Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 27

Magnetic Properties Related Abstracts

27 Investigation on Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Transition Metals Doped Zinc Selenide

Authors: S. Bentata, W. Benstaali, A. Abbad, H. A. Bentounes, B. Bouadjemi

Abstract:

The full potential linear augmented plane wave (FPLAPW) based on density-functional theory (DFT) is employed to study the electronic, magnetic and optical properties of some transition metals doped ZnSe. Calculations are carried out by varying the doped atoms. Four 3D transition elements were used as a dopant: Cr, Mn, Co and Cu in order to induce spin polarization. Our results show that, Mn and Cu-doped ZnSe could be used in spintronic devices only if additional dopants are introduced, on the contrary, transition elements showing delocalized quality such as Cr, and Co doped ZnSe might be promising candidates for application in spintronic.

Keywords: Composite Materials, Magnetic Properties, Transition Metal, spin-up, spin-down

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26 Spin-Polarized Investigation of Ferromagnetism on Magnetic Semiconductors MnxCa1-xS in the Rock-salt Phase

Authors: M. A. Ghebouli, H. Choutri, M. Fatmi, B. Ghebouli, L. Louail

Abstract:

The structural, elastic, electronic and magnetic properties of the diluted magnetic semiconductors MnxCa1-xS in the rock-salt phase have been investigated using first-principles calculations. Features such as lattice constant, bulk modulus, elastic constants, spin-polarized band structure, total and local densities of states have been computed. We predict the values of the exchange constants and the band edge spin splitting of the valence and conduction bands. The hybridization between S-3p and Mn-3d produces small local magnetic moment on the nonmagnetic Ca and S sites. The ferromagnetism is induced due to the exchange splitting of S-3p and Mn-3d hybridized bands. The total magnetic moment per Mn of MnxCa1-xS is 4.4µB and is independent of the Mn concentration. The unfilled Mn -3d levels reduce the local magnetic moment of Mn from its free space charge value of 5µB to 4.4µB due to 3p–3d hybridization.

Keywords: Semiconductors, Magnetic Properties, Ab Initio Calculations, band-structure

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25 Spin-Polarized Structural, Electronic and Magnetic Properties of Intermetallic Dy2Ni2Pb from Computational Study

Authors: Y. Benallou, K. Amara, O. Arbouche

Abstract:

We report a first-principles study of structural, electronic and magnetic properties of ternary plumbides (rare earth-transition metal-Plumb) Dy2Ni2Pb crystallizes with the orthorhombic structure of the Mn2AlB2 type (space group Cmmm), were studied by means of the full-relativistic version of the full-potential augmented plane wave plus local orbital method within the frame work of spin-polarized density functional theory (SP-DFT). The electronic exchange-correlation energy is described by generalized gradient approximation (GGA). We have calculated the lattice parameters, bulk modulii and the first pressure derivatives of the bulk modulii, total densities of states and magnetic properties. The calculated total magnetic moment is found to be equal to 9.52 μB.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Density Functional Theory, spin-polarized, Dy2Ni2Pb

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24 Structural Magnetic Properties of Multiferroic (BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x Ceramics

Authors: Mohammad Shariq, Davinder Kaur

Abstract:

A series of multiferroic (BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x [x= 0, 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5] solid solution ceramics were synthesised by conventional solid-state reaction method. Well crystalline phase has been optimized at sintering temperature of 950°C for 2 hours. X rays diffraction studies of these ceramics revealed the existence of a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) region in this system, which exhibits co-existence of rhombohedral and tetragonal phase with a large tetragonality (c/a ratio) in the tetragonal phase region. The average grain size of samples was found to be between 1-1.5 µm. The M-H curve revealed the BiFeO3 (BFO) as antiferromanetic material whereas, induced weak ferromagnetism was observed for (BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x composites with x=0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4 and 0.5 at temperature of 5 K. The results evidenced the destruction of a space-modulated spin structure in bulk materials, via substituent effects, releasing a latent magnetization locked within the cycloid. Relative to unmodified BiFeO3, modified BiFeO3-PbTiO3 -based ceramics revealed enhancement in the electric-field-induced polarization.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, BiFeO3)1−x(PbTiO3)x ceramic, multiferroic, SQUID

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23 Stabilization of Transition Metal Chromite Nanoparticles in Silica Matrix

Authors: J. Vejpravova, J. Plocek, P. Holec, S. Kubickova, B. Pacakova, I. Matulkova, A. Mantlikova, I. Němec, D. Niznansky

