Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 13

Magnetic Related Abstracts

13 Magnetic Biomaterials for Removing Organic Pollutants from Wastewater

Authors: L. Obeid, A. Bee, D. Talbot, S. Abramson, M. Welschbillig

Abstract:

The adsorption process is one of the most efficient methods to remove pollutants from wastewater provided that suitable adsorbents are used. In order to produce environmentally safe adsorbents, natural polymers have received increasing attention in recent years. Thus, alginate and chitosane are extensively used as inexpensive, non-toxic and efficient biosorbents. Alginate is an anionic polysaccharide extracted from brown seaweeds. Chitosan is an amino-polysaccharide; this cationic polymer is obtained by deacetylation of chitin the major constituent of crustaceans. Furthermore, it has been shown that the encapsulation of magnetic materials in alginate and chitosan beads facilitates their recovery from wastewater after the adsorption step, by the use of an external magnetic field gradient, obtained with a magnet or an electromagnet. In the present work, we have studied the adsorption affinity of magnetic alginate beads and magnetic chitosan beads (called magsorbents) for methyl orange (MO) (an anionic dye), methylene blue (MB) (a cationic dye) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) (a hydrophobic pollutant). The effect of different parameters (pH solution, contact time, pollutant initial concentration…) on the adsorption of pollutant on the magnetic beads was investigated. The adsorption of anionic and cationic pollutants is mainly due to electrostatic interactions. Consequently methyl orange is highly adsorbed by chitosan beads in acidic medium and methylene blue by alginate beads in basic medium. In the case of a hydrophobic pollutant, which is weakly adsorbed, we have shown that the adsorption is enhanced by adding a surfactant. Cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), a cationic surfactant, was used to increase the adsorption of PNP by magnetic alginate beads. Adsorption of CPC by alginate beads occurs through two mechanisms: (i) electrostatic attractions between cationic head groups of CPC and negative carboxylate functions of alginate; (ii) interaction between the hydrocarbon chains of CPC. The hydrophobic pollutant is adsolubilized within the surface aggregated structures of surfactant. Figure c shows that PNP can reach up to 95% of adsorption in presence of CPC. At highest CPC concentrations, desorption occurs due to the formation of micelles in the solution. Our magsorbents appear to efficiently remove ionic and hydrophobic pollutants and we hope that this fundamental research will be helpful for the future development of magnetically assisted processes in water treatment plants.

Keywords: Magnetic, Adsorption, alginate, chitosan, magsorbent, organic pollutant

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12 Synthesis and Characterization of Zeolite/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite Material and Investigation of Its Catalytic Reaction

Authors: Mojgan Zendehdel, Safura Molla Mohammad Zamani

Abstract:

In this paper, Fe3O4/NaY zeolite nanocomposite with different molar ratio were successfully synthesized and characterized using FT-IR, XRD, TGA, SEM and VSM techniques. The SEM graphs showed that much of Fe3O4 was successfully coated by the NaY zeolite layer. Also, the results show that the magnetism of the products is stable with added zeolite. The catalytic effect of nanocomposite investigated for esterification reaction under solvent-free conditions. Hence, the effect of the catalyst amount, reaction time, reaction temperature and reusability of catalyst were considered and nanocomposite that created from zeolite and 16.6 percent of Fe3O4 showed the highest yield. The catalyst can be easily separated from reaction with the magnet and it can also be used for several times.

Keywords: Magnetic, Zeolite, esterification, nanocompsite

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11 Integrated Electric Resistivity Tomography and Magnetic Techniques in a Mineralization Zone, Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan

Authors: Khalid M. Kheiralla, Georgios Boutsis, Mohammed Y. Abdelgalil, Mohammed A. Ali, Nuha E. Mohamed

Abstract:

The present study focus on integrated geoelectrical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. By itself, no geophysical anomaly can simply be correlated with lithology, instead, magnetic and ERT anomalies raised due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks which were extremely useful in mineral exploration.

