Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 11

Lung Related Abstracts

11 Calculation of Lungs Physiological Lung Motion in External Lung Irradiation

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah, Khalid H. Eltom


This is an experimental study deals with measurement of the periodic physiological organ motion during lung external irradiation in order to reduce the exposure of healthy tissue during radiation treatments. The results showed for left lung displacement reading (4.52+1.99 mm) and right lung is (8.21+3.77 mm) which the radiotherapy physician should take suitable countermeasures in case of significant errors. The motion ranged between 2.13 mm and 12.2 mm (low and high). In conclusion, the calculation of tumour mobility can improve the accuracy of target areas definition in patients undergo Sterostatic RT for stage I, II and III lung cancer (NSCLC). Definition of the target volume based on a high resolution CT scan with a margin of 3-5 mm is appropriate.

Keywords: Lung, Radiation Medicine, physiological motion, external irradiation

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10 Lung Cancer Patients in Eastern Region of Nepal

Authors: Ram Sharan Mehta


The number of new cancer cases annually is estimated to rise from 10.9 million in 2002 to more than 16 million by 2020, if current trends continue. Much of this increase in absolute numbers derives from the ageing of populations worldwide. The objectives of this study were to find out the demographic characteristics of the admitted cancer patients in BPKIHS. It was hospital based descriptive cross-sectional study conducted reviewing all the records of admitted diagnosed cancer patients in BPKIHS from 15th October 2004 to 14th October 2012. Using total enumerative sampling technique all 1379 diagnosed cancer patients record were reviewed after obtaining the permission from concerned authorities. Using SPSS-15 software package data was analyzed. It was found that majority (71%) of cancer patients were of age more than 40 years and equal of both sexes. Most of the clients were form Sunsari (31.1%), Morang (16.6%) and Jhapa (17%) districts. The mean hospitalization day is 8.32 and very few patients (5.2%) were only cured. The numbers of cancer patients are markedly increases in BPKIHS, especially in advanced stage. It is mandatory to start the cancer information and education programme in eastern region of Nepal and proper management of cancer patients using chemotherapy, radiotherapy and surgery at BPKIHS for quality patient care.

Keywords: Cancer, Lung, patients, Nepal

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9 Estimation of Lungs Physiological Motion for Patient Undergoing External Lung Irradiation

Authors: Yousif Mohamed Y. Abdallah


This is an experimental study deals with detection, measurement and analysis of the periodic physiological organ motion during external beam radiotherapy; to improve the accuracy of the radiation field placement, and to reduce the exposure of healthy tissue during radiation treatments. The importance of this study is to detect the maximum path of the mobile structures during radiotherapy delivery, to define the planning target volume (PTV) and irradiated volume during both inspiration and expiration period and to verify the target volume. In addition to its role to highlight the importance of the application of Intense Guided Radiotherapy (IGRT) methods in the field of radiotherapy. The results showed (body contour was equally (3.17 + 0.23 mm), for left lung displacement reading (2.56 + 0.99 mm) and right lung is (2.42 + 0.77 mm) which the radiation oncologist to take suitable countermeasures in case of significant errors. In addition, the use of the image registration technique for automatic position control is predicted potential motion. The motion ranged between 2.13 mm and 12.2 mm (low and high). In conclusion, individualized assessment of tumor mobility can improve the accuracy of target areas definition in patients undergo Sterostatic RT for stage I, II and III lung cancer (NSCLC). Definition of the target volume based on a single CT scan with a margin of 10 mm is clearly inappropriate.

Keywords: Image Processing, Lung, respiratory motion, external beam radiotherapy

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8 Assessment of Cell-Rebuilding Efficacy of Selected Food Plants in the Lungs of Wild Rats Living in a Polluted Environment

