Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Machining Related Abstracts

17 Life Prediction of Cutting Tool by the Workpiece Cutting Condition

Authors: Noemia Gomes de Mattos de Mesquita, José Eduardo Ferreira de Oliveira, Arimatea Quaresma Ferraz

Abstract:

Stops to exchange cutting tool, to set up again the tool in a turning operation with CNC or to measure the workpiece dimensions have a direct influence on production. The premature removal of the cutting tool results in high cost of machining since the parcel relating to the cost of the cutting tool increases. On the other hand, the late exchange of cutting tool also increases the cost of production because getting parts out of the preset tolerances may require rework for its use when it does not cause bigger problems such as breaking of cutting tools or the loss of the part. Therefore, the right time to exchange the tool should be well defined when wanted to minimize production costs. When the flank wear is the limiting tool life, the time predetermination that a cutting tool must be used for the machining occurs within the limits of tolerance can be done without difficulty. This paper aims to show how the life of the cutting tool can be calculated taking into account the cutting parameters (cutting speed, feed and depth of cut), workpiece material, power of the machine, the dimensional tolerance of the part, the finishing surface, the geometry of the cutting tool and operating conditions of the machine tool, once known the parameters of Taylor algebraic structure. These parameters were raised for the ABNT 1038 steel machined with cutting tools of hard metal.

Keywords: Manufacturing, Design, Machining, Measurement, productions, cutting condition

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16 Experimental and Numerical Investigation of “Machining Induced Residual Stresses” during Orthogonal Machining of Alloy Steel AISI 4340

Authors: Theena Thayalan, K. N. Ramesh Babu

Abstract:

Machining induced residual stress (RS) is one of the most important surface integrity parameters that characterize the near surface layer of a mechanical component, which plays a crucial role in controlling the performance, especially its fatigue life. Since experimental determination of RS is expensive and time consuming, it would be of great benefit if they could be predicted. In such case, it would be possible to select the cutting parameters required to produce a favorable RS profile. In the present study, an effort has been made to develop a 'two dimensional finite element model (FEM)' to simulate orthogonal cutting process and to predict surface and sub-surface RS using the commercial FEA software DEFORM-2D. The developed finite element model has been validated through experimental investigation of RS. In the experimentation, the orthogonal cutting tests were carried out on AISI 4340 by varying the cutting speed (VC) and uncut chip thickness (f) at three levels and the surface & sub-surface RS has been measured using XRD and Electro polishing techniques. The comparison showed that the RS obtained using developed numerical model is in reasonable agreement with that of experimental data.

Keywords: Machining, Residual Stress, FEM, XRF

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15 Cutting Tool-Life Test of Ceramic Insert for Engine Sleeve

Authors: Adam Janasek, Marek Pagac

Abstract:

The article is looking for an experimental determination of tool life tests for ceramic cutting inserts. Mentioned experimental determination should provide an added information about cutting process. The mechanism of tool wear, cutting temperature in machining, quality machined surface and machining process itself is the information, which are important for whole manufacturing process. Mainly, the roughness plays very important role in determining how a real object will interact with its environment. The main aim was to determine the number of machined inserts, tool life and micro-geometry, as well. On the basis of previous tests the tool-wear was measured at constant cutting parameter which is more typical for high volume manufacturing processes.

Keywords: Machining, ceramic, surface roughness, insert, tool-life, tool-wear

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14 Realization and Characterization of TiN Coating and Metal Working Application

Authors: Abdelouahed Chala, Nadjette Belhamra, Ibrahim Guasmi

Abstract:

Titanium nitride coatings have been extensively used in industry, such as in cutting tools. TiN coating were deposited by chemical vapour deposition (CVD) on carbide insert at a temperature between 850°C and 1100°C, which often exceeds the hardening treatment temperature of the metals. The objective of this work is to realize, to characterize of TiN coating and to apply it in the turning of steel 42CrMo4 under lubrification. Various experimental techniques were employed for the microstructural characterization of the coatings, e. g., X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM) model JOEL JSM-5900 LV, equipped with energy dispersive X-ray (EDX). The results show that TiN-coated demonstrate a good wear resistance.

