Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Magnesium Related Abstracts

23 Practical Method for Failure Prediction of Mg Alloy Sheets during Warm Forming Processes

Authors: Sang-Woo Kim, Young-Seon Lee

Abstract:

An important concern in metal forming, even at elevated temperatures, is whether a desired deformation can be accomplished without any failure of the material. A detailed understanding of the critical condition for crack initiation provides not only the workability limit of a material but also a guide-line for process design. This paper describes the utilization of ductile fracture criteria in conjunction with the finite element method (FEM) for predicting the onset of fracture in warm metal working processes of magnesium alloy sheets. Critical damage values for various ductile fracture criteria were determined from uniaxial tensile tests and were expressed as the function of strain rate and temperature. In order to find the best criterion for failure prediction, Erichsen cupping tests under isothermal conditions and FE simulations combined with ductile fracture criteria were carried out. Based on the plastic deformation histories obtained from the FE analyses of the Erichsen cupping tests and the critical damage value curves, the initiation time and location of fracture were predicted under a bi-axial tensile condition. The results were compared with experimental results and the best criterion was recommended. In addition, the proposed methodology was used to predict the onset of fracture in non-isothermal deep drawing processes using an irregular shaped blank, and the results were verified experimentally.

Keywords: Magnesium, FEM, AZ31 alloy, ductile fracture, sheet forming, Erichsen cupping test

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22 Effects of Alkaline Pretreatment Parameters on the Corrosion Resistance and ‎Wettability of Magnesium Implant

Authors: Mahtab Assadian, Mohd Hasbullah Idris, Mostafa Rezazadeh Shirdar, Mohammad Mahdi Taheri, ‎S. Izman

Abstract:

Corrosion behaviour and surface roughness of magnesium substrate were investigated after NaOH pretreatment in different concentrations (1, 5, and 10 molar) and duration of (10 min, 30 min, 1 h, 3 h, 6 h and 24 h). Creation of Mg(OH)2 barrier layer after pretreatment enhanced corrostion resistance as well as wettability of substrate surface. Characterization including Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) was conducted to detect the existence of this barrier layer. Surface roughness and wettability of substrate was evaluated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and contact angle measurement respectively. It is found that magnesium treated by 1M NaOH for 30 min reveals higher corrosion resistance and lower water contact angle of substrate surface. In addition, this investigation indicates that pH value of SBF solution is strongly influenced by different time and concentration of alkaline pretreatment.

Keywords: Corrosion Resistance, Magnesium, Wettability, NaOH pretreatment

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21 Magnesium Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

Authors: D. M. El-Tanbouly, R. M. Abdelsalam, A. S. Attia, M. T. Abdel-Aziz

Abstract:

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. LPS administration induces systemic inflammation that mimics many of the initial clinical features of sepsis and has deleterious effects on several organs including the liver and eventually leading to septic shock and death. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of magnesium, a well-known cofactor in many enzymatic reactions and a critical component of the antioxidant system, on hepatic damage associated with LPS induced- endotoxima in mice. Mg (20 and 40 mg/kg, po) was administered for 7 consecutive days. Systemic inflammation was induced one hour after the last dose of Mg by a single dose of LPS (2 mg/kg, ip) and three hours thereafter plasma was separated, animals were sacrificed and their livers were isolated. LPS-treated mice suffered from hepatic dysfunction revealed by histological observation, elevation in plasma transaminases activities, C-reactive protein content and caspase-3, a critical marker of apoptosis. Liver inflammation was evident by elevation in liver cytokines contents (TNF-α and IL-10) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Additionally, oxidative stress was manifested by increased liver lipoperoxidation, glutathione depletion, elevated total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Pretreatment with Mg largely mitigated these alternations through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Mg, therefore, could be regarded as an effective strategy for prevention of liver damage associated with septicemia.