Authors: Yahaya Tajudeen, Joy Okpuzor, Tolu Ajayi


The cell-rebuilding efficacy of four food plants eating as vegetables and spices in Nigeria was assessed in the lungs of wild rats (Rattus rattus) living in a polluted environment. The plants are roselle (Hibiscus sabdarrifa), moringa (Moringa oleifera), ginger (Zingiber officinale) and ugwu (Telfairia occidentalis). Sixty rats were caught from the vicinity of a cement factory in Sagamu, Southwestern-Nigeria and grouped into 6. The control group was administered distilled water, while the test groups were given ethanolic extracts of roselle, moringa, ginger, ugwu and the mixture of the extracts for 180 days. The histopathology of the rats was conducted before and at the end of 180 days extracts administration. Before administering the extracts, the lungs of the rats showed vascular congestion, severe fibrosis and congested alveolus; all which were also observed in the lungs of control rats at the end of the treatment. However, the lungs of rats that were treated with the extracts of the plants showed moderate, mild or no histological damage compared to the control rats. The extract of the mixture of the plants performed best, followed by ginger, ugwu and roselle, respectively. These findings suggest that the food plants contain phytonutrients and phytochemicals, which repaired damaged cells and tissues in the exposed rats. Consequently, the plants could play a role in ameliorating health effects of environmental pollution.

Keywords: Lung, Histopathology, Fibrosis, food plants, wild rats, cell-rebuilding

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7 Treatment of Histopathological Symptoms in N-Nitrosopyrrolidine Induced Changes in Lung Tissue by Isolated Flavonoid from Indigofera tinctoria

Authors: Veena Sharma, Aastha Agarwal


N-nitrosopyrollidine or NPYR is a tobacco-specific nitrosamine which upon intoxicated causes abnormal production of Reactive Oxygen Species disrupt the endogenous antioxidant system. The study was designed to evaluate the histological changes in lung tissue of Mus musculus in NPYR administered lungs and effect of isolated flavonoid 3,6-dihydroxy-(3’,4’,7’-trimethoxyphenyl)-chromen-4-one-7-glucoside (ITC) from experimental plant Indigofera tinctorial. Post treatment with isolated compound significantly restored the abnormal symptoms and changes in pulmonary tissue. Transverse section of mouse lung in control animals appeared as a thin lace. Histologically, most of the lung was arranged as alveoli which were thin walled structures made up of single layered squamous epithelial cells. In the transverse section of lung at 100 X will clearly show the component of alveoli, surround by a thin layer of connective tissue and blood vessels. Smaller bronchioles were lined by cuboidal epithelial cells while larger bronchioles were lined by ciliated columnar epithelium layer while in NPYR intoxicated lungs signs of vast pulmonary damages and carcinogenesis as alveolar damage, necrosis, DADs or defused alveolar damages hyperplasia, metaplasia, dysplasia and next stage of carcinogenesis were revealed. Treatment with ITC showed the significant positive changes in the lung tissue due to the side hydroxyl and methoxy groups in its structure which help in combating oxidative injuries and give protection from the free radicals generated during the metabolism of NPYR in body. Thus, histopathological analysis confirms the development of the cancerous conditions in the lung tissue in mice model and the protective effects of ITC.

Keywords: Lung, Histopathology, flavonoid, Indigofera tinctoria

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6 The Effects of Ellagic Acid on Rat Lungs Induced Tobacco Smoke

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Elif Erdem, Gonca Ozan, Enver Ozan, Neriman Colakoglu


The toxic effects of tobacco smoke exposure have been detected in numerous studies. Ellagic acid (EA), (2,3,7,8-tetrahydroxy [1]-benzopyranol [5,4,3-cde] benzopyran 5,10-dione), a natural phenolic lactone compound, is found in various plant species including pomegranate, grape, strawberries, blackberries and raspberries. Similar to the other effective antioxidants, EA can safely interact with the free radicals and reduces oxidative stress through the phenolic ring and hydroxyl components in its structure. The aim of the present study was to examine the protective effects of ellagic acid against oxidative damage on lung tissues of rats induced by tobacco smoke. Twenty-four male adult (8 weeks old) Spraque-Dawley rats were divided randomly into 4 equal groups: group I (Control), group II (Tobacco smoke), group III (Tobacco smoke + corn oil) and group IV (Tobacco smoke + ellagic acid). The rats in group II, III and IV, were exposed to tobacco smoke 1 hour twice a day for 12 weeks. In addition to tobacco smoke exposure, 12 mg/kg ellagic acid (dissolved in corn oil), was applied to the rats in group IV by oral gavage. Equal amount of corn oil used in solving ellagic acid was applied to the rats by oral gavage in group III. At the end of the experimental period, rats were decapitated. Lung tissues and blood samples were taken. The lung slides were stained by H&E and Masson’s Trichrome methods. Also, galactin-3 stain was applied. Biochemical analyzes were performed. Vascular congestion and inflammatory cell infiltration in pulmonary interstitium, thickness in interalveolar septum, cytoplasmic vacuolation in some macrophages and galactin-3 positive cells were observed in histological examination of tobacco smoke group. In addition to these findings, hemorrhage in pulmonary interstitium and bronchial lumen was detected in tobacco smoke + corn oil group. Reduced vascular congestion and hemorrhage in pulmoner interstitium and rarely thickness in interalveolar septum were shown in tobacco smoke + EA group. Compared to group-I, group-II GSH level was decreased and MDA level was increased significantly. Nevertheless group-IV GSH level was higher and MDA level was lower than group-II. The results indicate that ellagic acid could protect the lung tissue from the tobacco smoke harmful effects.

