Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 47

Magnetic Field Related Abstracts

47 Revolving Ferrofluid Flow in Porous Medium with Rotating Disk

Authors: Vikas Kumar, Paras Ram

Abstract:

The transmission of Malaria with seasonal were studied through the use of mathematical models. The data from the annual number of Malaria cases reported to the Division of Epidemiology, Ministry of Public Health, Thailand during the period 1997-2011 were analyzed. The transmission of Malaria with seasonal was studied by formulating a mathematical model which had been modified to describe different situations encountered in the transmission of Malaria. In our model, the population was separated into two groups: the human and vector groups, and then constructed a system of nonlinear differential equations. Each human group was divided into susceptible, infectious in hot season, infectious in rainy season, infectious in cool season and recovered classes. The vector population was separated into two classes only: susceptible and infectious vectors. The analysis of the models was given by the standard dynamical modeling.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, ferrofluid, porous medium, rotating disk, Neuringer-Rosensweig Model

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46 Magnetoviscous Effects on Axi-Symmetric Ferrofluid Flow over a Porous Rotating Disk with Suction/Injection

Authors: Vikas Kumar

Abstract:

The present study is carried out to investigate the magneto-viscous effects on incompressible ferrofluid flow over a porous rotating disc with suction or injection on the surface of the disc subjected to a magnetic field. The flow under consideration is axi-symmetric steady ferrofluid flow of electrically non-conducting fluid. Karman’s transformation is used to convert the governing boundary layer equations involved in the problem to a system of non linear coupled differential equations. The solution of this system is obtained by using power series approximation. The flow characteristics i.e. radial, tangential, axial velocities and boundary layer displacement thickness are calculated for various values of MFD (magnetic field dependent) viscosity and for different values of suction injection parameter. Besides this, skin friction coefficients are also calculated on the surface of the disk. Thus, the obtained results are presented numerically and graphically in the paper.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, ferrofluid, axi-symmetric, porous rotating disk

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45 Effects of Magnetic Field Strength on Fluid Flow Behavior in a Constricted Channel

Authors: Ashkan Javadzadegan, Aitak Javadzadegan, Babak Fakhim

Abstract:

One of possible ways to retard movement of fluid is through applying an external magnetic field. In this regard, this study is focused on the effect of a uniform transverse magnetic field on fluid flow behavior inside a channel with a local symmetric constriction. Also, Ellis Non-Newtonian model is implemented to address the effects of shear-dependent viscosity. According to the results, the flow separation downstream of the constriction can be controlled by applying an external magnetic field and/or manipulating the shear-thinning degree of fluid. It is also demonstrated that pressure drop increases by an increase in the strength of the magnetic field.

Keywords: separation, Magnetic Field, non-Newtonian, shear thinning

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44 Evaluation of the Effect of Magnetic Field on Fibroblast Attachment in Contact with PHB/Iron Oxide Nanocomposite

Authors: Sajjad Seifi Mofarah, Shokooh Moghadam, Mohammad Taghi Khorasani, M. Daliri

Abstract:

Through the recent two decades, the use of magnetic-property materials with the aim of target cell’s separation and eventually cancer treatment has incredibly increased. Numerous factors can alter the efficacy of this method on curing. In this project, the effect of magnetic field on adhesion of PDL and L929 cells on nanocomposite of iron oxide/PHB with different density of iron oxides (1%, 2.5%, 5%) has been studied. The nanocamposite mentioned includes a polymeric film of poly hydroxyl butyrate and γ-Fe2O3 particles with the average size of 25 nanometer dispersed in it and during this process, poly vinyl alcohol with 98% hydrolyzed and 78000 molecular weight was used as an emulsion to achieve uniform distribution. In order to get the homogenous film, the solution of PHB and iron oxide nanoparticles were put in a dry freezer and in liquid nitrogen, which resulted in a uniform porous scaffold and for removing porosities a 100◦C press was used. After the synthesis of a desirable nanocomposite film, many different tests were performed, First, the particles size and their distribution in the film were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and even FTIR analysis and DMTA test were run in order to observe and accredit the chemical connections and mechanical properties of nanocomposites respectively. By comparing the graphs of case and control samples, it was established that adding nano particles caused an increase in crystallization temperature and the more density of γ-Fe2O3 lead to more Tg (glass temperature). Furthermore, its dispersion range and dumping property of samples were raised up. Moreover, the toxicity, morphologic changes and adhesion of fibroblast and cancer cells were evaluated by a variety of tests. All samples were grown in different density and in contact with cells for 24 and 48 hours within the magnetic fields of 2×10^-3 Tesla. After 48 hours, the samples were photographed with an optic and SEM and no sign of toxicity was traced. The number of cancer cells in the case of sample group was fairly more than the control group. However, there are many gaps and unclear aspects to use magnetic field and their effects in cancer and all diseases treatments yet to be discovered, not to neglect that there have been prominent step on this way in these recent years and we hope this project can be at least a minimum movement in this issue.

