Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 17

Lung cancer Related Abstracts

17 Annona muricata Leaves Induced Mitochondrial-Mediated Apoptosis in A549 Cells

Authors: Soheil Zorofchian Moghadamtousi, Habsah Abdul Kadir, Mohammadjavad Paydar, Elham Rouhollahi, Hamed Karimian

Abstract:

The present study was designed to evaluate the molecular mechanisms of Annona muricata leaves ethyl acetate extract (AMEAE) against lung cancer A549 cells. Cell viability analysis revealed the selective cytotoxic effect of AMEAE towards A549 cells. Treatment of A549 cells with AMEAE significantly elevated the reactive oxygen species formation, followed by attenuation of mitochondrial membrane potential via upregulation of Bax and downregulation of Bcl-2, accompanied by cytochrome c release to the cytosol. The released cytochrome c triggered the activation of caspase-9 followed by caspase-3. In addition, AMEAE-induced apoptosis was accompanied by cell cycle arrest at G1 phase. Our data showed for the first time that AMEAE inhibited the proliferation of A549 cells, leading to cell cycle arrest and programmed cell death through activation of the mitochondrial-mediated signaling pathway.

Keywords: Lung cancer, apoptosis, Mitochondria, Annona muricata

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16 Anticancer Effect of Resveratrol-Loaded Gelatin Nanoparticles in NCI-H460 Non-Small Cell Lung Carcinoma Cell Lines

Authors: N. Rajendra Prasad

Abstract:

Resveratrol (RSV), a grape phytochemical, has drawn greater attention because of its beneficial ef-fects against cancer. However, RSV has some draw-backs such as unstabilization, poor water solubility and short biological half time, which limit the utili-zation of RSV in medicine, food and pharmaceutical industries. In this study, we have encapsulated RSV in gelatin nanoparticles (GNPs) and studied its anti-cancer efficacy in NCI-H460 lung cancer cells. SEM and DLS studies have revealed that the prepared RSV-GNPs possess spherical shape with a mean diameter of 294 nm. The successful encapsulation of RSV in GNPs has been achieved by the cross-linker glutaraldehyde probably through Schiff base reaction and hydrogen bond interaction. Spectrophotometric analysis revealed that the max-imum of 93.6% of RSV has been entrapped in GNPs. In vitro drug release kinetics indicated that there was an initial burst release followed by a slow and sustained release of RSV from GNPs. The prepared RSV-GNPs exhibited very rapid and more efficient cellular uptake than free RSV. Further, RSV-GNPs treatment showed greater antiproliferative efficacy than free RSV treatment in NCI-H460 cells. It has been found that greater ROS generation, DNA damage and apoptotic incidence in RSV-GNPs treated cells than free RSV treatment. Erythrocyte aggregation assay showed that the prepared RSV-GNPs formulation elicit no toxic response. HPLC analysis revealed that RSV-GNPs was more bioavailable and had a longer half-life than free RSV. Hence, GNPs carrier system might be a promising mode for controlled delivery and for improved therapeutic index of poorly water soluble RSV.

Keywords: Lung cancer, controlled release, Resveratrol, coacervation, anticancer gelatin nanoparticles

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15 Prediction of MicroRNA-Target Gene by Machine Learning Algorithms in Lung Cancer Study

Authors: Ka-Lok Ng, Nilubon Kurubanjerdjit, Nattakarn Iam-On

Abstract:

MicroRNAs are small non-coding RNA found in many different species. They play crucial roles in cancer such as biological processes of apoptosis and proliferation. The identification of microRNA-target genes can be an essential first step towards to reveal the role of microRNA in various cancer types. In this paper, we predict miRNA-target genes for lung cancer by integrating prediction scores from miRanda and PITA algorithms used as a feature vector of miRNA-target interaction. Then, machine-learning algorithms were implemented for making a final prediction. The approach developed in this study should be of value for future studies into understanding the role of miRNAs in molecular mechanisms enabling lung cancer formation.