Keywords: Lung, rat, ellagic acid, tobacco smoke

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5 The Investigation of Effect of Alpha Lipoic Acid against Damage on Neonatal Rat Lung to Maternal Tobacco Smoke Exposure

Authors: Nalan Kaya, Elif Erdem, Gonca Ozan, Enver Ozan, Durrin Ozlem Dabak


This study was carried out to determine the histological and biochemical changes in the lungs of the rat pups exposed to tobacco smoke during pregnancy period and to investigate the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid, which is administered during pregnancy, on these changes. In our study, 24 six-week old Spraque-Dawley female rats weighing 160 ± 10 g were used (n:7). Rats were randomly divided into four equal groups: group I (control), group II (tobacco smoke), group III (tobacco smoke + alpha lipoic acid) and group IV (alpha lipoic acid). Rats in the group II, group III were exposed to tobacco smoke twice a day for one hour starting from eight weeks before mating and during pregnancy. In addition to tobacco smoke, 20 mg/kg of alpha lipoic acid was administered via oral gavage to the rats in the group III. Only alpha lipoic acid was administered to the rats in the group IV. Once after the delivery, all administrations were stopped. On the 7 and 21th days, the seven pups of all groups were decapitated. A portion of the lung was taken and stained with HE, PAS and Masson. In addition to immunohistochemical staining of surfactant protein A, vascular endothelial growth factor, caspase-3, TUNEL method was also used to determine apoptosis. Biochemical analyzes were performed with some part of the lung tissue specimens. In the histological evaluations performed under light microscopy, inflammatory cell increase, hemorrhagic areas, edema, interalveolar septal thickening, alveolar numbers decrease, degeneration of some bronchi and bronchial epithelium, epithelial cells that were fallen into the lumen and hyaline membrane formation were observed in tobacco smoke group. These findings were ameliorated in tobacco smoke + ALA group. Hyaline membrane formation was not detected in this group. The TUNEL positive cell numbers a significant increase was detected in the tobacco smoke group, whereas a significant decrease was detected in the tobacco smoke + ALA group. In terms of the immunoreactivity of both SP-A and VEGF, a significant decrease was observed in the tobacco smoke group, and a significant increase was observed in the tobacco smoke + ALA group. Regarding the immunoreactivity of caspase-3, there was a significant increase in the group of tobacco smoke and a significant decrease in the group of tobacco smoke + ALA. The malondialdehyde levels were determined to be significantly increased in the tobacco smoke group, and a significant decreased in the tobacco smoke + ALA. Glutathione and superoxide dismutase enzyme activities showed a significant decrease in the group of tobacco smoke and a significant increase in the tobacco smoke + ALA group. In conclusion, we suggest that the exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy leads to morphological, histopathological and functional changes on lung development by causing oxidative damage in lung tissues of neonatal rats and the maternal use of alpha lipoic acid can provide a protective effect on the neonatal lung development against this oxidative stress originating from tobacco smoke.