Keywords: nanocomposite, Cytotoxicity, Magnetic Field, cell attachment

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43 The Effect of Extremely Low Frequency Magnetic Field on Rats Brain

Authors: Omar Abdalla, Abdelfatah Ahmed, Ahmed Mustafa, Abdelazem Eldouma

Abstract:

The purpose of this study is evaluating the effect of extremely low frequency magnetic field on Waster rats brain. The number of rats used in this study were 25, which were divided into five groups, each group containing five rats as follows: Group 1: The control group which was not exposed to energized field; Group 2: Rats were exposed to a magnetic field with an intensity of 0.6 mT (2 hours/day); Group 3: Rats were exposed to a magnetic field of 1.2 mT (2 hours/day); Group4: Rats were exposed to a magnetic field of 1.8 mT (2 hours/day); Group 5: Rats were exposed to a magnetic field of 2.4 mT (2 hours/day) and all groups were exposed for seven days, by designing a maze and calculating the time average for arriving to the decoy at special conditions. We found the time average before exposure for the all groups was G2=330 s, G3=172 s, G4=500 s and G5=174 s, respectively. We exposed all groups to ELF-MF and measured the time and we found: G2=465 s, G3=388 s, G4=501 s, and G5=442 s. It was observed that the time average increased directly with field strength. Histological samples of frontal lop of brain for all groups were taken and we found lesion, atrophy, empty vacuoles and disorder choroid plexus at frontal lope of brain. And finally we observed the disorder of choroid plexus in histological results and Alzheimer's symptoms increase when the magnetic field increases.

Keywords: Biophysics, Magnetic Field, shrinkage, nonionizing radiation

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42 Magnetohydrodynamic Flow of Viscoelastic Nanofluid and Heat Transfer over a Stretching Surface with Non-Uniform Heat Source/Sink and Non-Linear Radiation

Authors: S. S. Motsa, Md. S. Ansari

Abstract:

In this paper, an analysis has been made on the flow of non-Newtonian viscoelastic nanofluid over a linearly stretching sheet under the influence of uniform magnetic field. Heat transfer characteristics is analyzed taking into the effect of nonlinear radiation and non-uniform heat source/sink. Transport equations contain the simultaneous effects of Brownian motion and thermophoretic diffusion of nanoparticles. The relevant partial differential equations are non-dimensionalized and transformed into ordinary differential equations by using appropriate similarity transformations. The transformed, highly nonlinear, ordinary differential equations are solved by spectral local linearisation method. The numerical convergence, error and stability analysis of iteration schemes are presented. The effects of different controlling parameters, namely, radiation, space and temperature-dependent heat source/sink, Brownian motion, thermophoresis, viscoelastic, Lewis number and the magnetic force parameter on the flow field, heat transfer characteristics and nanoparticles concentration are examined. The present investigation has many industrial and engineering applications in the fields of coatings and suspensions, cooling of metallic plates, oils and grease, paper production, coal water or coal–oil slurries, heat exchangers’ technology, and materials’ processing and exploiting.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, non-uniform heat source/sink, nonlinear radiation, similar solution, spectral local linearisation method, Rosseland diffusion approximation

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41 Experimental Investigation of the Thermal Performance of Fe2O3 under Magnetic Field in an Oscillating Heat Pipe

Authors: H. R. Goshayeshi, M. Khalouei, S. Azarberamman

Abstract:

This paper presents an experimental investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nano particles added to kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field. The experiment was made on Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP). The experiment was performed in order to measure the temperature distribution and compare the heat transfer rate of the oscillating heat pipe with and without magnetic Field. Results showed that the addition of Fe2o3 nano particles under magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP, compare with non-magnetic field. Furthermore applying a magnetic field enhance the heat transfer characteristic of Fe2O3 in both start up and steady state conditions. This paper presents an experimental investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nano particles added to kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field. The experiment was made on Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP). The experiment was performed in order to measure the temperature distribution and compare the heat transfer rate of the oscillating heat pipe with and without magnetic Field. Results showed that the addition of Fe2o3 nano particles under magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP, compare with non-magnetic field. Furthermore applying a magnetic field enhance the heat transfer characteristic of Fe2O3 in both start up and steady state conditions.