Abstract:

This article presents summary on preparation and characterization of zinc, copper, cadmium and cobalt chromite nano crystals, embedded in an amorphous silica matrix. The ZnCr2O4/SiO2, CuCr2O4/SiO2, CdCr2O4/SiO2 and CoCr2O4/SiO2 nano composites were prepared by a conventional sol-gel method under acid catalysis. Final heat treatment of the samples was carried out at temperatures in the range of 900–1200 °C to adjust the phase composition and the crystallite size, respectively. The resulting samples were characterized by Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM), Raman/FTIR spectroscopy and magnetic measurements. Formation of the spinel phase was confirmed in all samples. The average size of the nano crystals was determined from the PXRD data and by direct particle size observation on HRTEM; both results were correlated. The mean particle size (reviewed by HRTEM) was in the range from ~ 4 to 46 nm. The results showed that the sol-gel method can be effectively used for preparation of the spinel chromite nano particles embedded in the silica matrix and the particle size is driven by the type of the cation A2+ in the spinel structure and the temperature of the final heat treatment. Magnetic properties of the nano crystals were found to be just moderately modified in comparison to the bulk phases.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Magnetic Properties, Raman spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, Sol-Gel Method, spinel, Rietveld refinement, chromite

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22 Size Dependent Magnetic Properties of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x = 0.1) Spinel Ferrite Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method

Authors: R. S. Yadav, I. Kuritka, J. Havlica, Z. Kozakova, J. Masilko, M. Hajdúchová, V. Enev, J. Wasserbauer

Abstract:

In this work, the effect of particle size on the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel auto combustion method was investigated. The different sized CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite nanoparticles were achieved after annealing at different temperature 500, 700 and 900 oC. The structural phases, crystallite size and lattice parameter of synthesized ferrite nanoparticles were estimated from X-ray diffraction studies. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study demonstrated increase in particle size with increase of annealing temperature. Raman spectroscopy study indicated the change in octahedral and tetrahedral site related Raman modes in Gd3+ ions doped cobalt ferrite nanoparticles. An infrared spectroscopy study showed the presence of two absorption bands in the frequency range around 580 cm-1 (ν1) and around 340 cm-1 (ν2); which indicated the presence of tetrahedral and octahedral group complexes, respectively, within the spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Vibrating Sample magnetometer study showed that the saturation magnetization and coercivity changes with particle size of CoFe2-xGdxO4 (x =0.1) spinel ferrite.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Magnetic Properties, Sol-Gel Synthesis, spinel ferrite

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21 Production of Sr-Ferrite Sub-Micron Powder by Conventional and Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Methods

Authors: M. Ghobeiti-Hasab

Abstract:

Magnetic powder of Sr-ferrite was prepared by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods. In conventional method, strontium carbonate and ferric oxide powders were mixed together and then mixture was calcined. In sol-gel auto-combustion method, a solution containing strontium nitrate, ferric nitrate and citric acid was heated until the combustion took place automatically; then, as-burnt powder was calcined. Thermal behavior, phase identification, morphology and magnetic properties of powders obtained by these two methods were compared by DTA, XRD, SEM, and VSM techniques. According to the results of DTA analysis, formation temperature of Sr-ferrite obtained by conventional and sol-gel auto-combustion methods were 1300 °C and 1000 °C, respectively. XRD results confirmed the formation of pure Sr-ferrite at the mentioned temperatures. Plate and hexagonal-shape particles of Sr-ferrite were observed using SEM. The Sr-ferrite powder obtained by sol-gel auto-combustion method had saturation magnetization of 66.03 emu/g and coercivity of 5731 Oe in comparison with values of 58.20 emu/g and 4378 Oe obtained by conventional method.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, sol-gel, Sr-ferrite, calcination

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20 The Influence of Reaction Parameters on Magnetic Properties of Synthesized Strontium Ferrite

Authors: M. Bahgat, F. M. Awan, H. A. Hanafy

Abstract:

The conventional ceramic route was utilized to prepare a hard magnetic powder (M-type strontium ferrite, SrFe12O19). The stoichiometric mixture of iron oxide and strontium carbonate were calcined at 1000°C and then fired at various temperatures. The influence of various reaction parameters such as mixing ratio, calcination temperature, firing temperature and firing time on the magnetic behaviors of the synthesized magnetic powder were investigated.The magnetic properties including Coercivity (Hc), Magnetic saturation (Ms), and Magnetic remnance (Mr) were measured by vibrating sample magnetometer. Morphologically the produced magnetic powder has a dense hexagonal grain shape structure.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, hard magnetic materials, ceramic route, strontium ferrite