Keywords: pregnancy, Lung, Neonate, tobacco smoke, alpha lipoic acid

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4 Effects of Local Decongestive Agents at Trachea and Lungs

Authors: Sertac Arslan, Guven Guney, Ayse Ipek Akyuz Unsal, Emre Demir, Buket Demirci


Purpose: There is little histologic data concerning effects of nasal decongestants on the respiratory tract. We aimed to put forth the effects of nasal decongestants on the trachea and lower airways of rats. Materials and Methods: Four to six months old 60 male rats were randomly categorized into 6 groups. Experimental drugs were applied to the same nostril of rats twice daily for 8 weeks (Xylometazolin, Benzalkolyum, EDTA, Sorbitol and combined drug solutions). We applied normal saline solution (NaCl %0.9) for the control group. In the end, trachea and both lungs were dissected and kept in formaldehyde for histopathologic evaluation. Results: Inflammation and bronchial edema were most common findings. While all rats in sorbitol group had increased numbers of type 2 pneumocytes; 80% of BAC group had increased numbers of type 2 pneumocytes. Spillover of tracheal epithelium was seen mostly in sorbitol, EDTA and combined drug groups (60%, 87.5%, 50% respectively). Bronchial smooth muscle hypertrophy was seen mostly in BAC and EDTA group (70%, 62.5% respectively). The number of goblet cells showed the significant difference between control-combined drug (p=0.025) and control-BAC (p=0.001) groups. Conclusions: Nasal decongestants can cause permanent changes at lower respiratory tract in addition to changes in upper respiratory tract.

Keywords: Lung, decongestive agents, xylometazoline, trachea

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3 Morphological and Molecular Evaluation of Dengue Virus Serotype 3 Infection in BALB/c Mice Lungs

Authors: Gabriela C. Caldas, Fernanda C. Jacome, Arthur da C. Rasinhas, Ortrud M. Barth, Flavia B. dos Santos, Priscila C. G. Nunes, Yuli R. M. de Souza, Pedro Paulo de A. Manso, Marcelo P. Machado, Debora F. Barreto-Vieira


The establishment of animal models for studies of DENV infections has been challenging, since circulating epidemic viruses do not naturally infect nonhuman species. Such studies are of great relevance to the various areas of dengue research, including immunopathogenesis, drug development and vaccines. In this scenario, the main objective of this study is to verify possible morphological changes, as well as the presence of antigens and viral RNA in lung samples from BALB/c mice experimentally infected with an epidemic and non-neuroadapted DENV-3 strain. Male BALB/c mice, 2 months old, were inoculated with DENV-3 by intravenous route. After 72 hours of infection, the animals were euthanized and the lungs were collected. Part of the samples was processed by standard technique for analysis by light and transmission electronic microscopies and another part was processed for real-time PCR analysis. Morphological analyzes of lungs from uninfected mice showed preserved tissue areas. In mice infected with DENV-3, the analyzes revealed interalveolar septum thickening with presence of inflammatory infiltrate, foci of alveolar atelectasis and hyperventilation, bleeding foci in the interalveolar septum and bronchioles, peripheral capillary congestion, accumulation of fluid in the blood capillary, signs of interstitial cell necrosis presence of platelets and mononuclear inflammatory cells circulating in the capillaries and/or adhered to the endothelium. In addition, activation of endothelial cells, platelets, mononuclear inflammatory cell and neutrophil-type polymorphonuclear inflammatory cell evidenced by the emission of cytoplasmic membrane prolongation was observed. DEN-like particles were seen in the cytoplasm of endothelial cells. The viral genome was recovered from 3 in 12 lung samples. These results demonstrate that the BALB / c mouse represents a suitable model for the study of the histopathological changes induced by DENV infection in the lung, with tissue alterations similar to those observed in human cases of DEN.

Keywords: Lung, Ultrastructure, Histopathology, Dengue, BALB/c mice

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2 Postmortem Magnetic Resonance Imaging as an Objective Method for the Differential Diagnosis of a Stillborn and a Neonatal Death

Authors: Uliana N. Tumanova, Alexandr I. Shchegolev, Sergey M. Voevodin, Veronica A. Sinitsyna