Keywords: Septicemia, Magnesium, LPS, liver damage

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20 Evaluation of Formability of AZ61 Magnesium Alloy at Elevated Temperatures

Authors: Ramezani M., Neitzert T.

Abstract:

This paper investigates mechanical properties and formability of the AZ61 magnesium alloy at high temperatures. Tensile tests were performed at elevated temperatures of up to 400ºC. The results showed that as temperature increases, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength decrease significantly, while the material experiences an increase in ductility (maximum elongation before break). A finite element model has been developed to further investigate the formability of the AZ61 alloy by deep drawing a square cup. Effects of different process parameters such as punch and die geometry, forming speed and temperature as well as blank-holder force on deep drawability of the AZ61 alloy were studied and optimum values for these parameters are achieved which can be used as a design guide for deep drawing of this alloy.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Magnesium, formability, AZ61

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19 Calculated Structural and Electronic Properties of Mg and Bi

Authors: G. Patricia Abdel Rahim, Jairo Arbey Rodriguez M, María Guadalupe Moreno Armenta

Abstract:

The present study shows the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of magnesium (Mg) and bismuth (Bi) in a supercell (1X1X5). For both materials were studied in five crystalline structures: rock salt (NaCl), cesium chloride (CsCl), zinc-blende (ZB), wurtzite (WZ), and nickel arsenide (NiAs), using the Density Functional Theory (DFT), the Generalized Gradient Approximation (GGA), and the Full Potential Linear Augmented Plane Wave (FP-LAPW) method. By means of fitting the Murnaghan's state equation we determine the lattice constant, the bulk modulus and it's derived with the pressure. Also we calculated the density of states (DOS) and the band structure.

Keywords: Magnesium, Bismuth, pseudo-potential, supercell

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18 Clinical Comparative Study Comparing Efficacy of Intrathecal Fentanyl and Magnesium as an Adjuvant to Hyperbaric Bupivacaine in Mild Pre-Eclamptic Patients Undergoing Caesarean Section

Authors: Sanchita B. Sarma, M. P. Nath

Abstract:

Adequate analgesia following caesarean section decreases morbidity, hastens ambulation, improves patient outcome and facilitates care of the newborn. Intrathecal magnesium, an NMDA antagonist, has been shown to prolong analgesia without significant side effects in healthy parturients. The aim of this study was to evaluate the onset and duration of sensory and motor block, hemodynamic effect, postoperative analgesia, and adverse effects of magnesium or fentanyl given intrathecally with hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine in patients with mild preeclampsia undergoing caesarean section. Sixty women with mild preeclampsia undergoing elective caesarean section were included in a prospective, double blind, controlled trial. Patients were randomly assigned to receive spinal anesthesia with 2 mL 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine with 12.5 µg fentanyl (group F) or 0.1 ml of 50% magnesium sulphate (50 mg) (group M) with 0.15ml preservative free distilled water. Onset, duration and recovery of sensory and motor block, time to maximum sensory block, duration of spinal anaesthesia and postoperative analgesic requirements were studied. Statistical comparison was carried out using the Chi-square or Fisher’s exact tests and Independent Student’s t-test where appropriate. The onset of both sensory and motor block was slower in the magnesium group. The duration of spinal anaesthesia (246 vs. 284) and motor block (186.3 vs. 210) were significantly longer in the magnesium group. Total analgesic top up requirement was less in group M. Hemodynamic parameters were similar in both the groups. Intrathecal magnesium caused minimal side effects. Since Fentanyl and other opioid congeners are not available throughout the country easily, magnesium with its easy availability and less side effect profile can be a cost effective alternative to fentanyl in managing pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH) patients given along with Bupivacaine intrathecally in caesarean section.

