Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

magnetic nanoparticles Related Abstracts

31 Two-Dimensional CFD Simulation of the Behaviors of Ferromagnetic Nanoparticles in Channel

Authors: Farhad Aalizadeh, Ali Moosavi

Abstract:

This paper presents a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFDs) simulation for the steady, particle tracking. The purpose of this paper is applied magnetic field effect on Magnetic Nanoparticles velocities distribution. It is shown that the permeability of the particles determines the effect of the magnetic field on the deposition of the particles and the deposition of the particles is inversely proportional to the Reynolds number. Using MHD and its property it is possible to control the flow velocity, remove the fouling on the walls and return the system to its original form. we consider a channel 2D geometry and solve for the resulting spatial distribution of particles. According to obtained results when only magnetic fields are applied perpendicular to the flow, local particles velocity is decreased due to the direct effect of the magnetic field return the system to its original fom. In the method first, in order to avoid mixing with blood, the ferromagnetic particles are covered with a gel-like chemical composition and are injected into the blood vessels. Then, a magnetic field source with a specified distance from the vessel is used and the particles are guided to the affected area. This paper presents a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFDs) simulation for the steady, laminar flow of an incompressible magnetorheological (MR) fluid between two fixed parallel plates in the presence of a uniform magnetic field. The purpose of this study is to develop a numerical tool that is able to simulate MR fluids flow in valve mode and determineB0, applied magnetic field effect on flow velocities and pressure distributions.

Keywords: Simulations, MHD, magnetic nanoparticles, channel clots

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30 Use of Magnetically Separable Molecular Imprinted Polymers for Determination of Pesticides in Food Samples

Authors: Sabir Khan, Sajjad Hussain, Ademar Wong, Maria Del Pilar Taboada Sotomayor

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The present work aims to develop magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for determination of a selected pesticide (ametryne) using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Computational simulation can assist the choice of the most suitable monomer for the synthesis of polymers. The (MMIPs) were polymerized at the surface of [email protected] magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using 2-vinylpyradine as functional monomer, ethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) is a cross-linking agent and 2,2-Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) used as radical initiator. Magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymer (MNIPs) was also prepared under the same conditions without analyte. The MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Pseudo first-order and pseudo second order model were applied to study kinetics of adsorption and it was found that adsorption process followed the pseudo-first-order kinetic model. Adsorption equilibrium data was fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and the sorption equilibrium process was well described by Langmuir isotherm mode. The selectivity coefficients (α) of MMIPs for ametryne with respect to atrazine, ciprofloxacin and folic acid were 4.28, 12.32 and 14.53 respectively. The spiked recoveries ranged between 91.33 and 106.80% were obtained. The results showed high affinity and selectivity of MMIPs for pesticide ametryne in the food samples.

Keywords: Pesticides, Adsorption, magnetic nanoparticles, molecularly imprinted polymer

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29 Adsorption and Selective Determination Ametryne in Food Sample Using of Magnetically Separable Molecular Imprinted Polymers

Authors: Sabir Khan, Sajjad Hussain, Maria Del Pilar Taboada Sotomayor

Abstract:

This work demonstrates the synthesis of magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MMIPs) for determination of a selected pesticide (ametryne) using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Computational simulation can assist the choice of the most suitable monomer for the synthesis of polymers. The (MMIPs) were polymerized at the surface of [email protected] magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) using 2-vinylpyradine as functional monomer, ethylene-glycol-dimethacrylate (EGDMA) is a cross-linking agent and 2,2-Azobisisobutyronitrile (AIBN) used as radical initiator. Magnetic non-molecularly imprinted polymer (MNIPs) was also prepared under the same conditions without analyte. The MMIPs were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Pseudo first order and pseudo second order model were applied to study kinetics of adsorption and it was found that adsorption process followed the pseudo first order kinetic model. Adsorption equilibrium data was fitted to Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms and the sorption equilibrium process was well described by Langmuir isotherm mode. The selectivity coefficients (α) of MMIPs for ametryne with respect to atrazine, ciprofloxacin and folic acid were 4.28, 12.32, and 14.53 respectively. The spiked recoveries ranged between 91.33 and 106.80% were obtained. The results showed high affinity and selectivity of MMIPs for pesticide ametryne in the food samples.

Keywords: Pesticides, Adsorption, magnetic nanoparticles, molecularly imprinted polymer

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28 Thorium Extraction with Cyanex272 Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles

Authors: Afshin Shahbazi, Hadi Shadi Naghadeh, Ahmad Khodadadi Darban

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In the Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. In the present study, Cyanex272 or C272 (bis (2,4,4-trimethylpentyl) phosphinic acid) coated magnetic particles are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction of Thorium (IV) from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. Adsorption of Thorium (IV) from aqueous solution onto adsorbent was investigated in a batch system. Adsorption isotherm and adsorption kinetic studies of Thorium (IV) onto nanoparticles coated Cyanex272 were carried out in a batch system. The factors influencing Thorium (IV) adsorption were investigated and described in detail, as a function of the parameters such as initial pH value, contact time, adsorbent mass, and initial Thorium (IV) concentration. Magnetically Assisted Chemical Separation (MACS) process adsorbent showed best results for the fast adsorption of Th (IV) from aqueous solution at aqueous phase acidity value of 0.5 molar. In addition, more than 80% of Th (IV) was removed within the first 2 hours, and the time required to achieve the adsorption equilibrium was only 140 minutes. Langmuir and Frendlich adsorption models were used for the mathematical description of the adsorption equilibrium. Equilibrium data agreed very well with the Langmuir model, with a maximum adsorption capacity of 48 mg.g-1. Adsorption kinetics data were tested using pseudo-first-order, pseudo-second-order and intra-particle diffusion models. Kinetic studies showed that the adsorption followed a pseudo-second-order kinetic model, indicating that the chemical adsorption was the rate-limiting step.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, Thorium (IV) adsorption, MACS process, Cyanex272

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27 Microfluidic Continuous Approaches to Produce Magnetic Nanoparticles with Homogeneous Size Distribution

Authors: Victor Sebastian, Ane Larrea, Manuel Arruebo, Jesus Santamaria

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We present a gas-liquid microfluidic system as a reactor to obtain magnetite nanoparticles with an excellent degree of control regarding their crystalline phase, shape and size. Several types of microflow approaches were selected to prevent nanomaterial aggregation and to promote homogenous size distribution. The selected reactor consists of a mixer stage aided by ultrasound waves and a reaction stage using a N2-liquid segmented flow to prevent magnetite oxidation to non-magnetic phases. A milli-fluidic reactor was developed to increase the production rate where a magnetite throughput close to 450 mg/h in a continuous fashion was obtained.