Keywords: Machining, Wear, Turning, hard coating TiN, carbide inserts

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13 Analyzing Damage of the Cutting Tools out of Carbide Metallic during the Turning of a Soaked and Not Hardened Steel XC38

Authors: Ahmed Tafraoui, Mohamed Seghouani, Soltane Lebaili

Abstract:

The purpose of this study widened knowledge on the use of the cutting tools out of metal carbide and to define it the influence of the elements of the mode of cut on the behavior of these tools during the machining of treated steel XC38 and untreated. This work aims at evolution determined in experiments of the wear of a cutting tool out of metal carbide with plate reported of P30 nuance for an operation of slide-lathing in turning on soaked and not hardened steel XC38 test-tubes. This research is based on the model of Taylor to determine the life span of the cutting tool according to the various parameters of cut, like the cutting speed Vc, the advance of cut a, the depth of cutting P. In order to express the operational limits of the tool for slide-lathing in a preventive way. The model makes it possible to determine the time of change of the tool and to regard it as a constraint for the respect of the roughness of the workpiece during a work of series in conventional machining.

Keywords: Machining, Wear, lifespan, model of Taylor, cutting tool, carburize metal

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12 Performance Evaluation and Economic Analysis of Minimum Quantity Lubrication with Pressurized/Non-Pressurized Air and Nanofluid Mixture

Authors: M. Amrita, R. R. Srikant, A. V. Sita Rama Raju

Abstract:

Water miscible cutting fluids are conventionally used to lubricate and cool the machining zone. But issues related to health hazards, maintenance and disposal costs have limited their usage, leading to application of Minimum Quantity Lubrication (MQL). To increase the effectiveness of MQL, nanocutting fluids are proposed. In the present work, water miscible nanographite cutting fluids of varying concentration are applied at cutting zone by two systems A and B. System A utilizes high pressure air and supplies cutting fluid at a flow rate of 1ml/min. System B uses low pressure air and supplies cutting fluid at a flow rate of 5ml/min. Their performance in machining is evaluated by measuring cutting temperatures, tool wear, cutting forces and surface roughness and compared with dry machining and flood machining. Application of nano cutting fluid using both systems showed better performance than dry machining. Cutting temperatures and cutting forces obtained by both techniques are more than flood machining. But tool wear and surface roughness showed improvement compared to flood machining. Economic analysis has been carried out in all the cases to decide the applicability of the techniques.

Keywords: Nanofluid, Machining, Economic analysis, minimum quantity lubrication

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11 Optimization of Surface Roughness by Taguchi’s Method for Turning Process

Authors: Ashish Ankus Yerunkar, Ravi Terkar

Abstract:

Study aimed at evaluating the best process environment which could simultaneously satisfy requirements of both quality as well as productivity with special emphasis on reduction of cutting tool flank wear, because reduction in flank wear ensures increase in tool life. The predicted optimal setting ensured minimization of surface roughness. Purpose of this paper is focused on the analysis of optimum cutting conditions to get lowest surface roughness in turning SCM 440 alloy steel by Taguchi method. Design for the experiment was done using Taguchi method and 18 experiments were designed by this process and experiments conducted. The results are analyzed using ANOVA method. Taguchi method has depicted that the depth of cut has significant role to play in producing lower surface roughness followed by feed. The Cutting speed has lesser role on surface roughness from the tests. The vibrations of the machine tool, tool chattering are the other factors which may contribute poor surface roughness to the results and such factors ignored for analyses. The inferences by this method will be useful to other researches for similar type of study and may be vital for further research on tool vibrations, cutting forces etc.