Keywords: Analgesia, Magnesium, pre eclampsia, spinal anaesthesia

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17 Dietary Magnesium, Lipids, and Hypertension: New Insights and Unsolved Mysteries

Authors: Yuri Nikitin, Elena Pello, Martin Bobak

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In current issue we evaluated integration of magnesium with lipids; the attractive findings were obtained in men and women; the crucial ties of magnesium with total cholesterol in hypertensive men, with total cholesterol in concordance with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypertensive women were disclosed; unanswered questions were trapped, difficulties were surmounted, and magnesium deficiency perseverance in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development was expressed; nutrients as well as risk factors may contribute to cardiovascular complications.

Keywords: Lipids, Hypertension, dietary, Magnesium

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16 Relationship between Extrusion Ratio and Mechanical Properties of Magnesium Alloy

Authors: Y. H. Kim, C. H. Jeon, G. A. Lee

Abstract:

Reducing resource consumption and carbon dioxide emission are recognized as urgent issues. One way of resolving these issues is to reduce product weight. Magnesium alloys are considered promising candidates because of their lightness. Various studies have been conducted on using magnesium alloy instead of conventional iron or aluminum in mechanical parts, due to the light weight and superior specific strength of magnesium alloy. However, even stronger magnesium alloys are needed for mechanical parts. One common way to enhance the strength of magnesium alloy is by extruding the ingot. In order to enhance the mechanical properties, magnesium alloy ingot were extruded at various extrusion ratios. Relationship between extrusion ratio and mechanical properties was examined on extruded material of magnesium alloy. And Textures and microstructures of the extruded materials were investigated.

Keywords: Magnesium, extrusion, mechanical property, extrusion ratio, lightweight material

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15 A Proposal of Local Indentation Techniques for Mechanical Property Evaluation

Authors: C. H. Jeon, G. B. Lim, K. H. Jung

Abstract:

General light metal alloys are often developed in the material of transportation equipment such as automobiles and aircraft. Among the light metal alloys, magnesium is the lightest structural material with superior specific strength and many attractive physical and mechanical properties. However, magnesium alloys were difficult to obtain the mechanical properties at warm temperature. The aims of present work were to establish an analytical relation between mechanical properties and plastic flow induced by local indentation. An experimental investigation of the local strain distribution was carried out using a specially designed local indentation equipment in conjunction with ARAMIS based on digital image correlation method.

Keywords: Magnesium, indentation, mechanical property, lightweight material, ARAMIS

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14 Effect of Serum Electrolytes on a QTc Interval and Mortality in Patients admitted to Coronary Care Unit

Authors: Niyada Naksuk, Thoetchai Peeraphatdit, Peter A. Brady, Suraj Kapa, Samuel J. Asirvatham

Abstract:

Background: Serum electrolyte abnormalities are a common cause of an acquired prolonged QT syndrome, especially, in the coronary care unit (CCU) setting. Optimal electrolyte ranges among the CCU patients have not been sufficiently investigated. Methods: We identified 8,498 consecutive CCU patients who were admitted to the CCU at Mayo Clinic, Rochester, the USA, from 2004 through 2013. Association between first serum electrolytes and baseline corrected QT intervals (QTc), as well as in-hospital mortality, was tested using multivariate linear regression and logistic regression, respectively. Serum potassium 4.0- < 4.5 mEq/L, ionized calcium (iCa) 4.6-4.8 mg/dL, and magnesium 2.0- < 2.2 mg/dL were used as the reference levels. Results: There was a modest level-dependent relationship between hypokalemia ( < 4.0 mEq/L), hypocalcemia ( < 4.4 mg/dL), and a prolonged QTc interval; serum magnesium did not affect the QTc interval. Association between the serum electrolytes and in-hospital mortality included a U-shaped relationship for serum potassium (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 1.53 and OR 1.91for serum potassium 4.5- < 5.0 and ≥ 5.0 mEq/L, respectively) and an inverted J-shaped relationship for iCa (adjusted OR 2.79 and OR 2.03 for calcium < 4.4 and 4.4- < 4.6 mg/dL, respectively). For serum magnesium, the mortality was greater only among patients with levels ≥ 2.4 mg/dL (adjusted OR 1.40), compared to the reference level. Findings were similar in sensitivity analyses examining the association between mean serum electrolytes and mean QTc intervals, as well as in-hospital mortality. Conclusions: Serum potassium 4.0- < 4.5 mEq/L, iCa ≥ 4.6 mg/dL, and magnesium < 2.4 mg/dL had a neutral effect on QTc intervals and were associated with the lowest in-hospital mortality among the CCU patients.