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19 Microstructural and Magnetic Properties of Ni50Mn39Sn11 and Ni50Mn36Sn14 Heusler Alloys

Authors: Mst Nazmunnahar, Juan del Val, Alena Vimmrova, Blanca Hernando, Julian González

Abstract:

We report the microstructural and magnetic properties of Ni50Mn39Sn11 and Ni50Mn36Sn14 ribbon Heusler alloys. Experimental results were obtained by differential scanning calorymetry, X-ray diffraction and vibrating sample magnetometry techniques. The Ni-Mn-Sn system undergoes a martensitic structural transformation in a wide temperature range. For example, for Ni50Mn39Sn11 the start and finish temperatures of the martensitic and austenite phase transformation for ribbon alloy were Ms = 336K , Mf = 328K, As = 335K and Af = 343K whereas no structural transformation is observed for Ni50Mn36Sn14 alloys. Magnetic measurements show the typical ferromagnetic behavior with Curie temperature 207K at low applied field of 50 Oe. The complex behavior exhibited by these Heusler alloys should be ascribed to the strong coupling between magnetism and structure, being their magnetic behavior determined by the distance between Mn atoms.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Structural Transformation, as-cast ribbon, Heusler alloys

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18 Ab Initio Study of Co2ZrGe and Co2NbB Full Heusler Compounds

Authors: K. Amara, B. Amrani, A. Abada, S. Hiadsi, T. Ouahrani

Abstract:

Using the first-principles full-potential linearized augmented plane wave plus local orbital (FP-LAPW+lo) method based on density functional theory (DFT), we have investigated the electronic structure and magnetism of some Co2- based full Heusler alloys, namely Co2ZrGe and Co2NbB. The calculations show that these compounds are to be half-metallic ferromagnets (HMFs) with a total magnetic moment of 2.000 µB per formula unit, well consistent with the Slater-Pauling rule. Our calculations show indirect band gaps of 0.58 eV and 0.47 eV in the minority spin channel of density of states (DOS) for Co2ZrGe and Co2NbB, respectively. Analysis of the DOS and magnetic moments indicates that their magnetism is mainly related to the d-d hybridization between the Co and Zr (or Nb) atoms. The half metallicity is found to be robust against volume changes and the two alloys kept a 100% of spin polarization at the Fermi level. In addition, an atom inside molecule AIM formalism and an electron localization function ELF were also adopted to study the bonding properties of these compounds, building a bridge between their electronic and bonding behavior. As they have a good crystallographic compatibility with the lattice of semiconductors used industrially and negative calculated cohesive energies with considerable absolute values these two alloys could be promising magnetic materials in the spintronics field.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Electronic Properties, half-metallic ferromagnets, full Heusler alloys

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17 PEG-b-poly(4-vinylbenzyl phosphonate) Coated Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles as Drug Carrier System: Biological and Physicochemical Characterization

Authors: Magdalena Hałupka-Bryl, Magdalena Bednarowicz, Ryszard Krzyminiewski, Yukio Nagasaki

Abstract:

Due to their unique physical properties, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles are increasingly used in medical applications. They are very useful carriers for delivering antitumor drugs in targeted cancer treatment. Magnetic nanoparticles (PEG-PIONs/DOX) with chemotherapeutic were synthesized by coprecipitation method followed by coating with biocompatible polymer PEG-derivative (poly(ethylene glycol)-block-poly(4-vinylbenzylphosphonate). Complete physicochemical characterization was carried out (ESR, HRTEM, X-ray diffraction, SQUID analysis) to evaluate the magnetic properties of obtained PEG-PIONs/DOX. Nanoparticles were investigated also in terms of their stability, drug loading efficiency, drug release and antiproliferative effect on cancer cells. PEG-PIONs/DOX have been successfully used for the efficient delivery of an anticancer drug into the tumor region. Fluorescent imaging showed the internalization of PEG-PIONs/DOX in the cytoplasm. Biodistribution studies demonstrated that PEG-PIONs/DOX preferentially accumulate in tumor region via the enhanced permeability and retention effect. The present findings show that synthesized nanosystem is promising tool for potential magnetic drug delivery.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Targeted drug delivery, iron oxide nanoparticles, biodistribution

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16 Monte Carlo Simulation of Magnetic Properties in Bit Patterned Media