Keywords: Nanomaterials, Microfluidics, magnetic nanoparticles, continuous production

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26 Application of Low Frequency Ac Magnetic Field for Controlled Delivery of Drugs by Magnetic Nanoparticles

Authors: K. Yu Vlasova, M. A. Abakumov, H. Wishwarsao, M. Sokolsky, N. V. Nukolova, A. G. Majouga, Y. I. Golovin, N. L. Klyachko, A. V. Kabanov

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Introduction:Nowadays pharmaceutical medicine is aimed to create systems for combined therapy, diagnostic, drug delivery and controlled release of active molecules to target cells. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are used to achieve this aim. MNPs can be applied in molecular diagnostics, magnetic resonance imaging (T1/T2 contrast agents), drug delivery, hyperthermia and could improve therapeutic effect of drugs. The most common drug containers, containing MNPs, are liposomes, micelles and polymeric molecules bonded to the MNPs surface. Usually superparamagnetic nanoparticles are used (the general diameter is about 5-6 nm) and all effects of high frequency magnetic field (MF) application are based on Neel relaxation resulting in heating of surrounded media. In this work we try to develop a new method to improve drug release from MNPs under super low frequency MF. We suppose that under low frequency MF exposures the Brown’s relaxation dominates and MNPs rotation could occur leading to conformation changes and release of bioactive molecules immobilized on MNPs surface.The aim of this work was to synthesize different systems with active drug (biopolymers coated MNPs nanoclusters with immobilized enzymes and doxorubicin (Dox) loaded magnetic liposomes/micelles) and investigate the effect of super low frequency MF on these drug containers. Methods: We have synthesized MNPs of magnetite with magnetic core diameter 7-12 nm . The MNPs were coated with block-copolymer of polylysine and polyethylene glycol. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) was electrostatically adsorbed on the surface of the clusters. Liposomes were prepared as follow: MNPs, phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol were dispersed in chloroform, dried to get film and then dispersed in distillated water, sonicated. Dox was added to the solution, pH was adjusted to 7.4 and excess of drug was removed by centrifugation through 3 kDa filters. Results: Polylysine coated MNPs formed nanosized clusters (as observed by TEM) with intensity average diameter of 112±5 nm and zeta potential 12±3 mV. After low frequency AC MF exposure we observed change of immobilized enzyme activity and hydrodynamic size of clusters. We suppose that the biomolecules (enzymes) are released from the MNPs surface followed with additional aggregation of complexes at the MF in medium. Centrifugation of the nanosuspension after AC MF exposures resulted in increase of positive charge of clusters and change in enzyme concentration in comparison with control sample without MF, thus confirming desorption of negatively charged enzyme from the positively charged surface of MNPs. Dox loaded magnetic liposomes had average diameter of 160±8 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) 0.25±0.07. Liposomes were stable in DW and PBS at pH=7.4 at 370C during a week. After MF application (10 min of exposure, 50 Hz, 230 mT) diameter of liposomes raised to 190±10 nm and PDI was 0.38±0.05. We explain this by destroying and/or reorganization of lipid bilayer, that leads to changes in release of drug in comparison with control without MF exposure. Conclusion: A new application of low frequency AC MF for drug delivery and controlled drug release was shown. Investigation was supported by RSF-14-13-00731 grant, K1-2014-022 grant.

Keywords: drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles, low frequency magnetic field, controlled drug release

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25 Control of Doxorubicin Release Rate from Magnetic PLGA Nanoparticles Using a Non-Permanent Magnetic Field

Authors: Inês N. Peça, A. Bicho, Rui Gardner, M. Margarida Cardoso

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Inorganic/organic nanocomplexes offer tremendous scope for future biomedical applications, including imaging, disease diagnosis and drug delivery. The combination of Fe3O4 with biocompatible polymers to produce smart drug delivery systems for use in pharmaceutical formulation present a powerful tool to target anti-cancer drugs to specific tumor sites through the application of an external magnetic field. In the present study, we focused on the evaluation of the effect of the magnetic field application time on the rate of drug release from iron oxide polymeric nanoparticles. Doxorubicin, an anticancer drug, was selected as the model drug loaded into the nanoparticles. Nanoparticles composed of poly(d-lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA), a biocompatible polymer already approved by FDA, containing iron oxide nanoparticles (MNP) for magnetic targeting and doxorubicin (DOX) were synthesized by the o/w solvent extraction/evaporation method and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), by dynamic light scattering (DLS), by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry and by Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The produced particles yielded smooth surfaces and spherical shapes exhibiting a size between 400 and 600 nm. The effect of the magnetic doxorubicin loaded PLGA nanoparticles produced on cell viability was investigated in mammalian CHO cell cultures. The results showed that unloaded magnetic PLGA nanoparticles were nontoxic while the magnetic particles without polymeric coating show a high level of toxicity. Concerning the therapeutic activity doxorubicin loaded magnetic particles cause a remarkable enhancement of the cell inhibition rates compared to their non-magnetic counterpart. In vitro drug release studies performed under a non-permanent magnetic field show that the application time and the on/off cycle duration have a great influence with respect to the final amount and to the rate of drug release. In order to determine the mechanism of drug release, the data obtained from the release curves were fitted to the semi-empirical equation of the the Korsmeyer-Peppas model that may be used to describe the Fickian and non-Fickian release behaviour. Doxorubicin release mechanism has shown to be governed mainly by Fickian diffusion. The results obtained show that the rate of drug release from the produced magnetic nanoparticles can be modulated through the magnetic field time application.