Keywords: Electrocardiography, Calcium, Mortality, Magnesium, potassium, long-QT syndrome

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13 Ni-B Coating Production on Magnesium Alloy by Electroless Deposition

Authors: Ferhat Bülbül

Abstract:

The use of magnesium alloys is limited due to their susceptibility to corrosion although they have many attractive physical and mechanical properties. To increase mechanical and corrosion properties of these alloys, many deposition method and coating types are used. Electroless Ni–B coatings have received considerable interest recently due to its unique properties such as cost-effectiveness, thickness uniformity, good wear resistance, lubricity, good ductility and corrosion resistance, excellent solderability and electrical properties and antibacterial property. In this study, electroless Ni-B coating could been deposited on AZ91 magnesium alloy. The obtained coating exhibited an amorphous and rougher structure.

Keywords: Amorphous, Magnesium, X-Ray Diffraction, electroless Ni–B

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12 Non Destructive Ultrasound Testing for the Determination of Elastic Characteristics of AlSi7Zn3Cu2Mg Foundry Alloy

Authors: A. Hakem, Y. Bouafia

Abstract:

Characterization of materials used for various mechanical components is of great importance in their design. Several studies were conducted by various authors in order to improve their physical and/or chemical properties in general and mechanical or metallurgical properties in particular. The foundry alloy AlSi7Zn3Cu2Mg is one of the main components constituting the various mechanisms for the implementation of applications and various industrial projects. Obtaining a reliable product is not an easy task; several results proposed by different authors show sometimes results that can contradictory. Due to their high mechanical characteristics, these alloys are widely used in engineering. Silicon improves casting properties and magnesium allows heat treatment. It is thus possible to obtain various degrees of hardening and therefore interesting compromise between tensile strength and yield strength, on one hand, and elongation, on the other hand. These mechanical characteristics can be further enhanced by a series of mechanical treatments or heat treatments. Their light weight coupled with high mechanical characteristics, aluminum alloys are very much used in cars and aircraft industry. The present study is focused on the influence of heat treatments which cause significant micro structural changes, usually hardening by variation of annealing temperatures by increments of 10°C and 20°C on the evolution of the main elastic characteristics, the resistance, the ductility and the structural characteristics of AlSi7Zn3Cu2Mg foundry alloy cast in sand by gravity. These elastic properties are determined in three directions for each specimen of dimensions 200x150x20 mm³ by the ultrasonic method based on acoustic or elastic waves. The hardness, the micro hardness and the structural characteristics are evaluated by a non-destructive method. The aim of this work is to study the hardening ability of AlSi7Zn3Cu2Mg alloy by considering ten states. To improve the mechanical properties obtained with the raw casting, one should use heat treatment for structural hardening; the addition of magnesium is necessary to increase the sensitivity to this specific heat treatment: Treatment followed by homogenization which generates a diffusion of atoms in a substitution solid solution inside a hardening furnace at 500°C during 8h, followed immediately by quenching in water at room temperature 20 to 25°C, then an ageing process for 17h at room temperature and at different annealing temperature (150, 160, 170, 180, 190, 240, 200, 220 and 240°C) for 20h in an annealing oven. The specimens were allowed to cool inside the oven.