Keywords: Machine Learning, Lung cancer, microRNA, naive Bayes, SVM, miRNAs

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14 The Effects of Supportive Care Interventions with Psychotherapeutic and Exercise Approaches on Depressive Symptoms Among Patients with Lung Cancer: A Meta-Analysis

Authors: Chia-Chen Hsieh, Fei-Hsiu Hsiao

Abstract:

Objective: To examine the effects of supportive care interventions on depressive symptoms in patients with lung cancer. Methods: The databases of Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Ovid EMBASE, PubMed, and Chinese Electronic Periodical Services (CEPS) were searched from their inception until September 2015. We included the studies with randomized controlled trial design that compared standard care with supportive care interventions using psychotherapeutic or exercises approach. The standardized mean differences (SMD) (Cohen’s d) were calculated to estimate the treatment effects. The Cochrane Risk of Bias Tool was used for quality assessment and subgroup analysis was conducted to identify possible sources of heterogeneity. Results: A total of 1472 patients with lung cancer were identified. Compared with standard care, the overall effects of all supportive care interventions significantly reduced depressive symptoms (SMD = -0.74 with 95% CI = -1.07 to -0.41), and the effect was maintained at the 4th, 8th, and 12th weeks of follow-up. Either psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation or exercise alone produced significant improvements in depressive symptoms, while psychoeducation alone did not. The greater improvements in depressive symptoms occurred in lung cancer patients with severe depressive symptoms at baseline, total duration of interventions of less than ten weeks, and intervention provided through face-to-face delivery. Conclusions: Psychotherapy combined with psychoeducation can help patients manage the causes of depressive symptoms, including both symptom distress and psychological trauma due to lung cancer. Exercise can target the impaired respiratory function that is a cause of depressive symptoms in lung cancer patients.

Keywords: Lung cancer, Meta-analysis, supportive care intervention, depressive symptoms

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13 Symptom Burden and Quality of Life in Advanced Lung Cancer Patients

Authors: Ammar Asma, Bouafia Nabiha, Ben Cheikh Asma, Ezzi Olfa, Njah Mansour, Dhahri Meriem, Chafai Rim

Abstract:

Despite recent advances in treatment of the lung cancer patients, the prognosis remains poor. Information is limited regarding health related quality of life (QOL) status of advanced lung cancer patients. The purposes of this study were: to assess patient reported symptom burden, to measure their QOL, and to identify determinant factors associated with QOL. Materials/Methods: A cross sectional study of 60 patients was carried out from over the period of 03 months from February 1st to 30 April 2016. Patients were recruited in two department of health care: Pneumology department in a university hospital in Sousse and an oncology unit in a University Hospital in Kairouan. Patients with advanced stage (III and IV) of lung cancer who were hospitalized or admitted in the day hospital were recruited by convenience sampling. We used a questionnaire administrated and completed by a trained interviewer. This questionnaire is composed of three parts: demographic, clinical and therapeutic information’s, QOL measurements: based on the SF-36 questionnaire, Symptom’s burden measurement using the Lung Cancer Symptom Scale (LCSS). To assess Correlation between symptoms burden and QOL, we compared the scores of two scales two by two using the Pearson correlation. To identify factors influencing QOL in Lung cancer, a univariate statistical analysis then, a stepwise backward approach, wherein the variables with p< 0.2, were carried out to determine the association between SF-36 scores and different variables. Results: During the study period, 60 patients consented to complete symptom and quality of life questionnaires at a single point time (72% were recruited from day hospital). The majority of patients were male (88%), age ranged from 21 to 79 years with a mean of 60.5 years. Among patients, 48 (80%) were diagnosed as having non-small cell lung carcinoma (NSCLC). Approximately, 60 % (n=36) of patients were in stage IV, 25 % in stage IIIa and 15 % in stage IIIb. For symptom burden, the symptom burden index was 43.07 (Standard Deviation, 21.45). Loss of appetite and fatigue were rated as the most severe symptoms with mean scores (SD): 49.6 (25.7) and 58.2 (15.5). The average overall score of SF36 was 39.3 (SD, 15.4). The physical and emotional limitations had the lowest scores. Univariate analysis showed that factors which influence negatively QOL were: married status (p<0.03), smoking cessation after diagnosis (p<0.024), LCSS total score (p<0.001), LCSS symptom burden index (p<0.001), fatigue (p<0.001), loss of appetite (p<0.001), dyspnea (p<0.001), pain (p<0.002), and metastatic stage (p<0.01). In multivariate analysis, unemployment (p<0.014), smoking cessation after diagnosis (p<0.013), consumption of analgesic (p<0.002) and the indication of an analgesic radiotherapy (p<0.001) are revealed as independent determinants of QOL. The result of the correlation analyses between total LCSS scores and the total and individual domain SF36 scores was significant (p<0.001); the higher total LCSS score is, the poorer QOL is. Conclusion: A built in support of lung cancer patients would better control the symptoms and promote the QOL of these patients.

