Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

lutein Related Abstracts

3 Distribution of Phospholipids, Cholesterol and Carotenoids in Two-Solvent System during Egg Yolk Oil Solvent Extraction

Authors: Aleksandrs Kovalcuks, Mara Duma


Egg yolk oil is a concentrated source of egg bioactive compounds, such as fat-soluble vitamins, phospholipids, cholesterol, carotenoids and others. To extract lipids and other fat-soluble nutrients from liquid egg yolk, a two-step extraction process involving polar (ethanol) and non-polar (hexane) solvents were used. This extraction technique was based on egg yolk bioactive compounds polarities, where non-polar compound was extracted into non-polar hexane, but polar in to polar alcohol/water phase. But many egg yolk bioactive compounds are not strongly polar or non-polar. Egg yolk phospholipids, cholesterol and pigments are amphipatic (have both polar and non-polar regions) and their behavior in ethanol/hexane solvent system is not clear. The aim of this study was to clarify the behavior of phospholipids, cholesterol and carotenoids during extraction of egg yolk oil with ethanol and hexane and determine the loss of these compounds in egg yolk oil. Egg yolks and egg yolk oil were analyzed for phospholipids (phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE)), cholesterol and carotenoids (lutein, zeaxanthin, canthaxanthin and β-carotene) content using GC-FID and HPLC methods. PC and PE are polar lipids and were extracted into polar ethanol phase. Concentration of PC in ethanol was 97.89% and PE 99.81% from total egg yolk phospholipids. Due to cholesterol’s partial extraction into ethanol, cholesterol content in egg yolk oil was reduced in comparison to its total content presented in egg yolk lipids. The highest amount of lutein and zeaxanthin was concentrated in ethanol extract. The opposite situation was observed with canthaxanthin and β-carotene, which became the main pigments of egg yolk oil.

Keywords: cholesterol, solvent extraction, egg yolk oil, lutein, phospholipids

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2 Wet Extraction of Lutein and Lipids from Microalga by Quantitative Determination of Polarity

Authors: Mengyue Gong, Xinyi Li, Amarjeet Bassi


Harvesting by-products while recovering biodiesel is considered a potentially valuable approach to increase the market feasibility of microalgae industry. Lutein is a possible by-product from microalgae that promotes eye health. The extraction efficiency and the expensive drying process of wet algae represent the major challenges for the utilization of microalgae biomass as a feedstock for lipids, proteins, and carotenoids. A wet extraction method was developed to extract lipids and lutein from microalga Chlorella vulgaris. To evaluate different solvent (mixtures) for the extraction, a quantitative analysis was established based on the polarity of solvents using Nile Red as the polarity (ETN) indicator. By the choice of binary solvent system then adding proper amount of water to achieve phase separation, lipids and lutein can be extracted simultaneously. Some other parameters for lipids and lutein production were also studied including saponification time, temperature, choice of alkali, and pre-treatment methods. The extraction efficiency with wet algae was compared with dried algae and shown better pigment recovery. The results indicated that the product pattern in each extracted phase was polarity dependent. Lutein and β-carotene were the main carotenoids extracted with ethanol while lipids come out with hexane.

Keywords: Biodiesel, Extraction, chlorella vulgaris, lutein

Procedia PDF Downloads 223
1 Improving Lutein Bioavailability by Nanotechnology Applications

Authors: Hulya Ilyasoglu Buyukkestelli, Sedef Nehir El


Lutein is a member of xanthophyll group of carotenoids found in fruits and vegetables. Lutein accumulates in the macula region of the retina and known as macular pigment which absorbs damaging light in the blue wavelengths. The presence of lutein in retina has been related to decreased risk of two common eye diseases, age-related macular degeneration, and cataract. Being a strong antioxidant, it may also have effects on prevention some types of cancer, cardiovascular disease, cognitive dysfunction. Humans are not capable of synthesizing lutein de novo; therefore it must be provided naturally by the diet, fortified foods, and beverages or nutritional supplement. However, poor bioavailability and physicochemical stability limit its usage in the food industry. Poor solubility in digestive fluids and sensitivity to heat, light, and oxygen are both affect the stability and bioavailability of lutein. In this context, new technologies, delivery systems and formulations have been applied to improve stability and solubility of lutein. Nanotechnology, including nanoemulsion, nanocrystal, nanoencapsulation technology and microencapsulation by complex coacervation, spray drying are promising ways of increasing solubilization of lutein and stability of it in different conditions. Bioavailability of lutein is also dependent on formulations used, starch formulations and milk proteins, especially sodium caseinate are found effective in improving the bioavailability of lutein. Designing foods with highly bioavailable and stabile lutein needs knowledge about current technologies, formulations, and further needs. This review provides an overview of the new technologies and formulations used to improve bioavailability of lutein and also gives a future outlook to food researches.

Keywords: Nanotechnology, Bioavailability, Formulation, lutein

Procedia PDF Downloads 213