a sample can be obtained for the detection of b2-transferrin, which is found in the CSF physiologically, as well as sinus CT and cerebral MRI including constructive interference steady state (CISS) sequences. If necessary, cisternography studies are performed to locate the exact point of leakage. It is important to emphasize the significance of myelo-CT / MRI to establish the diagnosis and location of CSF leak, which is indispensable for therapeutic planning (whether surgical or not) in patients with more than one lesion or doubts in the baseline tests.

Keywords: Magnetic resonance imaging, cerebrospinal fluid, neuroradiology brain, fistula

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3 Quantification and Evaluation of Tumors Heterogeneity Utilizing Multimodality Imaging

Authors: Ramin Ghasemi Shayan, Morteza Janebifam


Tumors are regularly inhomogeneous. Provincial varieties in death, metabolic action, multiplication and body part are watched. There’s expanding proof that strong tumors may contain subpopulations of cells with various genotypes and phenotypes. These unmistakable populaces of malignancy cells can connect during a serious way and may contrast in affectability to medications. Most tumors show organic heterogeneity1–3 remembering heterogeneity for genomic subtypes, varieties inside the statement of development variables and genius, and hostile to angiogenic factors4–9 and varieties inside the tumoural microenvironment. These can present as contrasts between tumors in a few people. for instance, O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase, a DNA fix compound, is hushed by methylation of the quality advertiser in half of glioblastoma (GBM), adding to chemosensitivity, and improved endurance. From the outset, there includes been specific enthusiasm inside the usage of dissemination weighted imaging (DWI) and dynamic complexity upgraded MRI (DCE-MRI). DWI sharpens MRI to water dispersion inside the extravascular extracellular space (EES) and is wiped out with the size and setup of the cell populace. Additionally, DCE-MRI utilizes dynamic obtaining of pictures during and after the infusion of intravenous complexity operator. Signal changes are additionally changed to outright grouping of differentiation permitting examination utilizing pharmacokinetic models. PET scan modality gives one of a kind natural particularity, permitting dynamic or static imaging of organic atoms marked with positron emanating isotopes (for example, 15O, 18F, 11C). The strategy is explained to a colossal radiation portion, which points of confinement rehashed estimations, particularly when utilized together with PC tomography (CT). At long last, it's of incredible enthusiasm to quantify territorial hemoglobin state, which could be joined with DCE-CT vascular physiology estimation to create significant experiences for understanding tumor hypoxia.

Keywords: Heterogeneity, Magnetic resonance imaging, PET, computerized tomography scan

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2 O-(2-18F-Fluoroethyl)-L-Tyrosine Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography in Patients with Suspicious Recurrent Low and High-Grade Glioma

Authors: Habibollah Dadgar, Mahkameh Asadi


The precise definition margin of high and low-grade glioma is crucial for choosing best treatment approach after surgery and radio-chemotherapy. The aim of the current study was to assess the O-(2-18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (18F-FET) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) in patients with low (LGG) and high grade glioma (HGG). We retrospectively analyzed 18F-FET PET/CT of 10 patients (age: 33 ± 12 years) with suspicious for recurrent LGG and HGG. The final decision of recurrence was made by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and registered clinical data. While response to radio-chemotherapy by MRI is often complex and sophisticated due to the edema, necrosis, and inflammation, emerging amino acid PET leading to better interpretations with more specifically differentiate true tumor boundaries from equivocal lesions. Therefore, integrating amino acid PET in the management of glioma to complement MRI will significantly improve early therapy response assessment, treatment planning, and clinical trial design.

Keywords: Positron Emission Tomography, Magnetic resonance imaging, amino acid positron emission tomography, low and high grade glioma

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1 Skull Extraction for Quantification of Brain Volume in Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Multiple Sclerosis Patients

Authors: Marcela de Oliveira, Marina P. Da Silva, Fernando C. G. Da Rocha, Jorge M. Santos, Jaime S. Cardoso, Paulo N. Lisboa-Filho


Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is an immune-mediated disease of the central nervous system characterized by neurodegeneration, inflammation, demyelination, and axonal loss. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), due to the richness in the information details provided, is the gold standard exam for diagnosis and follow-up of neurodegenerative diseases, such as MS. Brain atrophy, the gradual loss of brain volume, is quite extensive in multiple sclerosis, nearly 0.5-1.35% per year, far off the limits of normal aging. Thus, the brain volume quantification becomes an essential task for future analysis of the occurrence atrophy. The analysis of MRI has become a tedious and complex task for clinicians, who have to manually extract important information. This manual analysis is prone to errors and is time consuming due to various intra- and inter-operator variability. Nowadays, computerized methods for MRI segmentation have been extensively used to assist doctors in quantitative analyzes for disease diagnosis and monitoring. Thus, the purpose of this work was to evaluate the brain volume in MRI of MS patients. We used MRI scans with 30 slices of the five patients diagnosed with multiple sclerosis according to the McDonald criteria. The computational methods for the analysis of images were carried out in two steps: segmentation of the brain and brain volume quantification. The first image processing step was to perform brain extraction by skull stripping from the original image. In the skull stripper for MRI images of the brain, the algorithm registers a grayscale atlas image to the grayscale patient image. The associated brain mask is propagated using the registration transformation. Then this mask is eroded and used for a refined brain extraction based on level-sets (edge of the brain-skull border with dedicated expansion, curvature, and advection terms). In the second step, the brain volume quantification was performed by counting the voxels belonging to the segmentation mask and converted in cc. We observed an average brain volume of 1469.5 cc. We concluded that the automatic method applied in this work can be used for the brain extraction process and brain volume quantification in MRI. The development and use of computer programs can contribute to assist health professionals in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. In future works, we expect to implement more automated methods for the assessment of cerebral atrophy and brain lesions quantification, including machine-learning approaches. Acknowledgements: This work was supported by a grant from Brazilian agency Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (number 2019/16362-5).

Keywords: Multiple Sclerosis, Magnetic resonance imaging, brain volume, skull stripper

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