Keywords: Lung cancer, Quality of Life, metastasis, symptoms burden

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12 Positron Emission Tomography Parameters as Predictors of Pathologic Response and Nodal Clearance in Patients with Stage IIIA NSCLC Receiving Trimodality Therapy

Authors: Andrea L. Arnett, Ann T. Packard, Yolanda I. Garces, Kenneth W. Merrell

Abstract:

Objective: Pathologic response following neoadjuvant chemoradiation (CRT) has been associated with improved overall survival (OS). Conflicting results have been reported regarding the pathologic predictive value of positron emission tomography (PET) response in patients with stage III lung cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between post-treatment PET response and pathologic response utilizing novel FDG-PET parameters. Methods: This retrospective study included patients with non-metastatic, stage IIIA (N2) NSCLC cancer treated with CRT followed by resection. All patients underwent PET prior to and after neoadjuvant CRT. Univariate analysis was utilized to assess correlations between PET response, nodal clearance, pCR, and near-complete pathologic response (defined as the microscopic residual disease or less). Maximal standard uptake value (SUV), standard uptake ratio (SUR) [normalized independently to the liver (SUR-L) and blood pool (SUR-BP)], metabolic tumor volume (MTV), and total lesion glycolysis (TLG) were measured pre- and post-chemoradiation. Results: A total of 44 patients were included for review. Median age was 61.9 years, and median follow-up was 2.6 years. Histologic subtypes included adenocarcinoma (72.2%) and squamous cell carcinoma (22.7%), and the majority of patients had the T2 disease (59.1%). The rate of pCR and near-complete pathologic response within the primary lesion was 28.9% and 44.4%, respectively. The average reduction in SUVmₐₓ was 9.2 units (range -1.9-32.8), and the majority of patients demonstrated some degree of favorable treatment response. SUR-BP and SUR-L showed a mean reduction of 4.7 units (range -0.1-17.3) and 3.5 units (range –1.7-12.6), respectively. Variation in PET response was not significantly associated with histologic subtype, concurrent chemotherapy type, stage, or radiation dose. No significant correlation was found between pathologic response and absolute change in MTV or TLG. Reduction in SUVmₐₓ and SUR were associated with increased rate of pathologic response (p ≤ 0.02). This correlation was not impacted by normalization of SUR to liver versus mediastinal blood pool. A threshold of > 75% decrease in SUR-L correlated with near-complete response, with a sensitivity of 57.9% and specificity of 85.7%, as well as positive and negative predictive values of 78.6% and 69.2%, respectively (diagnostic odds ratio [DOR]: 5.6, p=0.02). A threshold of >50% decrease in SUR was also significantly associated pathologic response (DOR 12.9, p=0.2), but specificity was substantially lower when utilizing this threshold value. No significant association was found between nodal PET parameters and pathologic nodal clearance. Conclusions: Our results suggest that treatment response to neoadjuvant therapy as assessed on PET imaging can be a predictor of pathologic response when evaluated via SUV and SUR. SUR parameters were associated with higher diagnostic odds ratios, suggesting improved predictive utility compared to SUVmₐₓ. MTV and TLG did not prove to be significant predictors of pathologic response but may warrant further investigation in a larger cohort of patients.