Keywords: Magnesium, Aluminum, Silicon, mechanical characteristics, foundry alloy

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11 Microstructure Study of Melt Spun Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀

Authors: Michael Regev, Shai Essel, Alexander Katz-Demyanetz

Abstract:

Magnesium alloys are characterized by good physical properties: They exhibit high strength, are lightweight and have good damping absorption and good thermal and electrical conductivity. Amorphous magnesium alloys, moreover, exhibit higher strength, hardness and a large elastic domain in addition to having excellent corrosion resistance. These above-mentioned advantages make magnesium based metallic glasses attractive for industrial use. Among the various existing magnesium alloys, Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀ alloy is known to be one of the best glass formers. In the current study, Mg₆₅Cu₂₅Y₁₀ ribbons were produced by melt spinning, their microstructure was investigated in its as-cast condition, after pressing under 0.5 GPa for 5 minutes under different temperatures - RT, 500C, 1000C, 1500C and 2000C - and after five minute exposure to the above temperatures without pressing. The microstructure was characterized by means of X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), High Resolution Scanning Electron Microscope (HRSEM) and High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM). XRD and DSC studies showed that the as-cast material had an amorphous character and that the material crystallized during exposure to temperature with or without applying stress. HRTEM revealed that the as-cast Mg65Cu25Y10, although known to be one of the best glass formers, is nano-crystalline rather than amorphous. The current study casts light on the question what an amorphous alloy is and whether there is any clear borderline between amorphous and nano-crystalline alloys.

Keywords: Magnesium, Amorphous Alloys, metallic glass, melt spinning

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10 Ecological Study of Habitat Conditions and Distribution of Cistanche tubulosa (Rare Plant Species) in Pakpattan District, Pakistan

Authors: Shumaila Shakoor

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C. tubulosa is a rare parasitic plant. It is found to be endangered and it acquires nutrition by penetrating roots deep in host roots. It has momentous potential to fulfill local and national health needs. This specie became endangered due to its parasitic mode of life and lack of awareness. Investigation of distribution and habitat conditions of C. tubulosa from District Pakpattan is the objective of this study. To explore its habitat conditions and community ecology phytosociological survey of C. tubulosa in different habitats i.e roadsides and graveyards was carried out. It was found that C. tubulosa occurs successfully in different habitats like graveyards and roadsides with specific neighboring species. Soil analysis was carried out by taking soil samples from seven sites. Soil was analyzed for pH, EC, soil texture, OM, N %age, Ca, Mg, P and K, which shows that soil of C. tubulosa is rich in all these nutrients.

Keywords: Organic Matter, Magnesium, Phosphorus, potassium

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9 Use of Magnesium as a Renewable Energy Source

Authors: Rafayel K. Kostanyan

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The opportunities of use of metallic magnesium as a generator of hydrogen gas, as well as thermal and electric energy is presented in the paper. Various schemes of magnesium application are discussed and power characteristics of corresponding devices are presented. Economic estimation of hydrogen price obtained by different methods is made, including the use of magnesium as a source of hydrogen for transportation in comparison with gasoline. Details and prospects of our new inexpensive technology of magnesium production from magnesium hydroxide and magnesium bearing rocks (which are available worldwide and in Armenia) are analyzed. It is estimated the threshold cost of Mg production at which application of this metal in power engineering is economically justified.

Keywords: Energy, Magnesium, electrodialysis, new technology

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8 Effect of Zinc Additions on the Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Mg-3Al Alloy

Authors: Erkan Koç, Mehmet Ünal, Ercan Candan

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In this study, the effect of zinc content (0.5-3.0 wt.%) in as-cast Mg-3Al alloy which were fabricated with high-purity raw materials towards the microstructure and mechanical properties was studied. Microstructure results showed that increase in zinc content changed the secondary phase distribution of the alloys. Mechanical test results demonstrate that with the increasing Zn addition the enhancement of the hardness value by 29%, ultimate tensile strength by 16% and yield strength by 15% can be achieved as well as decreasing of elongation by 33%. The improvement in mechanical properties for Mg-Al–Zn alloys with increasing Zn content up to 3% of weight may be ascribed to second phase strengthening.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Magnesium, zinc, Mg17Al12