Keywords: Magnetic, Mineralization, ERT, sudan, Red Sea

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10 Poly (N-Isopropyl Acrylamide-Co-Acrylic Acid)-Graft-Polyaspartate Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Molecular Imaging and Therapy

Authors: Van Tran Thi Thuy, Dukjoon Kim

Abstract:

A series of pH- and thermosensitive poly(N-isopropyl acrylamide-co-acrylic acid) were synthesized by radical polymerization and grafted on poly succinimide backbones. The poly succinimide derivatives synthesized were coated on iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles for potential applications in drug delivery systems with theranostic and molecular imaging. The structure of polymer shell was confirmed by FT-IR, H-NMR spectroscopies. Its thermal behavior was tested by UV-Vis spectroscopy. The particle size and its distribution are measured by dynamic light scattering (DLS) and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The mean diameter of the core-shell structure is from 20 to 80 nm.

Keywords: Magnetic, Nano, PNIPAM, polysuccinimide

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9 Analysis of Magnetic Anomaly Data for Identification Structure in Subsurface of Geothermal Manifestation at Candi Umbul Area, Magelang, Central Java Province, Indonesia

Authors: N. A. Kharisa, I. Wulandari, R. Narendratama, M. I. Faisal, K. Kirana, R. Zipora, I. Arfiansah, I. Suyanto

Abstract:

Acquisition of geophysical survey with magnetic method has been done in manifestation of geothermalat Candi Umbul, Grabag, Magelang, Central Java Province on 10-12 May 2013. This objective research is interpretation to interpret structural geology that control geothermal system in CandiUmbul area. The research has been finished with area size 1,5 km x 2 km and measurement space of 150 m. And each point of line space survey is 150 m using PPM Geometrics model G-856. Data processing was started with IGRF and diurnal variation correction to get total magnetic field anomaly. Then, advance processing was done until reduction to pole, upward continuation, and residual anomaly. That results become next interpretation in qualitative step. It is known that the biggest object position causes low anomaly located in central of area survey that comes from hot spring manifestation and demagnetization zone that indicates the existence of heat source activity. Then, modeling the anomaly map was used for quantitative interpretation step. The result of modeling is rock layers and geological structure model that can inform about the geothermal system. And further information from quantitative interpretations can be interpreted about lithology susceptibility. And lithology susceptibilities are andesiteas heat source has susceptibility value of (k= 0.00014 emu), basaltic as alteration rock (k= 0.0016 emu), volcanic breccia as reservoir rock (k= 0.0026 emu), andesite porfirtic as cap rock (k= 0.004 emu), lava andesite (k= 0.003 emu), and alluvium (k= 0.0007 emu). The hot spring manifestation is controlled by the normal fault which becomes a weak zone, easily passed by hot water which comes from the geothermal reservoir.

Keywords: Magnetic, Geological Structure, Susceptibility, geothermal system

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8 Efficient Synthesis of Calix[4]Pyrroles Catalyzed by Powerful and Magnetically Recoverable Fe3O4 Nanoparticles

Authors: Renu Gautam, S. M. S. Chauhan

Abstract:

The magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles has been used as an efficient and facile acid catalyst for the synthesis of calix[4]pyrrole in moderate to excellent yields by the one pot condensation of different ketones and pyrrole. The catalyst was easily recovered using external magnet and reused over several cycles without losing its catalytic activity.

Keywords: Magnetic, Catalysis, calix[4]pyrrole, Fe3O4 nanoparticles

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7 Integrated ERT and Magnetic Surveys in a Mineralization Zone in Erkowit, Red Sea State, Sudan

Authors: N. E. Mohamed, K. M. Kheiralla, M. A. Ali, M. Y. Abdelgalil, G. Boutsis

Abstract:

The present study focus on integrated geophysical surveys carried out in the mineralization zone in Erkowit region, Eastern Sudan to determine the extensions of the potential ore deposits on the topographically high hilly area and under the cover of alluvium along the nearby wadi and to locate other occurrences if any. The magnetic method (MAG) and the electrical resistivity tomography (ERT) were employed for the survey. Eleven traverses were aligned approximately at right angles to the general strike of the rock formations. The disseminated sulfides are located on the alteration shear zone which is composed of granitic and dioritic highly ferruginated rock occupying the southwestern and central parts of the area, this was confirmed using thin and polished sections mineralogical analysis. The magnetic data indicates low magnetic values for wadi sedimentary deposits in its southern part of the area, and high anomalies which are suspected as gossans due to magnetite formed during wall rock alteration consequent to mineralization. The significant ERT images define low resistivity zone as traced as sheared zones which may associated with the main loci of ore deposition. The study designates that correlation of magnetic and ERT anomalies with lithology are extremely useful in mineral exploration due to variations in some specific physical properties of rocks.