Keywords: Lung cancer, positron emission tomography (PET), standard uptake ratio (SUR), standard uptake value (SUV)

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11 Health Belief Model on Smoking Behaviors Causing Lung Cancer: A Cross-Sectional Study in Thailand

Authors: Dujrudee Chinwong, Chanida Prompantakorn, Ubonphan Chaichana, Surarong Chinwong

Abstract:

Objective: Understanding the university students’ perceptions on smoking caused lung cancer based on the Health Belief Model should help health care providers in assisting them to quit smoking. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the University students’ health belief in smoking behaviors caused lung cancer, which based on the Health Belief Model. Methods: Data were collected from voluntary participants using a self-administered questionnaire. Participants were students studying at a University in northern Thailand who were current smokers; they were selected using snowball sampling. Results: Of 361 students, 84% were males; 78% smoked not more than 10 cigarettes a day; 68% intended to quit smoking. Our findings, based on the health belief model, showed that 1) perceived susceptibility: participants strongly believed that if they did not stop smoking, they were at high risk of lung cancer (88%); 2) perceived severity: they strongly believed that they had a high chance of death from lung cancer if they continued smoking (84%); 3) perceived benefits: they strongly believed that quitting smoking could reduce the chance of developing lung cancer; 4) perceived barriers of quitting smoking: they strongly believed in the difficulty of quitting smoking because it needed a high effort and strong intention (69%); 5) perceived self-efficacy: however, they strongly believed that they can quit smoking right away if they had a strong intention to quit smoking (70%); 6) cues to action: they strongly believed in the support of parents (85%) and lovers (78%) in helping them to quit smoking. Further, they believed that limitation on smoking area in the University and smoking cessation services provided by the University can assist them to quit smoking. Conclusion: The Health Belief Model helps us to understand students’ smoking behaviors caused lung cancer. This could lead to designing a smoking cessation program to assist students to quit smoking.

Keywords: Lung cancer, Thailand, Smoking, health belief model

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10 Sensing of Cancer DNA Using Resonance Frequency

Authors: Sungsoo Na, Chanho Park

Abstract:

Lung cancer is one of the most common severe diseases driving to the death of a human. Lung cancer can be divided into two cases of small-cell lung cancer (SCLC) and non-SCLC (NSCLC), and about 80% of lung cancers belong to the case of NSCLC. From several studies, the correlation between epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and NSCLCs has been investigated. Therefore, EGFR inhibitor drugs such as gefitinib and erlotinib have been used as lung cancer treatments. However, the treatments result showed low response (10~20%) in clinical trials due to EGFR mutations that cause the drug resistance. Patients with resistance to EGFR inhibitor drugs usually are positive to KRAS mutation. Therefore, assessment of EGFR and KRAS mutation is essential for target therapies of NSCLC patient. In order to overcome the limitation of conventional therapies, overall EGFR and KRAS mutations have to be monitored. In this work, the only detection of EGFR will be presented. A variety of techniques has been presented for the detection of EGFR mutations. The standard detection method of EGFR mutation in ctDNA relies on real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Real-time PCR method provides high sensitive detection performance. However, as the amplification step increases cost effect and complexity increase as well. Other types of technology such as BEAMing, next generation sequencing (NGS), an electrochemical sensor and silicon nanowire field-effect transistor have been presented. However, those technologies have limitations of low sensitivity, high cost and complexity of data analyzation. In this report, we propose a label-free and high-sensitive detection method of lung cancer using quartz crystal microbalance based platform. The proposed platform is able to sense lung cancer mutant DNA with a limit of detection of 1nM.

Keywords: Lung cancer, resonance frequency, quartz crystal microbalance, cancer DNA

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9 Evaluation of Anti-Cancer Activities of Formononetin in Lung Cancer by in vitro Methods

Authors: Vishnu Varthan Vaithiyalingam Jagannathan, Lakshmi Karunanidhi Santhanalakshmi, Srividya Ammayappan Rajam

Abstract:

Formononetin is the O-Methoxy Flavonol that has many pharmacological activities, which belongs to the flavonoid family. In the current study, activity of this molecule was evaluated in lung cancer cell lines. In general, flavonoids possess certain anticancer mechanism. Being a flavonoid subfamily, this molecule was subjected to evaluate cytotoxicity assay by MTT ((3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-Diphenyltetrazolium Bromide)) stain, mode of cell death assay stained by acridine orange and ethidium bromide and Evaluation of Apoptosis pathway (extrinsic or intrinsic) by Caspase 3/7 stain and Rhodamine-123 stain. From the results, we could able to confirm that the investigatory molecule formononetin has anticancer activity and in future, the study will propose to evaluate the formononetin action against genetic changes occurs during lung cancer progression.