Keywords: drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles, PLGA nanoparticles, controlled release rate

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24 Chitosan Functionalized [email protected] Core-Shell Nanomaterials for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: S. S. Pati, L. Herojit Singh, A. C. Oliveira, V. K. Garg

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Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4-Au core shell nanoparticles have been prepared using a two step wet chemical approach using NaBH4 as reducing agent for formation of Au inethylene glycol. X-ray diffraction studies shows individual phases of Fe3O4 and Au in the as prepared samples with crystallite size of 5.9 and 11.4 nm respectively. The functionalization of the core-shell nanostructure with Chitosan has been confirmed using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy along with signatures of octahedral and tetrahedral sites of Fe3O4 below 600cm-1. Mössbauer spectroscopy shows decrease in particle-particle interaction in presence of Au shell (72% sextet) than pure oleic coated Fe3O4 nanoparticles (88% sextet) at room temperature. At 80K, oleic acid coated Fe3O4 shows only sextets whereas the Chitosan functionalized Fe3O4 and Chitosan functionalized [email protected] core shell show presence of 5 and 11% doublet, respectively.

Keywords: drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles, gold nanoparticles, core shell

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23 Magnetic Nanoparticles for Cancer Therapy

Authors: Sonali Patil, Sachinkumar Patil, Shitalkumar Patil

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Nanoparticles played important role in the biomedicine. New advanced methods having great potential apllication in the diagnosis and therapy of cancer. Now a day’s magnetic nanoparticles used in cancer therapy. Cancer is the major disease causes death. Magnetic nanoparticles show response to the magnetic field on the basis of this property they are used in cancer therapy. Cancer treated with hyperthermia by using magnetic nanoparticles it is unconventional but more safe and effective method. Magnetic nanoparticles prepared by using different innovative techniques that makes particles in uniform size and desired effect. Magnetic nanoparticles already used as contrast media in magnetic resonance imaging. A magnetic nanoparticle has been great potential application in cancer diagnosis and treatment as well as in gene therapy. In this review we will discuss the progress in cancer therapy based on magnetic nanoparticles, mainly including magnetic hyperthermia, synthesis and characterization of magnetic nanoparticles, mechanism of magnetic nanoparticles and application of magnetic nanoparticles.

Keywords: Characterization, Synthesis, Application, magnetic nanoparticles, Cancer Therapy, hyperthermia

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22 Mathematical Modeling on Capturing of Magnetic Nanoparticles in an Implant Assisted Channel for Magnetic Drug Targeting

Authors: Shashi Sharma, V. K. Katiyar, Uaday Singh

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The ability to manipulate magnetic particles in fluid flows by means of inhomogeneous magnetic fields is used in a wide range of biomedical applications including magnetic drug targeting (MDT). In MDT, magnetic carrier particles bounded with drug molecules are injected into the vascular system up-stream from the malignant tissue and attracted or retained at the specific region in the body with the help of an external magnetic field. Although the concept of MDT has been around for many years, however, wide spread acceptance of the technique is still looming despite the fact that it has shown some promise in both in vivo and clinical studies. This is because traditional MDT has some inherent limitations. Typically, the magnetic force is not very strong and it is also very short ranged. Since the magnetic force must overcome rather large hydrodynamic forces in the body, MDT applications have been limited to sites located close to the surface of the skin. Even in this most favorable situation, studies have shown that it is difficult to collect appreciable amounts of the MDCPs at the target site. To overcome these limitations of the traditional MDT approach, Ritter and co-workers reported the implant assisted magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT). In IA-MDT, the magnetic implants are placed strategically at the target site to greatly and locally increase the magnetic force on MDCPs and help to attract and retain the MDCPs at the targeted region. In the present work, we develop a mathematical model to study the capturing of magnetic nanoparticles flowing in a fluid in an implant assisted cylindrical channel under the magnetic field. A coil of ferromagnetic SS 430 has been implanted inside the cylindrical channel to enhance the capturing of magnetic nanoparticles under the magnetic field. The dominant magnetic and drag forces, which significantly affect the capturing of nanoparticles, are incorporated in the model. It is observed through model results that capture efficiency increases from 23 to 51 % as we increase the magnetic field from 0.1 to 0.5 T, respectively. The increase in capture efficiency by increase in magnetic field is because as the magnetic field increases, the magnetization force, which is attractive in nature and responsible to attract or capture the magnetic particles, increases and results the capturing of large number of magnetic particles due to high strength of attractive magnetic force.

Keywords: Modelling, magnetic nanoparticles, capture efficiency, implant assisted-magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT)

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21 Experimental Study on Capturing of Magnetic Nanoparticles Transported in an Implant Assisted Cylindrical Tube under Magnetic Field

Authors: Anurag Gaur Nidhi

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Targeted drug delivery is a method of delivering medication to a patient in a manner that increases the concentration of the medication in some parts of the body relative to others. Targeted drug delivery seeks to concentrate the medication in the tissues of interest while reducing the relative concentration of the medication in the remaining tissues. This improves efficacy of the while reducing side effects. In the present work, we investigate the effect of magnetic field, flow rate and particle concentration on the capturing of magnetic particles transported in a stent implanted fluidic channel. Iron oxide magnetic nanoparticles (Fe3O4) nanoparticles were synthesized via co-precipitation method. The synthesized Fe3O4 nanoparticles were added in the de-ionized (DI) water to prepare the Fe3O4 magnetic particle suspended fluid. This fluid is transported in a cylindrical tube of diameter 8 mm with help of a peristaltic pump at different flow rate (25-40 ml/min). A ferromagnetic coil of SS 430 has been implanted inside the cylindrical tube to enhance the capturing of magnetic nanoparticles under magnetic field. The capturing of magnetic nanoparticles was observed at different magnetic magnetic field, flow rate and particle concentration. It is observed that capture efficiency increases from 47-67 % at magnetic field 2-5kG, respectively at particle concentration 0.6 mg/ml and at flow rate 30 ml/min. However, the capture efficiency decreases from 65 to 44 % by increasing the flow rate from 25 to 40 ml/min, respectively. Furthermore, it is observed that capture efficiency increases from 51 to 67 % by increasing the particle concentration from 0.3 to 0.6 mg/ml, respectively.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, capture efficiency, implant assisted-magnetic drug targeting (IA-MDT), In-vitro study

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20 Chitosan Magnetic Nanoparticles and Its Analytical Applications