Keywords: Magnetic, Mineralization, ERT, sudan, Red Sea

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6 Investigation the Photocatalytic Properties of Fe3O4-TiO2 Nanocomposites Prepared by Sonochemical Method

Authors: Zh. Saffari, A. Naeimi, M. S. Ekrami-Kakhki, F. Hamidi

Abstract:

Fe3O4 is one of the important magnetic oxides with spinel structure; it has exhibited unique electric and magnetic properties based on the electron transfer between Fe2+ and Fe3+ in the octahedral sites. Fe3O4 has received considerable attention in various areas such as cancer therapy, drug targeting, enzyme immobilization catalysis, magnetic cell separation, magnetic refrigeration systems and super-paramagnetic materials Fe3O4–TiO2 nanostructures were synthesized by simple, effective and new co-precipitation method assisted by ultrasonic reaction at room temperatures with organic surfactant. The effect of various parameters such as temperature, time, and power on the size and morphology of the product was investigated. Alternating gradient force magnetometer shows that Fe3O4 nanoparticles exhibit super-paramagnetic behaviour at room temperature. For preparation of nanocomposite, 1 g of TiO2 nanostructures were dispersed in 100 mL of ethanol. 0.25 g of Fe(NO3)2 and 2 mL of octanoic acid was added to the solution as a surfactant. Then, NaOH solution (1.5 M) was slowly added into the solution until the pH of the mixture was 7–8. After complete precipitation, the solution placed under the ultrasonic irradiation for 30 min. The product was centrifuged, washed with distilled water and dried in an oven at 100 °C for 3 h. The resulting red powder was calcinated at 800 °C for 3 h to remove any organic residue. The photocatalytic behaviour of Fe3O4–TiO2 nanoparticles was evaluated using the degradation of a Methyl Violet (MV) aqueous solution under ultraviolet light irradiation. As time increased, more and more MV was adsorbed on the nanoparticles catalyst, until the absorption peak vanish. The MV concentration decreased rapidly with increasing UV-irradiation time

Keywords: Magnetic, nanocomposite, methyl violet, photocatalytic

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5 Magnetofluidics for Mass Transfer and Mixing Enhancement in a Micro Scale Device

Authors: Majid Hejazian, Nam-Trung Nguyen

Abstract:

Over the past few years, microfluidic devices have generated significant attention from industry and academia due to advantages such as small sample volume, low cost and high efficiency. Microfluidic devices have applications in chemical, biological and industry analysis and can facilitate assay of bio-materials and chemical reactions, separation, and sensing. Micromixers are one of the important microfluidic concepts. Micromixers can work as stand-alone devices or be integrated in a more complex microfluidic system such as a lab on a chip (LOC). Micromixers are categorized as passive and active types. Passive micromixers rely only on the arrangement of the phases to be mixed and contain no moving parts and require no energy. Active micromixers require external fields such as pressure, temperature, electric and acoustic fields. Rapid and efficient mixing is important for many applications such as biological, chemical and biochemical analysis. Achieving fast and homogenous mixing of multiple samples in the microfluidic devices has been studied and discussed in the literature recently. Improvement in mixing rely on effective mass transport in microscale, but are currently limited to molecular diffusion due to the predominant laminar flow in this size scale. Using magnetic field to elevate mass transport is an effective solution for mixing enhancement in microfluidics. The use of a non-uniform magnetic field to improve mass transfer performance in a microfluidic device is demonstrated in this work. The phenomenon of mixing ferrofluid and DI-water streams has been reported before, but mass transfer enhancement for other non-magnetic species through magnetic field have not been studied and evaluated extensively. In the present work, permanent magnets were used in a simple microfluidic device to create a non-uniform magnetic field. Two streams are introduced into the microchannel: one contains fluorescent dye mixed with diluted ferrofluid to induce enhanced mass transport of the dye, and the other one is a non-magnetic DI-water stream. Mass transport enhancement of fluorescent dye is evaluated using fluorescent measurement techniques. The concentration field is measured for different flow rates. Due to effect of magnetic field, a body force is exerted on the paramagnetic stream and expands the ferrofluid stream into non-magnetic DI-water flow. The experimental results demonstrate that without a magnetic field, both magnetic nanoparticles of the ferrofluid and the fluorescent dye solely rely on molecular diffusion to spread. The non-uniform magnetic field, created by the permanent magnets around the microchannel, and diluted ferrofluid can improve mass transport of non-magnetic solutes in a microfluidic device. The susceptibility mismatch between the fluids results in a magnetoconvective secondary flow towards the magnets and subsequently the mass transport of the non-magnetic fluorescent dye. A significant enhancement in mass transport of the fluorescent dye was observed. The platform presented here could be used as a microfluidics-based micromixer for chemical and biological applications.