Keywords: Experimental, Heat Transfer, Magnetic Field, oscillating heat pipe

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40 Effect of Magnetic Field on Mixed Convection Boundary Layer Flow over an Exponentially Shrinking Vertical Sheet with Suction

Authors: N. Bachok, N. M. Arifin, F. M. Ali, R. Nazar, I. Pop, S. S. P. M. Isa

Abstract:

A theoretical study has been presented to describe the boundary layer flow and heat transfer on an exponentially shrinking sheet with a variable wall temperature and suction, in the presence of magnetic field. The governing nonlinear partial differential equations are converted into ordinary differential equations by similarity transformation, which are then solved numerically using the shooting method. Results for the skin friction coefficient, local Nusselt number, velocity profiles as well as temperature profiles are presented through graphs and tables for several sets of values of the parameters. The effects of the governing parameters on the flow and heat transfer characteristics are thoroughly examined.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, mixed convection, exponentially shrinking sheet, suction

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39 Hydromagnetic Linear Instability Analysis of Giesekus Fluids in Taylor-Couette Flow

Authors: K. Godazandeh, K. Sadeghy

Abstract:

In the present study, the effect of magnetic field on the hydrodynamic instability of Taylor-Couette flow between two concentric rotating cylinders has been numerically investigated. At the beginning the basic flow has been solved using continuity, Cauchy equations (with regards to Lorentz force) and the constitutive equations of a viscoelastic model called "Giesekus" model. Small perturbations, considered to be normal mode, have been superimposed to the basic flow and the unsteady perturbation equations have been derived consequently. Neglecting non-linear terms, the general eigenvalue problem obtained has been solved using pseudo spectral method (combination of Chebyshev polynomials). The objective of the calculations is to study the effect of magnetic fields on the onset of first mode of instability (axisymmetric mode) for different dimensionless parameters of the flow. The results show that the stability picture is highly influenced by the magnetic field. When magnetic field increases, it first has a destabilization effect which changes to stabilization effect due to more increase of magnetic fields. Therefor there is a critical magnetic number (Hartmann number) for instability of Taylor-Couette flow. Also, the effect of magnetic field is more dominant in large gaps. Also based on the results obtained, magnetic field shows a more considerable effect on the stability at higher Weissenberg numbers (at higher elasticity), while the "mobility factor" changes show no dominant role on the intense of suction and injection effect on the flow's instability.

Keywords: Taylor-Couette flow, Magnetic Field, Giesekus model, pseudo spectral method, Chebyshev polynomials, Hartmann number, Weissenberg number, mobility factor

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38 Magnetic Field Induced Mechanical Behavior of Fluid Filled Carbon Nanotube Foam

Authors: Abha Misra, Siva Kumar Reddy, Anwesha Mukherjee

Abstract:

Excellent energy absorption capability in carbon nanotubes (CNT) is shown in their bulk structure that behaves like super compressible foam. Furthermore, a tunable mechanical behavior of CNT foam is achieved using several methods like changing the concentration of precursors, polymer impregnation, non covalent functionalization of CNT microstructure etc. Influence of magnetic field on compressive behavior of magnetic CNT demonstrated an enhanced peak stress and energy absorption capability, which does not require any surface and structural modification of the foam. This presentation discusses the mechanical behavior of micro porous CNT foam that is impregnated in magnetic field responsive fluid. Magnetic particles are dispersed in a nonmagnetic fluid so that alignment of both particles and CNT could play a crucial role in controlling the stiffness of the overall structure. It is revealed that the compressive behavior of CNT foam critically depends on the fluid viscosity as well as magnetic field intensity. Both peak Stress and energy absorption in CNT foam followed a power law behavior with the increase in the magnetic field intensity. However, in the absence of magnetic field, both peak stress and energy absorption capability of CNT foam presented a linear dependence on the fluid viscosity. Hence, this work demonstrates the role magnetic filed in controlling the mechanical behavior of the foams prepared at nanoscale.