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7 Effect of Zirconium (Zr) Amount on Mechanical and Metallurgical Behavior of ZE41A Magnesium Alloy

Authors: Emrah Yaliniz, Ali Kalkanli

Abstract:

ZE41A magnesium alloy has been extensively used in aerospace industry, especially for use in rotorcraft transmission casings. Due to the improved mechanical properties, the latest generation of magnesium casting alloy EV31A-T6 (Elektron 21® specified in AMS 4429) is seen as a potential replacement for ZE41A in terms of strength. Therefore, the necessity of enhancement has been arisen for ZE41A in order to avoid fully replacement. The main element affecting the strength of ZE41A is Zirconium (Zr), which acts as a grain refiner. The specified range of Zr element for ZE41A alloy is between 0.4 wt % and 1.0 wt % (unless otherwise stated by weight percentage after this point) as stated in AMS 4439. This paper investigates the effects of Zr amount on tensile and metallurgical properties of ZE41A magnesium alloy. The Zr alloying amount for the research has been chosen as 0.5 % and 1 %, which are standard amounts in a commercial alloy (average of 0.4-0.6%) and maximum percent in the standard, separately. 1 % Zr amount has been achieved via Zirmax (66.7 Mg-33.3 Zr) master alloy addition. The ultimate tensile strength of ZE41A with 1% Zr has been increased up to about 220-225 MPa in comparison to 200 MPa given in AMS 4439. The reason for the increase in strength with the addition of Zirmax is based on the decrease in grain size, which was measured about 30 µm. Optical microscope, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray Diffraction (XRD) were used to detect the change in the microstructural futures via alloying. The zirconium rich coring at the center of the grains was observed in addition to the grain boundary intermetallic phases and bulk Mg-rich matrix. The solidification characteristics were also identified by using the cooling curve obtained from the sand casting mold during cooling of the alloys.

Keywords: Aerospace, Magnesium, grain refinement, sand casting, ZE41A

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6 Scanning Electrochemical Microscopy Studies of Magnesium-Iron Galvanic Couple

Authors: Akram Alfantazi, Tirdad Nickchi

Abstract:

Magnesium galvanic corrosion plays an important role in the commercialization of Mg alloys in the automobile industry. This study aims at visualizing the electrochemical activity of the magnesium surface being coupled with pure iron in sulfate-chloride solutions. Scanning electrochemical microscopy was used to monitor the chemical activity of the surface and the data was compared with the conventional corrosion results such as potentiodynamic polarization, linear polarization, and immersion tests. The SECM results showed that the chemical reactivity of Mg is higher than phosphate-permanganate-coated Mg. Regions in the vicinity of the galvanic couple boundary are very active in the magnesium phase and fully protected in the iron phase. Scanning electrochemical microscopy results showed that the conversion coating provided good corrosion resistance for magnesium in the short-term but fails at long-term testing.

Keywords: Corrosion, Magnesium, scanning electrochemical microscopy, galvanic corrosion

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5 Studies on the Recovery of Calcium and Magnesium from Red Seawater by Nanofiltration Membrane

Authors: Mohamed H. Sorour, Hayam F. Shaalan, Heba A. Hani, Mahmoud A. El-Toukhy

Abstract:

This paper reports the results of nanofiltration (NF) polymeric membrane for the recovery of divalent ions (calcium and magnesium) from Red Seawater. Pilot plant experiments have been carried out using Alfa-Laval (NF 2517/48) membrane module. System was operated in both total recirculation mode (permeate and brine) and brine recirculation mode under hydraulic pressure of 15 bar. Impacts of some chelating agents on both flux and rejection have been also investigated. Results indicated that pure water permeability ranges from 17 to 85.5 L/m²h at 2-15 bar. Comparison with seawater permeability under the same operating pressure values reveals lower values of 8.9-31 L/m²h manifesting the effect of the osmotic pressure of seawater. Overall total dissolved solids (TDS) reduction was almost constant without incorporation of chelating agents. On the contrary of expectations, the use of chelating agents N-(2-hydroxyethyl) ethylene diamine-N,N´,N´-triacetic acid (HEDTA) and ethylene glycol bis (2-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N´,N´-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) showed flux decline of about 3-15%. Analysis of rejection data of total recirculation mode showed reasonable rejection values of 35%, 59% and 90% for Ca, Mg and SO₄, respectively. Operating under brine recirculation mode only showed a decrease of rejection to 33%, 56% and 86% for Ca, Mg and SO₄, respectively. The use of chelating agents has no substantial effect on NF membrane performance except for increasing the total Ca rejection to 48 and 65% for EGTA and HEDTA, respectively. Results, in general, confirmed the powerful separation of NF technology for softening and recovery of divalent ions from seawater. It is anticipated that increasing operating pressure beyond the limits of our investigations would improve the rejection and flux values. A trade-off should be considered between operating cost (due to higher pressure and marginal benefits as manifested by expected improved performance). The experimental results fit well with the formulated rejection empirical correlations and the published ones.

Keywords: Recovery, Nanofiltration, Calcium, Magnesium, Seawater

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4 A Review on the Studies on Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Aluminum and Magnesium Alloys Welded by Friction Stir Welding

Authors: Gurbhinder Singh Brar, Sukhdeep Singh Gill

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In recent years, friction stir welding (FSW) has attracted the main attention of the concerned researcher especially in case of joining of nonferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium due to its unmatchable properties with respect to other welding techniques. Friction stir welding is a solid state welding process which is most suitable for the welding of nonferrous alloys, especially aluminum and magnesium alloys. Aluminum and magnesium alloys are widely used for structural applications of all types of automobiles due to their superior mechanical properties with their low density. This paper deals with the critical review of the different properties (like tensile strength, microhardness, impact strength, corrosion resistance, and metallurgical investigation on SEM) obtained by the FSW of aluminum and magnesium alloys. After a critical review of the existing published literature on concerned topics, all the properties of welding joins are compared in the tabulated manner to optimize the selection of materials and FSW parameters according to mechanical and tribological properties. Different tool designs used for the FSW process are also thoroughly studied, and the influence of the design of the tool used in FSW on the different properties has also been incorporated in this paper. It has been observed from the existing published literature that FSW is the most effective and practical technique for joining the non ferrous alloys especially aluminum and magnesium alloys, and among the different FSW tools, left hand threaded tri-flute (LHTTF) tool is best for the welding of non ferrous alloys like aluminum and magnesium alloys which gives the superior mechanical properties to welding joint.

Keywords: Structural Applications, Magnesium, Aluminum, Friction Stir Welding, tool design

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3 Simulation-Based Parametric Study for the Hybrid Superplastic Forming of AZ31

Authors: Fatima Ghassan Al-Abtah, Naser Al-Huniti, Elsadig Mahdi

Abstract:

As the lightest constructional metal on earth, magnesium alloys offer excellent potential for weight reduction in the transportation industry, and it was observed that some magnesium alloys exhibit superior ductility and superplastic behavior at high temperatures. The main limitation of the superplastic forming (SPF) includes the low production rate since it needs a long forming time for each part. Through this study, an SPF process that starts with a mechanical pre-forming stage is developed to promote formability and reduce forming time. A two-dimensional finite element model is used to simulate the process. The forming process consists of two steps. At the pre-forming step (deep drawing), the sheet is drawn into the die to a preselected level, using a mechanical punch, and at the second step (SPF) a pressurized gas is applied at a controlled rate. It is shown that a significant reduction in forming time and improved final thickness uniformity can be achieved when the hybrid forming technique is used, where the process achieved a fully formed part at 400°C. Investigation for the impact of different forming process parameters achieved by comparing forming time and the distribution of final thickness that were obtained from the simulation analysis. Maximum thinning decreased from over 67% to less than 55% and forming time significantly decreased by more than 6 minutes, and the required gas pressure profile was predicted for optimum forming process parameters based on the 0.001/sec target constant strain rate within the sheet.