Keywords: Machining, Taguchi method, surface roughness (ra), dry turning, turning process, anova method, mahr perthometer

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10 Experimental Studies on the Effect of Rake Angle on Turning Ti-6Al-4V with TiAlN Coated Carbides

Authors: Satyanarayana Kosaraju, Sateesh Nagari, Venu Gopal Anne

Abstract:

In this paper, the effect of cutting speed, feedrate and rake angle in tool geometry on cutting forces and temperature generated on the tool tip in turning were investigated. The data used for the investigation derived from experiments conducted on precision lathe according to the full factorial design to observe the effect of each factor level on the process performance. During the tests, depth of cut were kept constant and each test was conducted with a sharp coated tool insert. Ti-6Al-4V was used as the workpiece material. The effects of cutting parameters and tool geometry on cutting forces and tool tip temperature were analyzed. The main cutting force was observed to have a decreasing trend and temperature found to be increasing trend as the rake angle increased.

Keywords: Machining, cutting force, tool tip temperature, rake angle

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9 Effect of Vegetable Oil Based Nanofluids on Machining Performance: An Experimental Investigation

Authors: KRISHNA MOHANA RAO GURRAM, R. Padmini, P. Vamsi Krishna

Abstract:

As a part of extensive research for ecologically safe and operator friendly cutting fluids, this paper presents the experimental investigations on the performance of eco-friendly vegetable oil based nanofluids in turning operation. In order to assess the quality of nano cutting fluids used during machining, cutting temperatures, cutting forces and surface roughness under constant cutting conditions are measured. The influence of two types of nanofluids prepared from nano boric acid and CNT particles mixed separately with coconut oil, on machining performance during turning operation is examined. Comparative analysis of the results obtained is done under dry and lubricant environments. Results obtained using cutting fluids prepared from vegetable oil based nanofluids are encouraging and more pronouncing by the application of CCCNT at machining zone. The extent of improvement in reduction of cutting temperatures, main cutting force, tool wear and surface roughness is tracked to be 13%, 37.5%, 44% and 40% respectively by the application of CCCNT compared to dry machining.

Keywords: Nanoparticles, Machining, surface roughness, vegetable oil, MQL

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8 Optimization of Process Parameters in Wire Electrical Discharge Machining of Inconel X-750 for Dimensional Deviation Using Taguchi Technique

Authors: Hari Singh, Mandeep Kumar

Abstract:

The effective optimization of machining process parameters affects dramatically the cost and production time of machined components as well as the quality of the final products. This paper presents the optimization aspects of a Wire Electrical Discharge Machining operation using Inconel X-750 as work material. The objective considered in this study is minimization of the dimensional deviation. Six input process parameters of WEDM namely spark gap voltage, pulse-on time, pulse-off time, wire feed rate, peak current and wire tension, were chosen as variables to study the process performance. Taguchi's design of experiments methodology has been used for planning and designing the experiments. The analysis of variance was carried out for raw data as well as for signal to noise ratio. Four input parameters and one two-factor interaction have been found to be statistically significant for their effects on the response of interest. The confirmation experiments were also performed for validating the predicted results.

Keywords: Optimization, Machining, ANOVA, inconel, DOE

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7 Spectral Coherence Analysis between Grinding Interaction Forces and the Relative Motion of the Workpiece and the Cutting Tool

Authors: Erhan Ilhan Konukseven, Abdulhamit Donder

Abstract:

Grinding operation is performed in order to obtain desired surfaces precisely in machining process. The needed relative motion between the cutting tool and the workpiece is generally created either by the movement of the cutting tool or by the movement of the workpiece or by the movement of both of them as in our case. For all these cases, the coherence level between the movements and the interaction forces is a key influential parameter for efficient grinding. Therefore, in this work, spectral coherence analysis has been performed to investigate the coherence level between grinding interaction forces and the movement of the workpiece on our robotic-grinding experimental setup in METU Mechatronics Laboratory.