Authors: Eman Alzahrani

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Efficient extraction of proteins by removing interfering materials is necessary in proteomics, since most instruments cannot handle such contaminated sample matrices directly. In this study, chitosan-coated magnetic nanoparticles (CS-MNPs) for purification of myoglobin were successfully fabricated. First, chitosan (CS) was prepared by a deacetylation reaction during its extraction from shrimp-shell waste. Second, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) were synthesised, using the coprecipitation method, from aqueous Fe2+ and Fe3+ salt solutions by the addition of a base under an inert atmosphere, followed by modification of the surface of MNPs with chitosan. The morphology of the formed nanoparticles, which were about 23 nm in average diameter, was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). In addition, nanoparticles were characterised using X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), which showed the naked magnetic nanoparticles have a spinel structure and the surface modification did not result in phase change of the Fe3O4. The coating of MNPs was also demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis, energy dispersive analysis of X-ray spectroscopy (EDAX), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The adsorption behaviour of MNPs and CS-MNPs towards myoglobin was investigated. It was found that the difference in adsorption capacity between MNPs and CS-MNPs was larger for CS-MNPs. This result makes CS-MNPs good adsorbents and attractive for using in protein extraction from biological samples.

Keywords: Adsorption, magnetic nanoparticles, chitosan, coprecipitation

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19 A DNA-Based Nano-biosensor for the Rapid Detection of the Dengue Virus in Mosquito

Authors: Lilia M. Fernando, Matthew K. Vasher, Evangelyn C. Alocilja

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This paper describes the development of a DNA-based nanobiosensor to detect the dengue virus in mosquito using electrically active magnetic (EAM) nanoparticles as the concentrator and electrochemical transducer. The biosensor detection encompasses two sets of oligonucleotide probes that are specific to the dengue virus: the detector probe labeled with the EAM nanoparticles and the biotinylated capture probe. The DNA targets are double hybridized to the detector and the capture probes and concentrated from nonspecific DNA fragments by applying a magnetic field. Subsequently, the DNA sandwiched targets (EAM-detector probe–DNA target–capture probe-biotin) are captured on streptavidin modified screen printed carbon electrodes through the biotinylated capture probes. Detection is achieved electrochemically by measuring the oxidation–reduction signal of the EAM nanoparticles. Results indicate that the biosensor is able to detect the redox signal of the EAM nanoparticles at dengue DNA concentrations as low as 10 ng/ul.

Keywords: Dengue, magnetic nanoparticles, mosquito, nanobiosensor

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18 Removal Efficiency of Some Heavy Metals from Aqueous Solution on Magnetic Nanoparticles

Authors: Gehan El-Sayed Sharaf El-Deen

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In this study, super paramagnetic iron-oxide nano- materials (SPMIN) were investigated for removal of toxic heavy metals from aqueous solution. The magnetic nanoparticles of 12 nm were synthesized using a co-precipitation method and characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), x-ray diffraction (XRD) and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). Batch experiments carried out to investigate the influence of different parameters such as contact time, initial concentration of metal ions, the dosage of SPMIN, desorption,pH value of solutions. The adsorption process was found to be highly pH dependent, which made the nanoparticles selectively adsorb these three metals from wastewater. Maximum sorption for all the studies cations obtained at the first half hour and reached equilibrium at one hour. The adsorption data of heavy metals studied were well fitted with the Langmuir isotherm and the equilibrium data show the percent removal of Ni2+, Zn2+ and Cd2+ were 96.5%, 80% and 75%, respectively. Desorption studies in acidic medium indicate that Zn2+, Ni2+ and Cd2+ were removed by 89%, 2% and 18% from the first cycle. Regeneration studies indicated that SPMIN nanoparticles undergoing successive adsorption–desorption processes for Zn2+ ions retained original metal removal capacity. The results revealed that the most prominent advantage of the prepared SPMIN adsorbent consisted in their separation convenience compared to the other adsorbents and SPMIN has high efficiency for removal the investigated metals from aqueous solution.

Keywords: Heavy Metals, magnetic nanoparticles, removal efficiency, Batch technique

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17 First-Principles Modeling of Nanoparticle Magnetization, Chaining, and Motion

Authors: Pierce Radecki, Pulkit Malik, Bharath Ramaswamy, Ben Shapiro

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The ability to effectively design and test magnetic nanoparticles for controlled movement has been an elusive goal in the design of these particles. Magnetic nanoparticles of various characteristics have been created for use towards therapeutic effects, however the challenge of designing for controlled movement remains unmet. A step towards design in this aspect is a first principles model that captures and predicts the behaviors of particles in a magnetic field. The model is governed by four forces acting on the particles, the magnetic gradient, the dipole-dipole forces, the steric forces, and the viscous drag force. The particles are multi-core or single core, and incorporate a preferred magnetization axis. Particles exhibit behaviors, such as chaining, in simulations that are similar to those witnessed through experimentation. Currently, experimental results are being compared to the modeling results for verification of the model, through the analysis of chaining behaviors. This modeling system will be used in designing magnetic nanoparticles for specific chaining and movement behaviors.

Keywords: Modeling, magnetic nanoparticles, controlled movement, nanoparticle design

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16 Increasing Toughness of Oriented Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA)/Fe3O4 Nanocomposite

Authors: Mozhgan Chaichi, Farhad Sharif, Saeede Mazinani

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Polymer nanocomposites are a new class of materials for fabricating future multifunctional and lightweight structures. To obtain good mechanical, thermal and electrical properties, it is essential to achieve uniform dispersion of nanoparticles in polymer matrix. Alignment of nanoparticles in matrix can enhance mechanical, thermal, electrical and barrier properties of nanocomposites in oriented direction. Fe3O4 nanoparticles have generated huge activity in many areas of science and engineering due to its magnetic properties. Magnetic nanoparticles have been investigated for a wide range of applications in sensors, magnetic energy storage, environmental remediation, heterogeneous catalysts and drug delivery. The magnetic response from the Fe3O4 nanoparticles can facilitate with the alignment of nanofillers in a polymer matrix under magnetic field, aiming at fabricating composites with directional properties and functions. Here we report oriented nanocomposites based on Fe3O4 nanoparticles and poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA), which prepared via a facile aqueous solution by applying a low external magnetic field (750 G). A significant enhancement of mechanical properties, and especially toughness of nanofilms, of oriented PVA/ Fe3O4 nanocomposites is obtained at low nanoparticles loading. Orientation of nanoparticles can align polymer chains and enhance mechanical properties. For example, orientation of 0.1 wt. % Fe3O4 nanoparticles increase 31% toughness and 23% modulus of oriented nanocomposite in compare of pure films, which indicate good dispersion of nanoparticles and efficient load transfer between nanoparticles and matrix.