Keywords: Microfluidics, Magnetic, mass transfer, ferrofluid, micromixer

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4 Development of Imprinting and Replica Molding of Soft Mold Curved Surface

Authors: Chia-Chi Chang, Yung-Jin Weng, Chun-Yu Tsai

Abstract:

This paper is focused on the research of imprinting and replica molding of quasi-grey scale soft mold curved surface microstructure mold. In this paper, a magnetic photocuring forming system is first developed and built independently, then the magnetic curved surface microstructure soft mode is created; moreover, the magnetic performance of the magnetic curved surface at different heights is tested and recorded, and through experimentation and simulation, the magnetic curved surface microstructure soft mold is used in the research of quasi-grey scale soft mold curved surface microstructure imprinting and replica molding. The experimental results show that, under different surface curvatures and voltage control conditions, different quasi-grey scale array microstructures take shape. In addition, this paper conducts research on the imprinting and replica molding of photoresist composite magnetic powder in order to discuss the forming performance of magnetic photoresist, and finally, the experimental result is compared with the simulation to obtain more accurate prediction and results. This research is predicted to provide microstructure component preparation technology with heterogeneity and controllability, and is a kind of valid shaping quasi-grey scale microstructure manufacturing technology method.

Keywords: Magnetic, Microstructure, soft mold, curved surface

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3 Application of Magnetic-Nano Photocatalyst for Removal of Xenobiotic Compounds

Authors: KAVITA SHAH, Prashant K. Sharma

Abstract:

In recent years, the photochemistry of nanomagnetic particles is being utilized for the removal of various pollutants. In the current era where large quantities of various xenobiotic compounds are released in the environment some of which are highly toxic are being used routinely by industries and consumers. Extensive use of these chemicals provides greater risk to plants, animals and human population which has been reviewed from time to time. Apart from the biological degradation, photochemical removal holds considerable promise for the abatement of these pesticides in wastewaters. This paper reviews the photochemical removal of xenobiotic compounds. It is evident from the review that removal depends on several factors such as pH of the solution, catalysts loading, initial concentration, light intensity and so on and so forth. Since the xenobiotics are ubiquitously present in the wastewaters, photochemical technology seems imperative to alleviate the pollution problems associated with the xenobiotics. However, commercial application of this technology has to be clearly assessed.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Magnetic, photocatalayst, xenobiotic compounds

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2 Preparation of Magnetic Hydroxyapatite Composite by Wet Chemical Process for Phycobiliproteins Adsorption

Authors: Ruey-Chi Wang, Shu-Jen Chen, Yi-Chien Wan

Abstract:

Hydroxyapatite (Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, HAp) can be applied to the fabrication of bone replacement materials, the composite of dental filling, and the adsorption of biomolecules and dyes. The integration of HAp and magnetic materials would offer several advantages for bio-separation process because the magnetic adsorbents is capable of recovered by applied magnetic field. C-phycocyanin (C-PC) and Allophycocyanin (APC), isolated from Spirulina platensis, can be used in fluorescent labeling probes, health care foods and clinical diagnostic reagents. Although the purification of C-PC and APC are reported by HAp adsorption, the adsorption of C-PC and APC by magnetic HAp composites was not reported yet. Therefore, the fabrication of HAp with magnetic silica nanoparticles for proteins adsorption was investigated in this work. First, the magnetic silica particles were prepared by covering silica layer on Fe3O4 nanoparticles with a reverse micelle method. Then, the [email protected] nanoparticles were mixed with calcium carbonate to obtain magnetic silica/calcium carbonate composites ([email protected]/CaCO3). The [email protected]/CaCO3 was further reacted with K2HPO4 for preparing the magnetic silica/hydroxyapatite composites ([email protected]/HAp). The adsorption experiments indicated that the adsorption capacity of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC were highest at pH 6. The adsorption of C-PC and APC by [email protected]/HAp could be correlated by the pseudo-second-order model, indicating chemical adsorption dominating the adsorption process. Furthermore, the adsorption data showed that the adsorption of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC followed the Langmuir isotherm. The isoelectric points of C-PC and APC were around 5.0. Additionally, the zeta potential data showed the [email protected]/HAp composite was negative charged at pH 6. Accordingly, the adsorption mechanism of [email protected]/HAp toward C-PC and APC should be governed by hydrogen bonding rather than electrostatic interaction. On the other hand, as compared to C-PC, the [email protected]/HAp shows higher adsorption affinity toward APC. Although the [email protected]/HAp cannot recover C-PC and APC from Spirulina platensis homogenate, the [email protected]/HAp can be applied to separate C-PC and APC.

Keywords: Magnetic, hydroxyapatite, c-phycocyanin, allophycocyanin

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1 Electronic Structure Studies of Mn Doped La₀.₈Bi₀.₂FeO₃ Multiferroic Thin Film Using Near-Edge X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure

Authors: Ravi Kumar, Ghazala Anjum, Farooq Hussain Bhat

Abstract:

Multiferroic materials are vital for new application and memory devices, not only because of the presence of multiple types of domains but also as a result of cross correlation between coexisting forms of magnetic and electrical orders. In spite of wide studies done on multiferroic bulk ceramic materials their realization in thin film form is yet limited due to some crucial problems. During the last few years, special attention has been devoted to synthesis of thin films like of BiFeO₃. As they allow direct integration of the material into the device technology. Therefore owing to the process of exploration of new multiferroic thin films, preparation, and characterization of La₀.₈Bi₀.₂Fe₀.₇Mn₀.₃O₃ (LBFMO3) thin film on LaAlO₃ (LAO) substrate with LaNiO₃ (LNO) being the buffer layer has been done. The fact that all the electrical and magnetic properties are closely related to the electronic structure makes it inevitable to study the electronic structure of system under study. Without the knowledge of this, one may never be sure about the mechanism responsible for different properties exhibited by the thin film. Literature review reveals that studies on change in atomic and the hybridization state in multiferroic samples are still insufficient except few. The technique of x-ray absorption (XAS) has made great strides towards the goal of providing such information. It turns out to be a unique signature to a given material. In this milieu, it is time honoured to have the electronic structure study of the elements present in the LBFMO₃ multiferroic thin film on LAO substrate with buffer layer of LNO synthesized by RF sputtering technique. We report the electronic structure studies of well characterized LBFMO3 multiferroic thin film on LAO substrate with LNO as buffer layer using near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS). Present exploration has been performed to find out the valence state and crystal field symmetry of ions present in the system. NEXAFS data of O K- edge spectra reveals a slight shift in peak position along with growth in intensities of low energy feature. Studies of Mn L₃,₂- edge spectra indicates the presence of Mn³⁺/Mn⁴⁺ network apart from very small contribution from Mn²⁺ ions in the system that substantiates the magnetic properties exhibited by the thin film. Fe L₃,₂- edge spectra along with spectra of reference compound reveals that Fe ions are present in +3 state. Electronic structure and valence state are found to be in accordance with the magnetic properties exhibited by LBFMO/LNO/LAO thin film.

Keywords: Magnetic, multiferroic, NEXAFS, x-ray absorption fine structure, XMCD, x-ray magnetic circular dichroism

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