Keywords: Machining, correlation, Spectral Analysis, Grinding, FFT, coherence analysis, hanning window, Piezo actuator, reverse arrangements test

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6 A Flute Tracking System for Monitoring the Wear of Cutting Tools in Milling Operations

Authors: Hatim Laalej, Salvador Sumohano-Verdeja, Thomas McLeay

Abstract:

Monitoring of tool wear in milling operations is essential for achieving the desired dimensional accuracy and surface finish of a machined workpiece. Although there are numerous statistical models and artificial intelligence techniques available for monitoring the wear of cutting tools, these techniques cannot pin point which cutting edge of the tool, or which insert in the case of indexable tooling, is worn or broken. Currently, the task of monitoring the wear on the tool cutting edges is carried out by the operator who performs a manual inspection, causing undesirable stoppages of machine tools and consequently resulting in costs incurred from lost productivity. The present study is concerned with the development of a flute tracking system to segment signals related to each physical flute of a cutter with three flutes used in an end milling operation. The purpose of the system is to monitor the cutting condition for individual flutes separately in order to determine their progressive wear rates and to predict imminent tool failure. The results of this study clearly show that signals associated with each flute can be effectively segmented using the proposed flute tracking system. Furthermore, the results illustrate that by segmenting the sensor signal by flutes it is possible to investigate the wear in each physical cutting edge of the cutting tool. These findings are significant in that they facilitate the online condition monitoring of a cutting tool for each specific flute without the need for operators/engineers to perform manual inspections of the tool.

Keywords: Machining, milling operation, tool condition monitoring, tool wear prediction

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5 Analysis of the Cutting Force with Ultrasonic Assisted Manufacturing of Steel (S235JR)

Authors: Franz Haas, Philipp Zopf

Abstract:

Manufacturing of very hard and refractory materials like ceramics, glass or carbide poses particular challenges on tools and machines. The company Sauer GmbH developed especially for this application area ultrasonic tool holders working in a frequency range from 15 to 60 kHz and superimpose the common tool movement in the vertical axis. This technique causes a structural weakening in the contact area and facilitates the machining. The possibility of the force reduction for these special materials especially in drilling of carbide with diamond tools up to 30 percent made the authors try to expand the application range of this method. To make the results evaluable, the authors decide to start with existing processes in which the positive influence of the ultrasonic assistance is proven to understand the mechanism. The comparison of a grinding process the Institute use to machine materials mentioned in the beginning and steel could not be more different. In the first case, the authors use tools with geometrically undefined edges. In the second case, the edges are geometrically defined. To get valid results of the tests, the authors decide to investigate two manufacturing methods, drilling and milling. The main target of the investigation is to reduce the cutting force measured with a force measurement platform underneath the workpiece. Concerning to the direction of the ultrasonic assistance, the authors expect lower cutting forces and longer endurance of the tool in the drilling process. To verify the frequencies and the amplitudes an FFT-analysis is performed. It shows the increasing damping depending on the infeed rate of the tool. The reducing of amplitude of the cutting force comes along.

Keywords: Machining, Ultrasonic, Drilling, Milling

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4 Intelligent Tooling Embedded Sensors for Monitoring the Wear of Cutting Tools in Turning Applications

Authors: Hatim Laalej, Jon Stammers

Abstract:

In machining, monitoring of tool wear is essential for achieving the desired dimensional accuracy and surface finish of a machined workpiece. Currently, the task of monitoring the wear on the cutting tool is carried out by the operator who performs manual inspections of the cutting tool, causing undesirable stoppages of machine tools and consequently resulting in costs incurred from loss of productivity. The cutting tool consumable costs may also be higher than necessary when tools are changed before the end of their useful life. Furthermore, damage can be caused to the workpiece when tools are not changed soon enough leading to a significant increase in the costs of manufacturing. The present study is concerned with the development of break sensor printed on the flank surface of poly-crystalline diamond (PCD) cutting to perform on-line condition monitoring of the cutting tool used to machine Titanium Ti-6al-4v bar. The results clearly show that there is a strong correlation between the break sensor measurements and the amount of wear in the cutting tool. These findings are significant in that they help the user/operator of the machine tool to determine the condition of the cutting tool without the need of performing manual inspection, thereby reducing the manufacturing costs such as the machine down time.