Authors: O. D. Arbeláez-Echeverri, E. Restrepo-Parra, J. C. Riano-Rojas

Abstract:

A two dimensional geometric model of Bit Patterned Media is proposed, the model is based on the crystal structure of the materials commonly used to produce the nano islands in bit patterned materials and the possible defects that may arise from the interaction between the nano islands and the matrix material. The dynamic magnetic properties of the material are then computed using time aware integration methods for the multi spin Hamiltonian. The Hamiltonian takes into account both the spatial and topological disorder of the sample as well as the high perpendicular anisotropy that is pursued when building bit patterned media. The main finding of the research was the possibility of replicating the results of previous experiments on similar materials and the ability of computing the switching field distribution given the geometry of the material and the parameters required by the model.

Keywords: Nanostructures, Magnetic Properties, Monte Carlo, pattern media

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15 Signal Processing of Barkhausen Noise Signal for Assessment of Increasing Down Feed in Surface Ground Components with Poor Micro-Magnetic Response

Authors: Tanmaya Kumar Dash, Tarun Karamshetty, Soumitra Paul

Abstract:

The Barkhausen Noise Analysis (BNA) technique has been utilized to assess surface integrity of steels. But the BNA technique is not very successful in evaluating surface integrity of ground steels that exhibit poor micro-magnetic response. A new approach has been proposed for the processing of BN signal with Fast Fourier transforms while Wavelet transforms has been used to remove noise from the BN signal, with judicious choice of the ‘threshold’ value, when the micro-magnetic response of the work material is poor. In the present study, the effect of down feed induced upon conventional plunge surface grinding of hardened bearing steel has been investigated along with an ultrasonically cleaned, wet polished and a sample ground with spark out technique for benchmarking. Moreover, the FFT analysis has been established, at different sets of applied voltages and applied frequency and the pattern of the BN signal in the frequency domain is analyzed. The study also depicts the wavelet transforms technique with different levels of decomposition and different mother wavelets, which has been used to reduce the noise value in BN signal of materials with poor micro-magnetic response, in order to standardize the procedure for all BN signals depending on the frequency of the applied voltage.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Magnetic Properties, Grinding, barkhausen noise analysis, micro-magnetic response

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14 Stoner Impurity Model in Nickel Hydride

Authors: Andrea Leon, J. M. Florez, P. Vargas

Abstract:

The effect of hydrogen adsorption on the magnetic properties of fcc Ni has been calculated using the linear-muffin-tin-orbital formalism and using the local-density approximation for the exchange y correlation. The calculations for the ground state show that the sequential addition of hydrogen atoms is found to monotonically reduce the total magnetic moment of the Ni fcc structure, as a result of changes in the exchange-splitting parameter and in the Fermi energy. In order to physically explain the effect of magnetization reduction as the Hydrogen concentration increases, we propose a Stoner impurity model to describe the influence of H impurity on the magnetic properties of Nickel.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Electronic Structure, Nickel hydride, stoner model

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13 Structural and Magnetic Properties of Mn-Doped 6H-SiC

Authors: M. Al Azri, M. Elzain, K. Bouziane, S. M. Chérif

Abstract:

n-Type 6H-SiC(0001) substrates were implanted with three fluencies of Mn+ 5x1015 Mn/cm2 (Mn content: 0.7%), 1x1016 (~2 %), and 5x1016 cm–2 (7%) with implantation energy of 80 keV and substrate temperature of 365ºC. The samples were characterized using Rutherford Backscattering and Channeling Spectroscopy (RBS/C), High-Resolution X-Ray Diffraction technique (HRXRD), micro-Raman Spectroscopy (μRS), and Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) techniques. The aim of our work is to investigate implantation induced defects with dose and to study any correlation between disorder-composition and magnetic properties. In addition, ab-initio calculations were used to investigate the structural and magnetic properties of Mn-doped 6H-SiC. Various configurations of Mn sites and vacancy types were considered. The calculations showed that a substitutional Mn atom at Si site possesses larger magnetic moment than Mn atom at C site. A model is introduced to explain the dependence of the magnetic structure on site occupation. The magnetic properties of ferromagnetically (FM) and antiferromagnetically (AFM) coupled pairs of Mn atoms with and without neighboring vacancies have also been explored.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Silicon Carbide, ab-initio calculations, diluted magnetic semiconductors

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12 First Principle Calculation of The Magnetic Properties of Mn-doped 6H-SiC