Keywords: Carbon Nanotubes, Magnetic Field, energy absorption capability and viscosity

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37 Magneto-Hydrodynamic Mixed Convection of Water-Al2O3 Nanofluid in a Wavy Lid-Driven Cavity

Authors: Farshid Fathinia

Abstract:

This paper examines numerically the laminar steady magneto-hydrodynamic mixed convection flow and heat transfer in a wavy lid-driven cavity filled with water-Al2O3 nanofluid using FDM method. The left and right sidewalls of the cavity have a wavy geometry and are maintained at a cold and hot temperature, respectively. The top and bottom walls are considered flat and insulated while, the bottom wall moves from left to right direction with a uniform lid-driven velocity. A magnetic field is applied vertically downward on the bottom wall of the cavity. Based on the numerical results, the effects of the dominant parameters such as Rayleigh number, Hartmann number, solid volume fraction, and wavy wall geometry parameters are examined. The numerical results are obtained for Hartmann number varying as 0 ≤ Ha ≤ 0.6, Rayleigh numbers varying as 103≤ Ra ≤105, and the solid volume fractions varying as 0 ≤ φ ≤ 0.0003. Comparisons with previously published numerical works on mixed convection in a nanofluid filled cavity are performed and good agreements between the results are observed. It is found that the flow circulation and mean Nusselt number decrease as the solid volume fraction and Hartmann number increase. Moreover, the convection enhances when the amplitude ratio of the wavy surface increases. The results also show that both the flow and thermal fields are significantly affected by the amplitude ratio (i.e., wave form) of the wavy wall.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Magnetic Field, mixed convection, wavy cavity, lid-driven, SPH method

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36 Annular Axi-Symmetric Stagnation Flow of Electrically Conducting Fluid on a Moving Cylinder in the Presence of Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: Deva Kanta Phukan

Abstract:

An attempt is made where an electrically conducting fluid is injected from a fixed outer cylindrical casing onto an inner moving cylindrical rod. A magnetic field is applied parallel to the axis of the cylindrical rod. The basic governing set of partial differential equations for conservation of mass and momentum are reduced to a set of non-linear ordinary differential equation by introducing similarity transformation, which are integrated numerically. A perturbation solution for the case of large magnetic parameter is derived for constant Reynolds number.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, annular axi-symmetric stagnation flow, conducting fluid, moving cylinder

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35 Soret and Dufour's Effects on Mixed Convection Unsteady MHD Boundary Layer Flow over a Stretching Sheet Embedded in a Porous Medium with Chemically Reactive Spices

Authors: Deva Kanta Phukan

Abstract:

An investigation is made to carry out to study the thermal-diffusion and diffusion thermo-effects in hydro-magnetic unsteady flow by a mixed convection boundary layer past an impermeable vertical stretching sheet embedded in a conducting fluid-saturated porous medium in the presence of a chemical reaction effect. The velocity of stretching surface, the surface temperature and the concentration are assumed to vary linearly with the distance along the surface. The governing partial differential equations are transformed in to self similar unsteady equations using similarity transformations and solved numerically by the Runge kutta fourth order scheme in association with the shooting method for the whole transient domain from the initial state to the final steady state flow. Numerical results for the velocity, temperature, the concentration, the skin friction , and the Nusselt and Sherwood numbers are shown graphically for various flow parameters. The results reveal that there is a smooth transition of flow from unsteady state to the final steady state. A special case of our results is in good agreement with an earlier published work.

Keywords: Heat and Mass Transfer, Porous Media, Magnetic Field, boundary layer flow, Soret number, Dufour’s number

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34 Swirling Flows with Heat Transfer in a Cylindrical under Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: B. Mahfoud, R. Harouz

Abstract:

The present work examine numerically the effect of axial magnetic field on mixed convection through a cylindrical cavity, filled with a liquid metal and having a rotating top and bottom disks. Effects of Richardson number (Ri = 0, 0.5, 1, and 2) and Hartman number (Ha = 0, 5, 10, and 20) on temperature and flow fields were analyzed. The basic state of this system is steady and axisymmetric, when the counter-rotation is sufficiently large, producing a free shear layer. This shear layer is unstable and different complex flows appear successively: steady states with an azimuthal wavenumber of 1; travelling waves and steady states with an azimuthal wavenumber of 2. Mixed modes and azimuthal wavenumber of 3 are also found with increasing Hartmann number. The stability diagram (Recr-Ha) corresponding to the axisymmetric-three-dimensional transition for increasing values of the axial magnetic field is obtained.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, instabilities, axisymmetric, counter-rotating, magnetohydrodynamic, wavenumber

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33 Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Nanostructures in Strong Magnetic Field

Authors: M. Kalbac, T. Verhagen, K. Drogowska, J. Vejpravova

Abstract:

One- and two-dimensional carbon nano structures with sp2 hybridization of carbon atoms (single walled carbon nano tubes and graphene) are promising materials in future electronic and spintronics devices due to specific character of their electronic structure. In this paper, we present a comparative study of graphene and single-wall carbon nano tubes by Raman spectro-microscopy in strong magnetic field. This unique method allows to study changes in electronic band structure of the two types of carbon nano structures induced by a strong magnetic field.

