Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

maceration Related Abstracts

4 Antibacterial Activity of Ethanolic and Aqueous Extracts of Punica Granatum L. Bark

Authors: H. Kadi, A. Moussaoui, A. Medah, N. Benayahia, Nahal Bouderba

Abstract:

For thousands of years, Punica granatum L. has been used in traditional medicine all over the world and predate the introduction of antibacterial drugs. The aim of the present study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Punica granatum L. bark obtained by decoction and maceration. The different extracts of Punica granatum L. (Lythraceae) bark have been tested for antibacterial activity against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus stearothermophilus) and Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa) by disc diffusion method. The ethanolic macerate extract showed the strong in vitro antibacterial activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa with zone inhibition of 24.4 mm. However, the results tests by disc diffusion method revealed the effectiveness of ethanolic decoctate against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus stearothermophilus) with diameter zone of inhibition varying with 21.1mm and 23.75 mm respectively.

Keywords: antibacterial activity, Punica granatum L. bark, maceration, decoction

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3 Antioxidant Activity of the Methanolic Extract and Antimicrobial Activity of the Essential Oil of Rosmarinus officinalis L. Grown in Algeria

Authors: Nassim Belkacem, Amina Azzam, Dalila Haouchine, Kahina Bennacer, Samira Soufit

Abstract:

Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant activity of the methanolic extract along with the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of the aerial parts of Rosmarinus officinalis L. collected in the region of Bejaia (northern center of Algeria). Materials and methods: The polyphenols and flavonoids contents of the methanolic extract were measured. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using two methods: the ABTS method and DPPH assay. The antimicrobial activity was studied by the agar diffusion method against five bacterial strains (Three Gram positive strains and two Gram negative strains) and one fungus. Results: The total polyphenol and flavonoid content was about 43.8 mg gallic acid equivalent per gram (GA Eq/g) and 7.04 mg quercetin equivalent per gram (Q Eq/g), respectively. In the ABTS assay, the rosemary extract has shown an inhibition of 98.02% at the concentration of 500ug/ml with a half maximal inhibitory concentration value (IC50) of 194.92ug/ml. The results of DPPH assay have shown that the rosemary extract has an inhibition of 94.67 % with an IC50 value of 17.87ug/ml, which is lower than that of Butylhydroxyanisol (BHA) about 6.03ug/ml and ascorbic acid about 1.24μg/ml. The yield in essential oil of rosemary obtained by hydrodistillation was 1.42%. Based on the determination of the diameter of inhibition, different antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was revealed against the six tested microbes. Escherichia coli from the University Hospital (UH), Streptococcus aureus (UH) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC have a minimum inhibitory concentration value (MIC) of 62.5µl/ml. However, Bacillus sp (UH) and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC have an MIC value of 125μl/ml. The inhibition zone against Candida sp was about 24 mm. The aromatograms showed that the essential oil of rosemary exercises an antifungal activity more important than the antibacterial one.

Keywords: Antimicrobial activity, Essential Oil, antioxidant, Rosmarinus officinalis L, maceration

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2 Performance of an Improved Fluidized System for Processing Green Tea

Authors: John Abraham, Nickson Kipng’etich Lang’at, Thomas Thoruwa, John Wanyoko

Abstract:

Green tea is made from the top two leaves and buds of a shrub, Camellia sinensis, of the family Theaceae and the order Theales. The green tea leaves are picked and immediately sent to be dried or steamed to prevent fermentation. Fluid bed drying technique is a common drying method used in drying green tea because of its ease in design and construction and fluidization of fine tea particles. Major problems in this method are significant loss of chemical content of the leaf and green appearance of tea, retention of high moisture content in the leaves and bed channeling and defluidization. The energy associated with the drying technology has been shown to be a vital factor in determining the quality of green tea. As part of the implementation, prototype dryer was built that facilitated sequence of operations involving steaming, cooling, pre-drying and final drying. The major findings of the project were in terms of quality characteristics of tea leaves and energy consumption during processing. The optimal design achieved a moisture content of 4.2 ± 0.84%. With the optimum drying temperature of 100 ºC, the specific energy consumption was 1697.8 kj.Kg-1 and evaporation rate of 4.272 x 10-4 Kg.m-2.s-1. The energy consumption in a fluidized system can be further reduced by focusing on energy saving designs.

Keywords: evaporation rate, maceration, fluid bed dryer, specific energy consumption

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1 Changes in Kidney Tissue at Postmortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging Depending on the Time of Fetal Death

Authors: Uliana N. Tumanova, Viacheslav M. Lyapin, Vladimir G. Bychenko, Alexandr I. Shchegolev, Gennady T. Sukhikh

Abstract:

All cases of stillbirth undoubtedly subject to postmortem examination, since it is necessary to find out the cause of the stillbirths, as well as a forecast of future pregnancies and their outcomes. Determination of the time of death is an important issue which is addressed during the examination of the body of a stillborn. It is mean the period from the time of death until the birth of the fetus. The time for fetal deaths determination is based on the assessment of the severity of the processes of maceration. To study the possibilities of postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for determining the time of intrauterine fetal death based on the evaluation of maceration in the kidney. We have conducted MRI morphological comparisons of 7 dead fetuses (18-21 gestational weeks) and 26 stillbirths (22-39 gestational weeks), and 15 bodies of died newborns at the age of 2 hours – 36 days. Postmortem MRI 3T was performed before the autopsy. The signal intensity of the kidney tissue (SIK), pleural fluid (SIF), external air (SIA) was determined on T1-WI and T2-WI. Macroscopic and histological signs of maceration severity and time of death were evaluated in the autopsy. Based on the results of the morphological study, the degree of maceration varied from 0 to 4. In 13 cases, the time of intrauterine death was up to 6 hours, in 2 cases - 6-12 hours, in 4 -12-24 hours, in 9 -2-3 days, in 3 -1 week, in 2 -1,5-2 weeks. At 15 dead newborns, signs of maceration were absent, naturally. Based on the data from SIK, SIF, SIA on MR-tomograms, we calculated the coefficient of MR-maceration (M). The calculation of the time of intrauterine death (MP-t) (hours) was performed by our formula: МR-t = 16,87+95,38×М²-75,32×М. A direct positive correlation of MR-t and autopsy data from the dead at the gestational ages 22-40 weeks, with a dead time, not more than 1 week, was received. The maceration at the antenatal fetal death is characterized by changes in T1-WI and T2-WI signals at postmortem MRI. The calculation of MP-t allows defining accurately the time of intrauterine death within one week at the stillbirths who died on 22-40 gestational weeks. Thus, our study convincingly demonstrates that radiological methods can be used for postmortem study of the bodies, in particular, the bodies of stillborn to determine the time of intrauterine death. Postmortem MRI allows for an objective and sufficiently accurate analysis of pathological processes with the possibility of their documentation, storage, and analysis after the burial of the body.

Keywords: stillborn, maceration, intrauterine death, postmortem MRI

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