Keywords: Finite Element Analysis, Plasticity, Magnesium, Superplastic Forming

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2 Biodegradable Magnesium Alloys with Addition of Rare Earth Elements for Biomedical Applications

Authors: Cuie Wen, Yuncang Li

Abstract:

Biodegradable metallic materials such as magnesium (Mg)-based alloys have attracted extensive interest for use as bone implant materials. However, the high biodegradation rate of existing Mg alloys in the physiological environment of human body leads to losing mechanical integrity before adequate bone healing and producing a large volume of hydrogen gas. Therefore, slowing down the biodegradation rate of Mg alloys is a critical task in developing new biodegradable Mg alloy implant materials. One of the most effective approaches to achieve this is to strategically design new Mg alloys with low biodegradation rate, excellent biocompatibility, and enhanced mechanical properties. Our research selected biocompatible and biofunctional alloying elements such as zirconium (Zr), strontium (Sr), and rare earth elements (REEs) to alloy Mg and has developed a new series of Mg-Zr-Sr-REEs alloys for biodegradable implant applications. Research results indicated that Sr and Zr additions could refine the grain size, decrease the biodegradation rate, and enhance the biological behaviors of the Mg alloys. The REE addition, such as holmium (Ho) and dysprosium (Dy) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys resulted in enhanced mechanical strength and decreased biodegradation rate. In addition, Ho and Dy additions (≤ 5 wt.%) to Mg-Zr-Sr alloys led to enhancement of cell adhesion and proliferation of osteoblast cells on the Mg-Zr-Sr-Ho/Dy alloys.

Keywords: Biocompatibility, Magnesium, rare earth elements, mechanical and biodegrade properties

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1 Low Plastic Deformation Energy to Induce High Superficial Strain on AZ31 Magnesium Alloy Sheet

Authors: Patricia Fernandez, Emigdio Mendoza, Cristian Gomez

Abstract:

Magnesium alloys have generated great interest for several industrial applications because their high specific strength and low density make them a very attractive alternative for the manufacture of various components; however, these alloys present a limitation with their hexagonal crystal structure that limits the deformation mechanisms at room temperature likewise the molding components alternatives, it is for this reason that severe plastic deformation processes have taken a huge relevance recently because these, allow high deformation rates to be applied that induce microstructural changes where the deficiency in the sliding systems is compensated with crystallographic grains reorientations or crystal twinning. The present study reports a statistical analysis of process temperature, number of passes and shear angle with respect to the shear stress in severe plastic deformation process denominated 'Equal Channel Angular Sheet Drawing (ECASD)' applied to the magnesium alloy AZ31B through Python Statsmodels libraries, additionally a Post-Hoc range test is performed using the Tukey statistical test. Statistical results show that each variable has a p-value lower than 0.05, which allows comparing the average values of shear stresses obtained, which are in the range of 7.37 MPa to 12.23 MPa, lower values in comparison to others severe plastic deformation processes reported in the literature, considering a value of 157.53 MPa as the average creep stress for AZ31B alloy. However, a higher stress level is required when the sheets are processed using a shear angle of 150°, due to a higher level of adjustment applied for the shear die of 150°. Temperature and shear passes are important variables as well, but there is no significant impact on the level of stress applied during the ECASD process. In the processing of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets, ECASD technique is evidenced as a viable alternative in the modification of the elasto-plastic properties of this alloy, promoting the weakening of the basal texture, which means, a better response to deformation, whereby, during the manufacture of parts by drawing or stamping processes the formation of cracks on the surface can be reduced, presenting an adequate mechanical performance.

Keywords: plastic deformation, Magnesium, strain, sheet drawing

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