Keywords: Raman spectroscopy, Carbon Nano Structures, Magnetic Field, spectro-microscopy

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32 Yang-Lee Edge Singularity of the Infinite-Range Ising Model

Authors: Seung-Yeon Kim

Abstract:

The Ising model, consisting magnetic spins, is the simplest system showing phase transitions and critical phenomena at finite temperatures. The Ising model has played a central role in our understanding of phase transitions and critical phenomena. Also, the Ising model explains the gas-liquid phase transitions accurately. However, the Ising model in a nonzero magnetic field has been one of the most intriguing and outstanding unsolved problems. We study analytically the partition function zeros in the complex magnetic-field plane and the Yang-Lee edge singularity of the infinite-range Ising model in an external magnetic field. In addition, we compare the Yang-Lee edge singularity of the infinite-range Ising model with that of the square-lattice Ising model in an external magnetic field.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, Ising ferromagnet, partition function zeros, Yang-Lee edge singularity

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31 Rheological Properties of Polymer Systems in Magnetic Field

Authors: T. S. Soliman, A. G. Galyas, E. V. Rusinova, S. A. Vshivkov

Abstract:

The liquid crystals combining properties of a liquid and an anisotropic crystal substance play an important role in a science and engineering. Molecules of cellulose and its derivatives have rigid helical conformation, stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Therefore the macromolecules of these polymers are capable to be ordered at dissolution and form liquid crystals of cholesteric type. Phase diagrams of solutions of some cellulose derivatives are known. However, little is known about the effect of a magnetic field on the viscosity of polymer solutions. The systems hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) – ethanol, HPC – ethylene glycol, HPC–DМАA, HPC–DMF, ethyl cellulose (EC)–ethanol, EC–DMF, were studied in the presence and absence of magnetic field. The solution viscosity was determined on a Rheotest RN 4.1 rheometer. The effect of a magnetic field on the solution properties was studied with the use of two magnets, which induces a magnetic-field-lines directed perpendicularly and parallel to the rotational axis of a rotor. Application of the magnetic field is shown to be accompanied by an increase in the additional assembly of macromolecules, as is evident from a gain in the radii of light scattering particles. In the presence of a magnetic field, the long chains of macromolecules are oriented in parallel with field lines. Such an orientation is associated with the molecular diamagnetic anisotropy of macromolecules. As a result, supramolecular particles are formed, especially in the vicinity of the region of liquid crystalline phase transition. The magnetic field leads to the increase in viscosity of solutions. The results were used to plot the concentration dependence of η/η0, where η and η0 are the viscosities of solutions in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, respectively. In this case, the values of viscosity corresponding to low shear rates were chosen because the concentration dependence of viscosity at low shear rates is typical for anisotropic systems. In the investigated composition range, the values of η/η0 are described by a curve with a maximum.

Keywords: Rheology, Liquid crystals, Magnetic Field, cellulose ethers

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30 Electrodeposition of Nickel-Zinc Alloy on Stainless Steel in a Magnetic Field in a Chloride Environment

Authors: Naima Benachour, Sabiha Chouchane, J. Paul Chopart

Abstract:

The objective of this work is to determine the appropriate conditions for a Ni-Zn deposit with good nickel content. The electrodeposition of zinc-nickel on a stainless steel is carried out in a chlorinated bath NiCl2.6H2O, ZnCl2, and H3BO3), whose composition is 1.1 M; 1.8 M; 0.1 M respectively. Studies show the effect of the concentration of NH4Cl, which reveals a significant effect on the reduction and ion transport in the electrolyte. In order to highlight the influence of magnetic field on the chemical composition and morphology of the deposit, chronopotentiometry tests were conducted, the curves obtained inform us that the application of a magnetic field promotes stability of the deposit. Characterization developed deposits was performed by scanning electron microscopy coupled with EDX and specified by the X-ray diffraction.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, electroplating, Zn-Ni alloys, chronopotentiometry

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29 Magnetic Field Effects on Seed Germination of Phaseolus Vulgaris, Early Seedling Growth, and Chemical Composition