Authors: M. Al Azri, M. Elzain, K. Bouziane, S. M. Chérif

Abstract:

The electronic and magnetic properties of 6H-SiC with Mn impurities have been calculated using ab-initio calculations. Various configurations of Mn sites and Si and C vacancies were considered. The magnetic coupling between the two Mn atoms at substitutional and interstitials sites with and without vacancies is studied as a function of Mn atoms interatomic distance. It was found that the magnetic interaction energy decreases with increasing distance between the magnetic atoms. The energy levels appearing in the band gap due to vacancies and due to Mn impurities are determined. The calculated DOS’s are used to analyze the nature of the exchange interaction between the impurities. The band coupling model based on the p-d and d-d level repulsions between Mn and SiC has been used to describe the magnetism observed in each configuration. Furthermore, the impacts of applying U to Mn-d orbital on the magnetic moment have also been investigated. The results are used to understand the experimental data obtained on Mn- 6H-SiC (as-implanted and as –annealed) for various Mn concentration (CMn = 0.7%, 1.6%, 7%).

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Silicon Carbide, ab-initio calculations, diluted magnetic semiconductors

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11 Structural, Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Gd3+ Doped CoFe2O4 Nanoparticles Synthesized by Sonochemical Method

Authors: Ivo Kuritka, Raghvendra Singh Yadav

Abstract:

In this report, we studied the impact of Gd3+ substitution on structural, magnetic and electrical properties of CoFe2O4 nanoparticles synthesized by sonochemical method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure at low concentration of Gd3+ ions, however, GdFeO3 additional phase was observed at higher concentration of Gd3+ ions. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of Gd3+ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed that Gd3+ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 5-20 nm. The magnetic properties of Gd3+ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with Gd3+ concentration in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. The variation of real and imaginary part of dielectric constant, tan δ, and AC conductivity were studied at room temperature.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Magnetic Properties, spinel ferrites, sonochemical method

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10 Influence of La³⁺ on Structural, Magnetic, Optical and Dielectric Properties in CoFe₂O₄ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Combustion Method

Authors: Ivo Kuritka, Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbánek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek

Abstract:

Herein, we reported the influence of La³⁺ substitution on structural, magnetic and dielectric properties of CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of La³⁺ ions doped CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of La³⁺ substituted CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed that La³⁺ substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were in the range of 10-40 nm. The magnetic properties of La³⁺ substituted CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with La³⁺ concentration in CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. The variation of real and imaginary part of dielectric constant, tan δ, and AC conductivity were studied with change of concentration of La³⁺ ions in CoFe₂O₄ nanoparticles. The variation in optical properties was studied via UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Magnetic Properties, Starch, dielectric properties, sol-gel combustion method

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9 Effect of Hot Rolling Conditions on Magnetic Properties of Fe-3%Si Non-Grain Oriented Electrical Steels

Authors: Emre Alan, Yusuf Yamanturk, Gokay Bas

Abstract:

Non-grain oriented electrical steels are high silicon containing steels in which the direction of magnetism is intended the same in any direction of the material. Major applications of non-grain-oriented electrical steels are electrical motors, generators, etc. where low magnetic losses are required. Selection of proper hot rolling process parameters is an important factor in order to produce a material that has desired magnetic properties. In this study, the effect of finishing and coiling temperatures on magnetic properties of Fe-3%Si non-grain oriented electrical steels will be investigated. Additionally, the effect of slab reheating temperature at same entry finishing temperature will be investigated by means of reduction in roughing mill pass number from 1-5 to 1-3.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, hot rolling, electrical steels, roughing mill

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8 Structural and Magnetic Properties of CoFe2O4:Nd3+/Dy3+/Pr3+/Gd3+ Nanoparticles Synthesized by Starch-Assisted Sol-Gel Auto-Combustion Method and Annealing Effect

Authors: Ivo Kuritka, Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Jaromir Havlica, Zuzana Kozakova, Jiri Masilko, Lukas Kalina, Miroslava Hajdúchová, Vojtěch Enev, Jaromir Wasserbauer

Abstract:

In this work, we investigated the structural and magnetic properties of CoFe2O4:Nd3+/Dy3+/Pr3+/Gd3+ nanoparticles synthesized by starch-assisted sol-gel combustion method. X-ray diffraction pattern confirmed the formation of cubic spinel structure of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) doped CoFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Raman and Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy study also confirmed cubic spinel structure of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles. The field emission scanning electron microscopy study revealed the effect of annealing temperature on size of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles and particles were in the range of 10-100 nm. The magnetic properties of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles were investigated by using vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in saturation magnetization, coercivity and remanent magnetization with annealing temperature/ particle size of rare-earth ions (Nd3+, Dy3+, Pr3+, Gd3+) substituted CoFe2O4 nanoparticles was observed. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Starch, sol-gel combustion method, rare-earth ions, spinel ferrite nanoparticles