Keywords: Nanocomposites, magnetic nanoparticles, Orientation, Toughness

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15 Iron Oxide Magnetic Nanoparticles as MRI Contrast Agents

Authors: Suhas Pednekar, Prashant Chavan, Ramesh Chaughule, Deepak Patkar

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Iron oxide (Fe3O4) magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are one of the most attractive nanomaterials for various biomedical applications. An important potential medical application of polymer-coated iron oxide nanoparticles (NPs) is as imaging agents. Composition, size, morphology and surface chemistry of these nanoparticles can now be tailored by various processes to not only improve magnetic properties but also affect the behavior of nanoparticles in vivo. MNPs are being actively investigated as the next generation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) contrast agents. Also, there is considerable interest in developing magnetic nanoparticles and their surface modifications with therapeutic agents. Our study involves the synthesis of biocompatible cancer drug coated with iron oxide nanoparticles and to evaluate their efficacy as MRI contrast agents. A simple and rapid microwave method to prepare Fe3O4 nanoparticles has been developed. The drug was successfully conjugated to the Fe3O4 nanoparticles which can be used for various applications. The relaxivity R2 (reciprocal of the spin-spin relaxation time T2) is an important factor to determine the efficacy of Fe nanoparticles as contrast agents for MRI experiments. R2 values of the coated magnetic nanoparticles were also measured using MRI technique and the results showed that R2 of the Fe complex consisting of Fe3O4, polymer and drug was higher than that of bare Fe nanoparticles and polymer coated nanoparticles. This is due to the increase in hydrodynamic sizes of Fe NPs. The results with various amounts of iron molar concentrations are also discussed. Using MRI, it is seen that the R2 relaxivity increases linearly with increase in concentration of Fe NPs in water.

Keywords: MRI, magnetic nanoparticles, Cancer Drug, hydrodynamic size

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14 Investigation of Optical, Film Formation and Magnetic Properties of PS Lates/MNPs Composites

Authors: Saziye Ugur

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In this study, optical, film formation, morphological and the magnetic properties of a nanocomposite system, composed of polystyrene (PS) latex polymer and core-shell magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) is presented. Nine different mixtures were prepared by mixing of PS latex dispersion with different amount of MNPs in the range of (0- 100 wt%). PS/MNPs films were prepared from these mixtures on glass substrates by drop casting method. After drying at room temperature, each film sample was separately annealed at temperatures from 100 to 250 °C for 10 min. In order to monitor film formation process, the transmittance of these composites was measured after each annealing step as a function of MNPs content. Below a critical MNPs content (30 wt%), it was found that PS percolates into the MNPs hard phase and forms an interconnected network upon annealing. The transmission results showed above this critical value, PS latexes were no longer film forming at all temperatures. Besides, the PS/MNPs composite films also showed excellent magnetic properties. All composite films showed superparamagnetic behaviors. The saturation magnetisation (Ms) first increased up to 0.014 emu in the range of (0-50) wt% MNPs content and then decreased to 0.010 emu with increasing MNPs content. The highest value of Ms was approximately 0.020 emu and was obtained for the film filled with 85 wt% MNPs content. These results indicated that the optical, film formation and magnetic properties of PS/MNPs composite films can be readily tuned by varying loading content of MNPs nanoparticles.

Keywords: Transmission, magnetic nanoparticles, composite film, film formation, ps latex

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13 Preparation of Polymer-Stabilized Magnetic Iron Oxide as Selective Drug Nanocarriers to Human Acute Myeloid Leukemia

Authors: Kheireddine El-Boubbou

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Drug delivery to target human acute myeloid leukemia (AML) using a nanoparticulate chemotherapeutic formulation that can deliver drugs selectively to AML cancer is hugely needed. In this work, we report the development of a nanoformulation made of polymeric-stabilized multifunctional magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (PMNP) loaded with the anticancer drug Doxorubicin (Dox) as a promising drug carrier to treat AML. [email protected] conjugates simultaneously exhibited high drug content, maximized fluorescence, and excellent release properties. Nanoparticulate uptake and cell death following addition of [email protected] were then evaluated in different types of human AML target cells, as well as on normal human cells. While the unloaded MNPs were not toxic to any of the cells, [email protected] were found to be highly toxic to the different AML cell lines, albeit at different inhibitory concentrations (IC50 values), but showed very little toxicity towards the normal cells. In comparison, free Dox showed significant potency concurrently to all the cell lines, suggesting huge potentials for the use of [email protected] as selective AML anticancer cargos. Live confocal imaging, fluorescence and electron microscopy confirmed that Dox is indeed delivered to the nucleus in relatively short periods of time, causing apoptotic cell death. Importantly, this targeted payload may potentially enhance the effectiveness of the drug in AML patients and may further allow physicians to image leukemic cells exposed to [email protected] using MRI.

Keywords: drug delivery, magnetic nanoparticles, iron oxide, acute myeloid leukemia, cancer nanotherapy

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12 Double Functionalization of Magnetic Colloids with Electroactive Molecules and Antibody for Platelet Detection and Separation

Authors: Feixiong Chen, Naoufel Haddour, Marie Frenea-Robin, Yves MéRieux, Yann Chevolot, Virginie Monnier