Authors: Farzad Tofigh, Saeideh Najafi, Reza Heidari, Rashid Jamei

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of magnetic field on the root system and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris, an experiment was conducted in 2012. The possible involvement of magnetic field (MF) pretreatment in physiological factors of Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated. Seeds were subjected to 10 days with 1.8 mT of magnetic field for 1h per day. MF pretreatment decreased the plant height, fresh and dry weight, length of root and length of shoot, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in 10 days old seedling. In addition, activity of enzymes such as Catalase and Guaiacol peroxidase was decreased due to MF exposure. Also, the total Protein and DPPH content of the treated by magnetic field was not significantly changed in compare to control groups, while the flavonoid, Phenol and prolin content of the treated of the treated by magnetic field was significantly changed in compare to control groups. Lateral branches of roots and secondary roots increased with MF. The results suggest that pretreatment of this MF plays important roles in changes in crop productivity. In all cases there was observed a slight stimulating effect of the factors examined. The growth dynamics were weakened. The plants were shorter. Moreover, the effect of a magnetic field on the crop of Phaseolus vulgaris and its structure was small.

Keywords: Protein, Growth, Enzymes, Magnetic Field, Germination, flavonoid, DPPH, proline, phenol, carotenoid, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b

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28 Field Effects on Seed Germination of Phaseolus Vulgaris, Early Seedling Growth and Chemical Composition

Authors: Najafi S., Heidai R., Jamei R., Tofigh F.

Abstract:

In order to study the effects of magnetic field on the root system and growth of Phaseolus vulgaris, an experiment was conducted in 2012. The possible involvement of magnetic field (MF) pretreatment in physiological factors of Phaseolus vulgaris was investigated. Seeds were subjected to 10 days with 1.8 mT of magnetic field for 1h per day. MF pretreatment decreased the plant height, fresh and dry weight, length of root and length of shoot, Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b and carotenoid in 10 days old seedling. In addition, activity of enzymes such as Catalase and Guaiacol peroxidase was decreased due to MF exposure. Also, the total Protein and DPPH content of the treated by magnetic field was not significantly changed in compare to control groups, while the flavonoid, Phenol and prolin content of the treated of the treated by magnetic field was significantly changed in compare to control groups. Lateral branches of roots and secondary roots increased with MF. The results suggest that pretreatment of this MF plays important roles in changes in crop productivity. In all cases there was observed a slight stimulating effect of the factors examined. The growth dynamics were weakened. The plants were shorter. Moreover, the effect of a magnetic field on the crop of Phaseolus vulgaris and its structure was small.

Keywords: Protein, Growth, Enzymes, Magnetic Field, Germination, Phaseolus vulgaris, flavonoid, DPPH, proline, phenol, carotenoid, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b

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27 Effect of Magnetic Field in Treatment of Lower Back Myofascial Pain Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Trial

Authors: Ahmed M. F. El Shiwi

Abstract:

Background: Low back pain affects about 60% to 90% of the working-age population in modern industrial society. Myofascial pain syndrome is a condition characterized by muscles shortening with increased tone and associated with trigger points that aggravated with the activity of daily living. Purpose: To examine the effects of magnetic field therapy in patients with lower back myofascial pain syndrome. Methods: Thirty patients were assigned randomly into two groups. Subjects in the experimental group (n=15) with main age of 36.73 (2.52) received traditional physical therapy program (Infrared radiation, ultrasonic, stretching and strengthening exercises for back muscles) as well as magnetic field, and control group (n=15) with main age of 37.27 (2.52) received traditional physical therapy only. The following parameters including pain severity, functional disability and lumbar range of motion (flexion, extension, right side bending, and left side bending) were measured before and after four weeks of treatment. Results: The results showed significant improvement in all parameters in the experimental group compared with those in the control group. Interpretation/Conclusion: By the present date, it is possible to conclude that a magnetic field is effective as a method of treatment for lower back myofascial pain syndrome patients with the parameters used in the present study.

Keywords: Biological Systems Engineering, Magnetic Field, lower back pain, myofascial pain syndrome

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26 Magnetohydrodynamic Flows in a Conduit with Multiple Channels under a Magnetic Field Applied Perpendicular to the Plane of Flow

Authors: Yang Luo, Chang Nyung Kim

Abstract:

This study numerically analyzes a steady-state, three-dimensional liquid-metal magnetohydrodynamic flows in a conduit with multiple channels under a uniform magnetic field. The geometry of the conduit is of a four-parallel-channels system including one inflow channel and three outflow channels. The liquid-metal flows in the inflow channel, then turns 1800 in the transition segment, finally flows into three different outflow channels simultaneously. This kind of channel system can induce counter flow and co-flow, which is rarely investigated before. The axial velocity in the side layer near the first partitioning wall, which is located between the inflow channel and the first outflow channel, is the highest. ‘M-shaped’ velocity profiles are obtained in the side layers of the inflow and outflow channels. The interdependency of the current, fluid velocity, pressure, electric potential is examined in order to describe the electromagnetic characteristics of the liquid-metal flows.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, magnetohydrodynamic, liquid-metal, multiple channels

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25 Possible Exposure of Persons with Cardiac Pacemakers to Extremely Low Frequency (ELF) Electric and Magnetic Fields

Authors: Leena Korpinen, Rauno Pääkkönen, Fabriziomaria Gobba, Vesa Virtanen

Abstract:

The number of persons with implanted cardiac pacemakers (PM) has increased in Western countries. The aim of this paper is to investigate the possible situations where persons with a PM may be exposed to extremely low frequency (ELF) electric (EF) and magnetic fields (MF) that may disturb their PM. Based on our earlier studies, it is possible to find such high public exposure to EFs only in some places near 400 kV power lines, where an EF may disturb a PM in unipolar mode. Such EFs cannot be found near 110 kV power lines. Disturbing MFs can be found near welding machines. However, we do not have measurement data from welding. Based on literature and earlier studies at Tampere University of Technology, it is difficult to find public EF or MF exposure that is high enough to interfere with PMs.

Keywords: Electrical Engineering, Cardiac Pacemaker, Magnetic Field, Electric Field

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24 Steady and Oscillatory States of Swirling Flows under an Axial Magnetic Field

Authors: Brahim Mahfoud, Rachid Bessaïh

Abstract:

In this paper, a numerical study of steady and oscillatory flows with heat transfer submitted to an axial magnetic field is studied. The governing Navier-Stokes, energy, and potential equations along with appropriate boundary conditions are solved by using the finite-volume method. The flow and temperature fields are presented by stream function and isotherms, respectively. The flow between counter-rotating end disks is very unstable and reveals a great richness of structures. The results are presented for various values of the Hartmann number, Ha=5, 10, 20, and 30, and Richardson numbers , Ri=0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4, in order to see their effects on the value of the critical Reynolds number, Recr. Stability diagrams are established according to the numerical results of this investigation. These diagrams put in evidence the dependence of Recr with the increase of Ha for various values of Ri.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, cylinder, swirling, counter-rotating end disks, oscillatory

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23 Experimental Investigation with Different Inclination Angles on Copper Oscillating Heat Pipes Performance Using Fe2O3 / Kerosene under Magnetic Field

Authors: H. R. Goshayeshi, M. Mansori, M. Ahmady, M. Zhaloyi

Abstract:

This paper presents the result of an experimental investigation regarding the use of Fe2O3 nanoparticles added to Kerosene as a working fluid, under magnetic field for Copper Oscillating Heat pipe with inclination angle of 0°(horizontal), 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, 75°, and 90° (vertical). The following were examined; measure the temperature distribution and heat transfer rate on Oscillating Heat Pipe (OHP), with magnetic field under different angles. Results showed that the addition of Fe2O3 nanoparticles under magnetic field improved thermal performance of OHP especially in 75°.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, Fe2O3, copper oscillating heat pipe, inclination angles

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22 Effect an Axial Magnetic Field in Co-rotating Flow Heated from Below

Authors: B. Mahfoud, A. Bendjagloli

Abstract:

The effect of an axial magnetic field on the flow produced by co-rotation of the top and bottom disks in a vertical cylindrical heated from below is numerically analyzed. The governing Navier-Stokes, energy, and potential equations are solved by using the finite-volume method. It was observed that the Reynolds number is increased, the axisymmetric basic state loses stability to circular patterns of axisymmetric vortices and spiral waves. In mixed convection case the axisymmetric mode disappears giving an asymmetric mode m=1. It was also found that the primary thresholds Recr corresponding to the modes m=1and 2, increase with increasing of the Hartmann number (Ha). Finally, stability diagrams have been established according to the numerical results of this investigation. These diagrams giving the evolution of the primary thresholds as a function of the Hartmann number for various values of the Richardson number.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, Vortices, bifurcation, co-rotating end disks, stability diagrams

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21 A Numerical Simulation of Arterial Mass Transport in Presence of Magnetic Field-Links to Atherosclerosis

Authors: H. Aminfar, M. Mohammadpourfard, K. Khajeh

Abstract:

This paper has focused on the most important parameters in the LSC uptake; inlet Re number and Sc number in the presence of non-uniform magnetic field. The magnetic field is arising from the thin wire with electric current placed vertically to the arterial blood vessel. According to the results of this study, applying magnetic field can be a treatment for atherosclerosis by reducing LSC along the vessel wall. Homogeneous porous layer as a arterial wall has been regarded. Blood flow has been considered laminar and incompressible containing Ferro fluid (blood and 4 % vol. Fe₃O₄) under steady state conditions. Numerical solution of governing equations was obtained by using the single-phase model and control volume technique for flow field.