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7 Structural, Magnetic, Dielectric, and Electrical Properties of ZnFe2O4 Nanoparticles

Authors: Ivo Kuritka, Raghvendra Singh Yadav, Jarmila Vilcakova, Pavel Urbánek, Michal Machovsky, Milan Masař, Martin Holek

Abstract:

ZnFe2O4 spinel ferrite nanoparticles were synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method. The synthesized spinel ferrite nanoparticles were annealed at different higher temperature to achieve different size nanoparticles. The as synthesized and annealed samples were characterized by powder X-ray Diffraction Spectroscopy, Raman Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy, UV-Vis absorption Spectroscopy and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The magnetic properties were studied by vibrating sample magnetometer. The variation in magnetic parameters was noticed with variation in grain size. The dielectric constant and dielectric loss with variation of frequency shows normal behaviour of spinel ferrite. The variation in conductivity with variation in grain size is noticed. Modulus and Impedance Spectroscopy shows the role of grain and grain boundary on the electrical resistance and capacitance of different grain sized spinel ferrite nanoparticles. Acknowledgment: This work was supported by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sports of the Czech Republic – Program NPU I (LO1504).

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Magnetic Properties, dielectric properties, spinel ferrite

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6 Structural and Electromagnetic Properties of CoFe2O4-ZrO2 Nanocomosites

Authors: Ravinder Reddy Butreddy, Sadhana Katlakunta

Abstract:

The nanocomposites of CoFe2O4-xZrO2 with different loadings of ZrO2 (x = 0.025, 0.05, 0.075, 0.1 and 1.5) were prepared using ball mill method. All the samples were prepared at 980°C/1h using microwave sintering method. The x-ray diffraction patterns show the existence of tetragonal/monoclinic phase of ZrO2 and cubic phase of CoFe2O4. The effects of ZrO2 on structural and microstructural properties of CoFe2O4 composite ceramics were investigated. It is observed that the density of the composite decreases and porosity increases with x. The magnetic properties such as saturation magnetization (Ms), and Coercive field were calculated at room temperature. The Ms is decreased with x while coercive field is increased with x. The dielectric parameters exhibit the relaxation behavior in high-frequency region and showing increasing trend with ZrO2 concentration, showing suitable

Keywords: Nanocomposites, Magnetic Properties, dielectric properties, microwave sintering

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5 The Effect of Iron Deficiency on the Magnetic Properties of Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ M-Type Hexaferrites

Authors: Wei Yan, Kang-Hyuk Lee, Sang-Im Yoo

Abstract:

Recently, Ca₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂O₁₉ (Ca-La M-type) hexaferrites have been reported to possess higher crystalline anisotropy compared with SrFe₁₂O₁₉ (Sr M-type) hexaferrite without reducing its saturation magnetization (Ms), resulting in higher coercivity (Hc). While iron deficiency is known to be helpful for the growth and the formation of NiZn spinel ferrites, the effect of iron deficiency in Ca-La M-type hexaferrites has never been reported yet. In this study, therefore, we tried to investigate the effect of iron deficiency on the magnetic properties of Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ hexaferrites prepared by solid state reaction. As-calcined powder was pressed into pellets and sintered at 1275~1325℃ for 4 h in air. Samples were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Powder XRD analyses revealed that Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ (0.75 ≦ y ≦ 2.15) ferrites calcined at 1250-1300℃ for 12 h in air were composed of single phase without the second phases. With increasing the iron deficiency, y, the lattice parameters a, c and unite cell volumes were decreased first up to y=10.25 and then increased again. The highest Ms value of 77.5 emu/g was obtainable from the sample of Ca₀.₅La₀.₅Fe₁₂₋yO₁₉₋δ sintered at 1300℃ for 4 h in air. Detailed microstructures and magnetic properties of Ca-La M-type hexagonal ferrites will be presented for a discussion

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, iron deficiency, hexaferrite, Ca-La M-type hexaferrite

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4 Structure and Magnetic Properties of M-Type Sr-Hexaferrite with Ca, La Substitutions

Authors: Young-Min Kang, Eun-Soo Lim

Abstract:

M-type Sr-hexaferrite (SrFe₁₂O₁₉) have been studied during the past decades because it is the most utilized materials in permanent magnets due to their low price, outstanding chemical stability, and appropriate hard magnetic properties. Many attempts have been made to improve the intrinsic magnetic properties of M-type Sr-hexaferrites (SrM), such as by improving the saturation magnetization (MS) and crystalline anisotropy by cation substitution. It is well proved that the Ca-La-Co substitutions are one of the most successful approaches, which lead to a significant enhancement in the crystalline anisotropy without reducing MS, and thus the Ca-La-Co-doped SrM have been commercialized in high-grade magnet products. In this research, the effect of respective doping of Ca and La into the SrM lattices were studied with assumptions that these elements could substitute both of Fe and Sr sites. The hexaferrite samples of stoichiometric SrFe₁₂O₁₉ (SrM) and the Ca substituted SrM with formulae of Sr₁₋ₓCaₓFe₁₂Oₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) and SrFe₁₂₋ₓCaₓOₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4), and also La substituted SrM of Sr₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂Oₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) and SrFe₁₂₋ₓLaₓOₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) were prepared by conventional solid state reaction processes. X-ray diffraction (XRD) with a Cu Kα radiation source (λ=0.154056 nm) was used for phase analysis. Microstructural observation was conducted with a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). M-H measurements were performed using a vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM) at 300 K. Almost pure M-type phase could be obtained in the all series of hexaferrites calcined at > 1250 ºC. Small amount of Fe₂O₃ phases were detected in the XRD patterns of Sr₁₋ₓCaₓFe₁₂Oₐ (x = 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) and Sr₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂Oₐ (x = 0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4) samples. Also, small amount of unidentified secondary phases without the Fe₂O₃ phase were found in the samples of SrFe₁₂₋ₓCaₓOₐ (x = 0.4) and SrFe₁₂₋ₓLaₓOₐ (x = 0.3, 0.4). Although the Ca substitution (x) into SrM structure did not exhibit a clear tendency in the cell parameter change in both series of samples, Sr₁₋ₓCaₓFe₁₂Oₐ and SrFe₁₂₋ₓCaₓOₐ , the cell volume slightly decreased with doping of Ca in the Sr₁₋ₓCaₓFe₁₂Oₐ samples and increased in the SrFe₁₂₋ₓCaₓOₐ samples. Considering relative ion sizes between Sr²⁺ (0.113 nm), Ca²⁺ (0.099 nm), Fe³⁺ (0.064 nm), these results imply that the Ca substitutes both of Sr and Fe in the SrM. A clear tendency of cell parameter change was observed in case of La substitution into Sr site of SrM ( Sr₁₋ₓLaₓFe₁₂Oₐ); the cell volume decreased with increase of x. It is owing to the similar but smaller ion size of La³⁺ (0.106 nm) than that of Sr²⁺. In case of SrFe₁₂₋ₓLaₓOₐ, the cell volume first decreased at x = 0.1 and then remained almost constant with increase of x from 0.2 to 0.4. These results mean that La only substitutes Sr site in the SrM structure. Besides, the microstructure and magnetic properties of these samples, and correlation between them will be revealed.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, substitution, M-type hexaferrite, cell parameter

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3 Comparison of the Thermal Behavior of Different Crystal Forms of Manganese(II) Oxalate

Authors: B. Donkova, M. Nedyalkova, D. Mehandjiev

Abstract:

Sparingly soluble manganese oxalate is an appropriate precursor for the preparation of nanosized manganese oxides, which have a wide range of technological application. During the precipitation of manganese oxalate, three crystal forms could be obtained – α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG C2/c), γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O (SG P212121) and orthorhombic MnC₂O₄.3H₂O (SG Pcca). The thermolysis of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O has been extensively studied during the years, while the literature data for the other two forms has been quite scarce. The aim of the present communication is to highlight the influence of the initial crystal structure on the decomposition mechanism of these three forms, their magnetic properties, the structure of the anhydrous oxalates, as well as the nature of the obtained oxides. For the characterization of the samples XRD, SEM, DTA, TG, DSC, nitrogen adsorption, and in situ magnetic measurements were used. The dehydration proceeds in one step with α-MnC₂O₄.2H2O and γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O, and in three steps with MnC₂O₄.3H2O. The values of dehydration enthalpy are 97, 149 and 132 kJ/mol, respectively, and the last two were reported for the first time, best to our knowledge. The magnetic measurements show that at room temperature all samples are antiferomagnetic, however during the dehydration of α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O the exchange interaction is preserved, for MnC₂O₄.3H₂O it changes to ferromagnetic above 35°C, and for γ-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O it changes twice from antiferomagnetic to ferromagnetic above 70°C. The experimental results for magnetic properties are in accordance with the computational results obtained with Wien2k code. The difference in the initial crystal structure of the forms used determines different changes in the specific surface area during dehydration and different extent of Mn(II) oxidation during decomposition in the air; both being highest at α-MnC₂O₄.2H₂O. The isothermal decomposition of the different oxalate forms shows that the type and physicochemical properties of the oxides, obtained at the same annealing temperature depend on the precursor used. Based on the results from the non-isothermal and isothermal experiments, and from different methods used for characterization of the sample, a comparison of the nature, mechanism and peculiarities of the thermolysis of the different crystal forms of manganese oxalate was made, which clearly reveals the influence of the initial crystal structure. Acknowledgment: 'Science and Education for Smart Growth', project BG05M2OP001-2.009-0028, COST Action MP1306 'Modern Tools for Spectroscopy on Advanced Materials', and project DCOST-01/18 (Bulgarian Science Fund).

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Crystal structure, Thermal Behavior, manganese oxalate

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2 Competing Interactions, and Magnetization Dynamics in Doped Rare-Earth Manganites Nanostructural System

Authors: Wiqar Hussain Shah

Abstract:

The Structural, magnetic and transport behavior of La1-xCaxMnO3+ (x=0.48, 0.50, 0.52 and 0.55 and =0.015) compositions close to charge ordering, was studied through XRD, resistivity, DC magnetization and AC susceptibility measurements. With time and thermal cycling (T<300 K) there is an irreversible transformation of the low-temperature phase from a partially ferromagnetic and metallic to one that is less ferromagnetic and highly resistive. For instance, an increase of resistivity can be observed by thermal cycling, where no effect is obtained for lower Ca concentration. The time changes in the magnetization are logarithmic in general and activation energies are consistent with those expected for electron transfer between Mn ions. The data suggest that oxygen non-stoichiometry results in mechanical strains in this two-phase system, leading to the development of irreversible metastable states, which relax towards the more stable charge-ordered and antiferromagnetic microdomains at the nano-meter size. This behavior is interpreted in terms of strains induced charge localization at the interface between FM/AFM domains in the antiferromagnetic matrix. Charge, orbital ordering and phase separation play a prominent role in the appearance of such properties, since they can be modified in a spectacular manner by external factor, making the different physical properties metastable. Here we describe two factors that deeply modify those properties, viz. the doping concentration and the thermal cycling. The metastable state is recovered by the high temperature annealing. We also measure the magnetic relaxation in the metastable state and also the revival of the metastable state (in a relaxed sample) due to high temperature (800 ) thermal treatment.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Rare-earth maganites, nano-structural materials, doping effects on electrical, competing interactions

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1 Elemental and Magnetic Properties of Bed Sediment of Siang River, a Major River of Brahmaputra Basin

Authors: Abhishek Dixit, Sandip S. Sathe, Chandan Mahanta

Abstract:

The Siang river originates in Angsi glacier in southern Tibet (there known as the Yarlung Tsangpo). After traveling through Indus-Tsangpo suture zone and deep gorges near Namcha Barwa peak, it takes a south-ward turn and enters India, where it is known as Siang river and becomes a major tributary of the Brahmaputra in Assam plains. In this study, we have analyzed the bed sediment of the Siang river at two locations (one at extreme upstream near the India-China border and one downstream before Siang Brahmaputra confluence). We have also sampled bed sediment at the remote location of Yammeng river, an eastern tributary of Siang. The magnetic hysteresis properties show the combination of paramagnetic and weak ferromagnetic behavior with a multidomain state. Moreover, curie temperature analysis shows titanomagnetite solid solution series, which is causing the weak ferromagnetic signature. Given that the magnetic mineral was in a multidomain state, the presence of Ti, Fe carrying heave mineral, may be inferred. The Chemical index of alteration shows less weathered sediment. However, the Yammeng river sample being close to source shows fresh grains subjected to physical weathering and least chemically alteration. Enriched Ca and K and depleted Na and Mg with respect to upper continental crust concentration also points toward the less intense chemical weathering along with the dominance of calcite weathering.

Keywords: Magnetic Properties, Weathering, bed sediment, Siang

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