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Neonatal thrombopenia occurs when the mother generates antibodies against her baby’s platelet antigens. It is particularly critical for newborns because it can cause coagulation troubles leading to intracranial hemorrhage. In this case, diagnosis must be done quickly to make platelets transfusion immediately after birth. Before transfusion, platelet antigens must be tested carefully to avoid rejection. The majority of thrombopenia (95 %) are caused by antibodies directed against Human Platelet Antigen 1a (HPA-1a) or 5b (HPA-5b). The common method for antigen platelets detection is polymerase chain reaction allowing for identification of gene sequence. However, it is expensive, time-consuming and requires significant blood volume which is not suitable for newborns. We propose to develop a point-of-care device based on double functionalized magnetic colloids with 1) antibodies specific to antigen platelets and 2) highly sensitive electroactive molecules in order to be detected by an electrochemical microsensor. These magnetic colloids will be used first to isolate platelets from other blood components, then to capture specifically platelets bearing HPA-1a and HPA-5b antigens and finally to attract them close to sensor working electrode for improved electrochemical signal. The expected advantages are an assay time lower than 20 min starting from blood volume smaller than 100 µL. Our functionalization procedure based on amine dendrimers and NHS-ester modification of initial carboxyl colloids will be presented. Functionalization efficiency was evaluated by colorimetric titration of surface chemical groups, zeta potential measurements, infrared spectroscopy, fluorescence scanning and cyclic voltammetry. Our results showed that electroactive molecules and antibodies can be immobilized successfully onto magnetic colloids. Application of a magnetic field onto working electrode increased the detected electrochemical signal. Magnetic colloids were able to capture specific purified antigens extracted from platelets.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, Antibody, platelet, Electroactive Molecules

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11 Core-Shell Structured Magnetic Nanoparticles for Efficient Hyperthermia Cancer Treatment

Authors: M. R. Phadatare, J. V. Meshram, S. H. Pawar

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Conversion of electromagnetic energy into heat by nanoparticles (NPs) has the potential to be a powerful, non-invasive technique for biomedical applications such as magnetic fluid hyperthermia, drug release, disease treatment and remote control of single cell functions, but poor conversion efficiencies have hindered practical applications so far. In this paper, an attempt has been made to increase the efficiency of magnetic, thermal induction by NPs. To increase the efficiency of magnetic, thermal induction by NPs, one can take advantage of the exchange coupling between a magnetically hard core and magnetically soft shell to tune the magnetic properties of the NP and maximize the specific absorption rate, which is the gauge of conversion efficiency. In order to examine the tunability of magnetocrystalline anisotropy and its magnetic heating power, a representative magnetically hard material (CoFe₂O₄) has been coupled to a soft material (Ni₀.₅Zn₀.₅Fe₂O₄). The synthesized NPs show specific absorption rates that are of an order of magnitude larger than the conventional one.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, specific absorption rate, surface functionalization of magnetic nanoparticles, magnetic fluid hyperthermia

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10 Study of Magnetic Nanoparticles’ Endocytosis in a Single Cell Level

Authors: Chao-Ming Su, Yu-Chi Kuo, Jefunnie Matahum, Tzong-Rong Ger

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Magnetic cell labeling is of great importance in various applications in biomedical fields such as cell separation and cell sorting. Since analytical methods for quantification of cell uptake of magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are already well established, image analysis on single cell level still needs more characterization. This study reports an alternative non-destructive quantification methods of single-cell uptake of positively charged MNPs. Magnetophoresis experiments were performed to calculate the number of MNPs in a single cell. Mobility of magnetic cells and the area of intracellular MNP stained by Prussian blue were quantified by image processing software. ICP-MS experiments were also performed to confirm the internalization of MNPs to cells. Initial results showed that the magnetic cells incubated at 100 µg and 50 µg MNPs/mL concentration move at 18.3 and 16.7 µm/sec, respectively. There is also an increasing trend in the number and area of intracellular MNP with increasing concentration. These results could be useful in assessing the nanoparticle uptake in a single cell level.

Keywords: Image Analysis, magnetic nanoparticles, single cell, magnetophoresis

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9 Core-Shell Type Magnetic Nanoparticles for Targeted Drug Delivery

Authors: Yogita Patil-Sen

Abstract:

Magnetic nanoparticles such as those made of iron oxide have been widely explored as biocatalysts, contrast agents, and drug delivery systems. However, some of the challenges associated with these particles are agglomeration and biocompatibility, which lead to concern of toxicity of the particles, especially for drug delivery applications. Coating the particles with biocompatible materials such as lipids and peptides have shown to improve the mentioned issues. Thus, these core-shell type nanoparticles are emerging as the new class of nanomaterials for targeted drug delivery applications. In this study, various types of core-shell magnetic nanoparticles are prepared and characterized using techniques, such as Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The heating ability of nanoparticles is tested under oscillating magnetic field. The efficacy of the nanoparticles as drug carrier is also investigated. The loading of an anticancer drug, Doxorubicin at 18 °C is measured up to 48 hours using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The drug release profile is obtained under thermal incubation condition at 37 °C and compared with that under the influence of oscillating field. The results suggest that the core-shell nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour, although, coating reduces the magnetic properties of the particles. Both the uncoated and coated particles show good heating ability, again it is observed that coating decreases the heating behaviour of the particles. However, coated particles show higher drug loading efficiency than the uncoated particles and the drug release is much more controlled under the oscillating magnetic field. Thus, the results strongly indicate the suitability of the prepared core-shell type nanoparticles as drug delivery vehicles and their potential in magnetic hyperthermia applications and for hyperthermia cancer therapy.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, Targeted drug delivery, hyperthermia, core-shell

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8 Synthesis and Catalytic Activity of N-Heterocyclic Carbene Copper Catalysts Supported on Magnetic Nanoparticles

Authors: Iwona Misztalewska-Turkowicz, Agnieszka Z. Wilczewska, Karolina H. Markiewicz