Keywords: Computational Fluid Dynamics, Magnetic Field, LDL surface concentration (LSC), porous wall

Procedia PDF Downloads 258
20 Least Squares Method Identification of Corona Current-Voltage Characteristics and Electromagnetic Field in Electrostatic Precipitator

Authors: H. Nouri, Y. Zebboudj, I. E. Achouri, A. Grimes, H. Ait Said, M. Aissou

Abstract:

This paper aims to analysis the behaviour of DC corona discharge in wire-to-plate electrostatic precipitators (ESP). Current-voltage curves are particularly analysed. Experimental results show that discharge current is strongly affected by the applied voltage. The proposed method of current identification is to use the method of least squares. Least squares problems that of into two categories: linear or ordinary least squares and non-linear least squares, depending on whether or not the residuals are linear in all unknowns. The linear least-squares problem occurs in statistical regression analysis; it has a closed-form solution. A closed-form solution (or closed form expression) is any formula that can be evaluated in a finite number of standard operations. The non-linear problem has no closed-form solution and is usually solved by iterative.

Keywords: Magnetic Field, Electric Field, electrostatic precipitator, current-voltage characteristics, least squares method

Procedia PDF Downloads 216
19 Comparison between Simulation and Experimentally Observed Interactions between Two Different Sized Magnetic Beads in a Fluidic System

Authors: Olayinka Oduwole, Steve Sheard

Abstract:

The magnetic separation of biological cells using super-magnetic beads has been used widely for various bioassays. These bioassays can further be integrated with other laboratory components to form a biosensor which can be used for cell sorting, mixing, purification, transport, manipulation etc. These bio-sensing applications have also been facilitated by the wide availability of magnetic beads which range in size and magnetic properties produced by different manufacturers. In order to improve the efficiency and separation capabilities of these biosensors, it is important to determine the magnetic force induced velocities and interaction of beads within the magnetic field; this will help biosensor users choose the desired magnetic bead for their specific application. This study presents for the first time the interaction between a pair of different sized super-paramagnetic beads suspended in a static fluid moving within a uniform magnetic field using a modified finite-time-finite-difference scheme. A captured video was used to record the trajectory pattern and a good agreement was obtained between the simulated trajectories and the video data. The model is, therefore, a good approximation for predicting the velocities as well as the interaction between various magnetic particles which differ in size and magnetic properties for bio-sensing applications requiring a low concentration of magnetic beads.

Keywords: Biosensor, Magnetic Field, Magnetic Separation, super-paramagnetic bead

Procedia PDF Downloads 318
18 Numerical Study of Natural Convection in a Nanofluid-Filled Vertical Cylinder under an External Magnetic Field

Authors: R. Bessaih, M. Maache

Abstract:

In this study, the effect of the magnetic field direction on the free convection heat transfer in a vertical cylinder filled with an Al₂O₃ nanofluid is investigated numerically. The external magnetic field is applied in either direction axial and radial on a cylinder having an aspect ratio H/R0=5, bounded by the top and the bottom disks at temperatures Tc and Th and by an adiabatic side wall. The equations of continuity, Navier Stocks and energy are non-dimensionalized and then discretized by the finite volume method. A computer program based on the SIMPLER algorithm is developed and compared with the numerical results found in the literature. The numerical investigation is carried out for different governing parameters namely: The Hartmann number (Ha=0, 5, 10, …, 40), nanoparticles volume fraction (ϕ=0, 0.025, …,0.1) and Rayleigh number (Ra=103, Ra=104 and Ra=105). The behavior of average Nusselt number, streamlines and temperature contours are illustrated. The results revel that the average Nusselt number increases with an increase of the Rayleigh number but it decreases with an increase in the Hartmann number. Depending on the magnetic field direction and on the values of Hartmann and Rayleigh numbers, an increase of the solid volume fraction may result enhancement or deterioration of the heat transfer performance in the nanofluid.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Magnetic Field, natural convection, vertical cylinder

Procedia PDF Downloads 172