An important part of forensic and autopsy research in perinatology is the answer to the question of life and stillbirth. Postmortem magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is an objective non-invasive research method that allows to store data for a long time and not to exhume the body to clarify the diagnosis. The purpose of the research is to study the possibilities of a postmortem MRI to determine the stillbirth and death of a newborn who had spontaneous breathing and died on the first day after birth. MRI and morphological data of a study of 23 stillborn bodies, prenatally dead at a gestational age of 22-39 weeks (Group I) and the bodies of 16 newborns who died from 2 to 24 hours after birth (Group II) were compared. Before the autopsy, postmortem MRI was performed on the Siemens Magnetom Verio 3T device in the supine position of the body. The control group for MRI studies consisted of 7 live newborns without lung disease (Group III). On T2WI in the sagittal projection was measured MR-signal intensity (SI) in the lung tissue (L) and shoulder muscle (M). During the autopsy, a pulmonary swimming test was evaluated, and macro- and microscopic studies were performed. According to the postmortem MRI, the highest values of mean SI of the lung (430 ± 27.99) and of the muscle (405.5 ± 38.62) on T2WI were detected in group I and exceeded the corresponding value of group II by 2.7 times. The lowest values were found in the control group - 77.9 ± 12.34 and 119.7 ± 6.3, respectively. In the group II, the lung SI was 1.6 times higher than the muscle SI, whereas in the group I and in the control group, the muscle SI was 2.1 times and 1.8 times larger than the lung. On the basis of clinical and morphological data, we calculated the formula for determining the breathing index (BI) during postmortem MRI: BI = SIL x SIM / 100. The mean value of BI in the group I (1801.14 ± 241.6) (values ranged from 756 to 3744) significantly higher than the corresponding average value of BI in the group II (455.89 ± 137.32, p < 0.05) (305-638.4). In the control group, the mean BI value was 91.75 ± 13.3 (values ranged from 53 to 154). The BI with the results of pulmonary swimming tests and microscopic examination of the lungs were compared. The boundary value of BI for the differential diagnosis of stillborn and newborn death was 700. Using the postmortem MRI allows to differentiate the stillborn with the death of the breathing newborn.

Keywords: Lung, Newborn, stillborn, postmortem MRI

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1 A Preliminary Study on the Effects of Lung Impact on Ballistic Thoracic Trauma

Authors: Amy Pullen, Samantha Rodrigues, David Kieser, Brian Shaw


The aim of the study was to determine if a projectile interacting with the lungs increases the severity of injury in comparison to a projectile interacting with the ribs or intercostal muscle. This comparative study employed a 10% gelatine based model with either porcine ribs or balloons embedded to represent a lung. Four sample groups containing five samples were evaluated; these were control (plain gel), intercostal impact, rib impact, and lung impact. Two ammunition natures were evaluated at a range of 10m; these were 5.56x45mm and 7.62x51mm. Aspects of projectile behavior were quantified including exiting projectile weight, location of yawing, projectile fragmentation and distribution, location and area of the temporary cavity, permanent cavity formation, and overall energy deposition. Major findings included the cavity showing a higher percentage of the projectile weight exit the block than the intercostal and ribs, but similar to the control for the 5.56mm ammunition. However, for the 7.62mm ammunition, the lung was shown to have a higher percentage of the projectile weight exit the block than the control, intercostal and ribs. The total weight of projectile fragments as a function of penetration depth revealed large fluctuations and significant intra-group variation for both ammunition natures. Despite the lack of a clear trend, both plots show that the lung leads to greater projectile fragments exiting the model. The lung was shown to have a later center of the temporary cavity than the control, intercostal and ribs for both ammunition types. It was also shown to have a similar temporary cavity volume to the control, intercostal and ribs for the 5.56mm ammunition and a similar temporary cavity to the intercostal for the 7.62mm ammunition The lung was shown to leave a similar projectile tract than the control, intercostal and ribs for both ammunition types. It was also shown to have larger shear planes than the control and the intercostal, but similar to the ribs for the 5.56mm ammunition, whereas it was shown to have smaller shear planes than the control but similar shear planes to the intercostal and ribs for the 7.62mm ammunition. The lung was shown to have less energy deposited than the control, intercostal and ribs for both ammunition types. This comparative study provides insights into the influence of the lungs on thoracic gunshot trauma. It indicates that the lungs limits projectile deformation and causes a later onset of yawing and subsequently limits the energy deposited along the wound tract creating a deeper and smaller cavity. This suggests that lung impact creates an altered pattern of local energy deposition within the target which will affect the severity of trauma.

Keywords: Trauma, Lung, Ballistics, wounding

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