Keywords: Signal Processing, Manufacturing, Machining, Tool Wear

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3 Influence of Machining Process on Surface Integrity of Plasma Coating

Authors: T. Zlámal, J. Petrů, M. Pagáč, P. Krajkovič

Abstract:

For the required function of components with the thermal spray coating, it is necessary to perform additional machining of the coated surface. The paper deals with assessing the surface integrity of Metco 2042, a plasma sprayed coating, after its machining. The selected plasma sprayed coating serves as an abradable sealing coating in a jet engine. Therefore, the spray and its surface must meet high quality and functional requirements. Plasma sprayed coatings are characterized by lamellar structure, which requires a special approach to their machining. Therefore, the experimental part involves the set-up of special cutting tools and cutting parameters under which the applied coating was machined. For the assessment of suitably set machining parameters, selected parameters of surface integrity were measured and evaluated during the experiment. To determine the size of surface irregularities and the effect of the selected machining technology on the sprayed coating surface, the surface roughness parameters Ra and Rz were measured. Furthermore, the measurement of sprayed coating surface hardness by the HR 15 Y method before and after machining process was used to determine the surface strengthening. The changes of strengthening were detected after the machining. The impact of chosen cutting parameters on the surface roughness after the machining was not proven.

Keywords: Machining, Strengthening, Surface Integrity, plasma sprayed coating

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2 Long Time Oxidation Behavior of Machined 316 Austenitic Stainless Steel in Primary Water Reactor

Authors: Yujin Hu, Wenqian Zhang, Xuelin Wang, Siyang Wang

Abstract:

Austenitic stainless steels are widely used in nuclear industry to manufacture critical components owing to their excellent corrosion resistance at high temperatures. Almost all the components used in nuclear power plants are produced by surface finishing (surface cold work) such as milling, grinding and so on. The change of surface states induced by machining has great influence on the corrosion behavior. In the present study, long time oxidation behavior of machined 316 austenitic stainless steel exposed to simulated pressure water reactor environment was investigated considering different surface states. Four surface finishes were produced by electro-polishing (P), grinding (G), and two milling (M and M1) processes respectively. Before oxidation, the surface Vickers micro-hardness, surface roughness of each type of sample was measured. Corrosion behavior of four types of sample was studied by using oxidation weight gain method for six oxidation periods. The oxidation time of each period was 120h, 216h, 336h, 504h, 672h and 1344h, respectively. SEM was used to observe the surface morphology of oxide film in several period. The results showed that oxide film on austenitic stainless steel has a duplex-layer structure. The inner oxide film is continuous and compact, while the outer layer is composed of oxide particles. The oxide particle consisted of large particles (nearly micron size) and small particles (dozens of nanometers to a few hundred nanometers). The formation of oxide particle could be significantly affected by the machined surface states. The large particle on cold worked samples (grinding and milling) appeared earlier than electro-polished one, and the milled sample has the largest particle size followed by ground one and electro-polished one. For machined samples, the large particles were almost distributed along the direction of machining marks. Severe exfoliation was observed on one milled surface (M) which had the most heavily cold worked layer, while rare local exfoliation occurred on the ground sample (G) and the other milled sample (M1). The electro-polished sample (P) entirely did not exfoliate.

Keywords: Machining, Oxidation, SEM, austenitic stainless steel

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1 Experimental Chip/Tool Temperature FEM Model Calibration by Infrared Thermography: A Case Study

Authors: Riccardo Angiuli, Michele Giannuzzi, Rodolfo Franchi, Gabriele Papadia

Abstract:

Temperature knowledge in machining is fundamental to improve the numerical and FEM models used for the study of some critical process aspects, such as the behavior of the worked material and tool. The extreme conditions in which they operate make it impossible to use traditional measuring instruments; infrared thermography can be used as a valid measuring instrument for temperature measurement during metal cutting. In the study, a large experimental program on superduplex steel (ASTM A995 gr. 5A) cutting was carried out, the relevant cutting temperatures were measured by infrared thermography when certain cutting parameters changed, from traditional values to extreme ones. The values identified were used to calibrate a FEM model for the prediction of residual life of the tools. During the study, the problems related to the detection of cutting temperatures by infrared thermography were analyzed, and a dedicated procedure was developed that could be used during similar processing.

Keywords: Machining, Temperature Measurement, FEM, infrared thermography

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