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Carbenes - species which possess neutral carbon atom with two shared and two unshared valence electrons, are known for their high reactivity and instability. Nevertheless, it is also known, that some carbenes i.e. N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs), can form stable crystals. The usability of NHCs in organic synthesis was studied. Due to their exceptional properties (high nucleophilicity) NHCs are commonly used as organocatalysts and also as ligands in transition metal complexes. NHC ligands possess better electron-donating properties than phosphines. Moreover, they exhibit lower toxicity. Due to these features, phosphines are frequently replaced by NHC ligands. In this research is discussed the synthesis of five-membered NHCs which are mainly obtained by deprotonation of azolium salts, e.g., imidazolium or imidazolinium salts. Some of them are immobilized on a solid support what leads to formation of heterogeneous, recyclable catalysts. Magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are often used as a solid support for catalysts. MNPs can be easily separated from the reaction mixture using an external magnetic field. Due to their low size and high surface to volume ratio, they are a good choice for immobilization of catalysts. Herein is presented synthesis of N-heterocyclic carbene copper complexes directly on the surface of magnetic nanoparticles. Formation of four different catalysts is discussed. They vary in copper oxidation state (Cu(I) and Cu(II)) and structure of NHC ligand. Catalysts were tested in Huisgen reaction, a type of copper catalyzed azide-alkyne cycloaddition (CuAAC) reaction. Huisgen reaction represents one of the few universal and highly efficient reactions in which 1,2,3-triazoles can be obtained. The catalytic activity of all synthesized catalysts was compared with activity of commercially available ones. Different reaction conditions (solvent, temperature, the addition of reductant) and reusability of the obtained catalysts were investigated and are discussed. The project was financially supported by National Science Centre, Poland, grant no. 2016/21/N/ST5/01316. Analyses were performed in Centre of Synthesis and Analyses BioNanoTechno of University of Bialystok. The equipment in the Centre of Synthesis and Analysis BioNanoTechno of University of Bialystok was funded by EU, as a part of the Operational Program Development of Eastern Poland 2007-2013, project: POPW.01.03.00-20-034/09-00 and POPW.01.03.00-20-004/11.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, click reaction, N-heterocyclic carbenes, copper catalysts

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7 Optimization of Surface Coating on Magnetic Nanoparticles for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Xiao-Li Liu, Ling-Yun Zhao, Xing-Jie Liang, Hai-Ming Fan

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Owing to their unique properties, magnetic nanoparticles have been used as diagnostic and therapeutic agents for biomedical applications. Highly monodispersed magnetic nanoparticles with controlled particle size and surface coating have been successfully synthesized as a model system to investigate the effect of surface coating on the T2 relaxivity and specific absorption rate (SAR) under an alternating magnetic field, respectively. Amongst, by using mPEG-g-PEI to solubilize oleic-acid capped 6 nm magnetic nanoparticles, the T2 relaxivity could be significantly increased by up to 4-fold as compared to PEG coated nanoparticles. Moreover, it largely enhances the cell uptake with a T2 relaxivity of 92.6 mM-1s-1 for in vitro cell MRI. As for hyperthermia agent, SAR value increase with the decreased thickness of PEG surface coating. By elaborate optimization of surface coating and particle size, a significant increase of SAR (up to 74%) could be achieved with a minimal variation on the saturation magnetization (<5%). The 19 nm magnetic nanoparticles with 2000 Da PEG exhibited the highest SAR of 930 W•g-1 among the samples, which can be maintained in various simulated physiological conditions. This systematic work provides a general strategy for the optimization of surface coating of magnetic core for high performance MRI contrast agent and hyperthermia agent.

Keywords: Surface modification, Magnetic Hyperthermia, magnetic nanoparticles, Magnetic resonance imaging

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6 An Automated Magnetic Dispersive Solid-Phase Extraction Method for Detection of Cocaine in Human Urine

Authors: Yun Zou, Feiyu Yang, Wenbin Liu, Rong Wang, Chunfang Ni, Chenggong Zhang, Fenjin Sun, Chun Wang

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Cocaine is the most frequently used illegal drug globally, with the global annual prevalence of cocaine used ranging from 0.3% to 0.4 % of the adult population aged 15–64 years. Growing consumption trend of abused cocaine and drug crimes are a great concern, therefore urine sample testing has become an important noninvasive sampling whereas cocaine and its metabolites (COCs) are usually present in high concentrations and relatively long detection windows. However, direct analysis of urine samples is not feasible because urine complex medium often causes low sensitivity and selectivity of the determination. On the other hand, presence of low doses of analytes in urine makes an extraction and pretreatment step important before determination. Especially, in gathered taking drug cases, the pretreatment step becomes more tedious and time-consuming. So developing a sensitive, rapid and high-throughput method for detection of COCs in human body is indispensable for law enforcement officers, treatment specialists and health officials. In this work, a new automated magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction (MDSPE) sampling method followed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) was developed for quantitative enrichment of COCs from human urine, using prepared magnetic nanoparticles as absorbants. The nanoparticles were prepared by silanizing magnetic Fe3O4 nanoparticles and modifying them with divinyl benzene and vinyl pyrrolidone, which possesses the ability for specific adsorption of COCs. And this kind of magnetic particle facilitated the pretreatment steps by electromagnetically controlled extraction to achieve full automation. The proposed device significantly improved the sampling preparation efficiency with 32 samples in one batch within 40mins. Optimization of the preparation procedure for the magnetic nanoparticles was explored and the performances of magnetic nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer and infrared spectra measurements. Several analytical experimental parameters were studied, including amount of particles, adsorption time, elution solvent, extraction and desorption kinetics, and the verification of the proposed method was accomplished. The limits of detection for the cocaine and cocaine metabolites were 0.09-1.1 ng·mL-1 with recoveries ranging from 75.1 to 105.7%. Compared to traditional sampling method, this method is time-saving and environmentally friendly. It was confirmed that the proposed automated method was a kind of highly effective way for the trace cocaine and cocaine metabolites analyses in human urine.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, automatic magnetic dispersive solid-phase extraction, cocaine detection, urine sample testing

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5 Development of Electrochemical Biosensor Based on Dendrimer-Magnetic Nanoparticles for Detection of Alpha-Fetoprotein

Authors: Priyal Chikhaliwala, Sudeshna Chandra

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Liver cancer is one of the most common malignant tumors with poor prognosis. This is because liver cancer does not exhibit any symptoms in early stage of disease. Increased serum level of AFP is clinically considered as a diagnostic marker for liver malignancy. The present diagnostic modalities include various types of immunoassays, radiological studies, and biopsy. However, these tests undergo slow response times, require significant sample volumes, achieve limited sensitivity and ultimately become expensive and burdensome to patients. Considering all these aspects, electrochemical biosensors based on dendrimer-magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) was designed. Dendrimers are novel nano-sized, three-dimensional molecules with monodispersed structures. Poly-amidoamine (PAMAM) dendrimers with eight –NH₂ groups using ethylenediamine as a core molecule were synthesized using Michael addition reaction. Dendrimers provide added the advantage of not only stabilizing Fe₃O₄ NPs but also displays capability of performing multiple electron redox events and binding multiple biological ligands to its dendritic end-surface. Fe₃O₄ NPs due to its superparamagnetic behavior can be exploited for magneto-separation process. Fe₃O₄ NPs were stabilized with PAMAM dendrimer by in situ co-precipitation method. The surface coating was examined by FT-IR, XRD, VSM, and TGA analysis. Electrochemical behavior and kinetic studies were evaluated using CV which revealed that the dendrimer-Fe₃O₄ NPs can be looked upon as electrochemically active materials. Electrochemical immunosensor was designed by immobilizing anti-AFP onto dendrimer-MNPs by gluteraldehyde conjugation reaction. The bioconjugates were then incubated with AFP antigen. The immunosensor was characterized electrochemically indicating successful immuno-binding events. The binding events were also further studied using magnetic particle imaging (MPI) which is a novel imaging modality in which Fe₃O₄ NPs are used as tracer molecules with positive contrast. Multicolor MPI was able to clearly localize AFP antigen and antibody and its binding successfully. Results demonstrate immense potential in terms of biosensing and enabling MPI of AFP in clinical diagnosis.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, Electrochemical Biosensors, Dendrimers, alpha-fetoprotein

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4 Synthetic Bis(2-Pyridylmethyl)Amino-Chloroacetyl Chloride- Ethylenediamine-Grafted Graphene Oxide Sheets Combined with Magnetic Nanoparticles: Remove Metal Ions and Catalytic Application

Authors: Laroussi Chaabane, Amel El Ghali, Emmanuel Beyou, Mohamed Hassen V. Baouab

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In this research, the functionalization of graphene oxide sheets by ethylenediamine (EDA) was accomplished and followed by the grafting of bis(2-pyridylmethyl) amino group (BPED) onto the activated graphene oxide sheets in the presence of chloroacetylchloride (CAC) and then combined with magnetic nanoparticles (Fe₃O₄NPs) to produce a magnetic graphene-based composite [(Go-EDA-CAC)@Fe₃O₄NPs-BPED]. The physicochemical properties of [(Go-EDA-CAC)@Fe₃O₄NPs-BPED] composites were investigated by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Additionally, the catalysts can be easily recycled within ten seconds by using an external magnetic field. Moreover, [(Go-EDA-CAC)@Fe₃O₄NPs-BPED] was used for removing Cu(II) ions from aqueous solutions using a batch process. The effect of pH, contact time and temperature on the metal ions adsorption were investigated, however weakly dependent on ionic strength. The maximum adsorption capacity values of Cu(II) on the [(Go-EDA-CAC)@Fe₃O₄NPs-BPED] at the pH of 6 is 3.46 mmol.g⁻¹. To examine the underlying mechanism of the adsorption process, pseudo-first, pseudo-second-order, and intraparticle diffusion models were fitted to experimental kinetic data. Results showed that the pseudo-second-order equation was appropriate to describe the Cu (II) adsorption by [(Go-EDA-CAC)@Fe₃O₄NPs-BPED]. Adsorption data were further analyzed by the Langmuir, Freundlich, and Jossens adsorption approaches. Additionally, the adsorption properties of the [(Go-EDA-CAC)@Fe₃O₄NPs-BPED], their reusability (more than 6 cycles) and durability in the aqueous solutions open the path to removal of Cu(II) from water solution. Based on the results obtained, we report the activity of Cu(II) supported on [(Go-EDA-CAC)@Fe₃O₄NPs-BPED] as a catalyst for the cross-coupling of symmetric alkynes.

Keywords: Graphene, magnetic nanoparticles, adsorption kinetics/isotherms, cross coupling

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3 Mathematical Modelling of Blood Flow with Magnetic Nanoparticles as Carrier for Targeted Drug Delivery in a Stenosed Artery

Authors: Sreeparna Majee, G. C. Shit

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A study on targeted drug delivery is carried out in an unsteady flow of blood infused with magnetic NPs (nanoparticles) with an aim to understand the flow pattern and nanoparticle aggregation in a diseased arterial segment having stenosis. The magnetic NPs are supervised by the magnetic field which is significant for therapeutic treatment of arterial diseases, tumor and cancer cells and removing blood clots. Coupled thermal energy have also been analyzed by considering dissipation of energy because of the application of the magnetic field and the viscosity of blood. Simulation technique used to solve the mathematical model is vorticity-stream function formulations in the diseased artery. An elevation in SLP (Specific loss power) is noted in the aortic bloodstream when the agglomeration of nanoparticles is higher. This phenomenon has potential application in the treatment of hyperthermia. The study focuses on the lowering of WSS (Wall Shear Stress) with increasing particle concentration at the downstream of the stenosis which depicts the vigorous flow circulation zone. These low shear stress regions prolong the residing time of the nanoparticles carrying drugs which soaks up the LDL (Low Density Lipoprotein) deposition. Moreover, an increase in NP concentration enhances the Nusselt number which marks the increase of heat transfer from the arterial wall to the surrounding tissues to destroy tumor and cancer cells without affecting the healthy cells. The results have a significant influence in the study of medicine, to treat arterial diseases such as atherosclerosis without the need for surgery which can minimize the expenditures on cardiovascular treatments.

Keywords: Atherosclerosis, magnetic nanoparticles, hyperthermia, blood flow

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2 Advances in Axonal Biomechanics and Mechanobiology: A Nanotechnology-Based Approach to the Study of Mechanotransduction of Axonal Growth

Authors: Alessandro Falconieri, Sara De Vincentiis, Vittoria Raffa

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Mechanical force regulates axonal growth, elongation and maturation processes. This force is opening new frontiers in the field, contributing to a general understanding of the mechanisms of axon growth that, in the past, was thought to be governed exclusively by the growth cone and its ability to influence axonal growth in response to chemical signals. A method recently developed in our laboratory allows, through the labeling of neurons with magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) and the use of permanent magnets, to apply extremely low mechanical forces, similar to those generated endogenously by the growth cone or by the increase of body mass during the organism growth. We found that these extremely low forces strongly enhance the spontaneous axonal elongation rate as well as neuronal sprouting. Data obtained don’t exclude that local phenomena, such as local transport and local translation, may be involved. These new advances could shed new light on what happens when the cell is subjected to external mechanical forces, opening new interesting scenarios in the field of mechanobiology.

Keywords: magnetic nanoparticles, axon, Mechanotransduction, external mechanical forces

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