Keywords: Lung cancer, Caspase 3/7, formononetin, Rhodamine-123

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8 Exhaled Breath Condensate in Lung Cancer: A Non-Invasive Sample for Easier Mutations Detection by Next Generation Sequencing

Authors: Omar Youssef, Aija Knuuttila, Paivi Piirilä, Virinder Sarhadi, Sakari Knuutila

Abstract:

Exhaled breath condensate (EBC) is a unique sample that allows studying different genetic changes in lung carcinoma through a non-invasive way. With the aid of next generation sequencing (NGS) technology, analysis of genetic mutations has been more efficient with increased sensitivity for detection of genetic variants. In order to investigate the possibility of applying this method for cancer diagnostics, mutations in EBC DNA from lung cancer patients and healthy individuals were studied by using NGS. The key aim is to assess the feasibility of using this approach to detect clinically important mutations in EBC. EBC was collected from 20 healthy individuals and 9 lung cancer patients (four lung adenocarcinomas, four 8 squamous cell carcinoma, and one case of mesothelioma). Mutations in hotpot regions of 22 genes were studied by using Ampliseq Colon and Lung cancer panel and sequenced on Ion PGM. Results demonstrated that all nine patients showed a total of 19 cosmic mutations in APC, BRAF, EGFR, ERBB4, FBXW7, FGFR1, KRAS, MAP2K1, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, RET, SMAD4, and TP53. In controls, 15 individuals showed 35 cosmic mutations in BRAF, CTNNB1, DDR2, EGFR, ERBB2, FBXW7, FGFR3, KRAS, MET, NOTCH1, NRAS, PIK3CA, PTEN, SMAD4, and TP53. Additionally, 45 novel mutations not reported previously were also seen in patients’ samples, and 106 novel mutations were seen in controls’ specimens. KRAS exon 2 mutations G12D was identified in one control specimen with mutant allele fraction of 6.8%, while KRAS G13D mutation seen in one patient sample showed mutant allele fraction of 17%. These findings illustrate that hotspot mutations are present in DNA from EBC of both cancer patients and healthy controls. As some of the cosmic mutations were seen in controls too, no firm conclusion can be drawn on the clinical importance of cosmic mutations in patients. Mutations reported in controls could represent early neoplastic changes or normal homeostatic process of apoptosis occurring in lung tissue to get rid of mutant cells. At the same time, mutations detected in patients might represent a non-invasive easily accessible way for early cancer detection. Follow up of individuals with important cancer mutations is necessary to clarify the significance of these mutations in both healthy individuals and cancer patients.

Keywords: Lung cancer, Next Generation Sequencing, mutations, exhaled breath condensate

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7 Nursing Experience for a Lung Cancer Patient Undergoing First Time Concurrent Chemotherapy and Radiation Therapy

Authors: Hui Ling Chen

Abstract:

This article describes the experience of caring for a 68-year-old lung cancer patient undergoing the initial stage of concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy during the period of October 21 to November 16. In this study, the author collected data through observation, interviews, medical examination, and the use of Roy’s adaptation model as a guide for data collection and assessment. This study confirmed that chemotherapy induced nausea and vomiting, and radiation therapy impaired skin integrity. At the same time, the patient experienced an anxious reaction to the initial cancer diagnosis and the insertion of subcutaneous infusion ports at the start of medical treatment. Similarly, the patient’s wife shares his anxiety, not to mention the feeling of inadequacy from the lack of training in cancer care. In response, the nursing intervention strategy has included keeping the patient and his family informed of his treatment progress, transfer of cancer care knowledge, and providing them with spiritual support. For example, the nursing staff has helped them draw up a mutually agreeable dietary plan that best suits the wife’s cooking skills, provided them with knowledge in pre- and post-radiation skin care, as well as means to cope with nausea and vomiting reactions. The nursing staff has also worked on building rapport with the patient and his spouse, providing them with encouragement, caring attention and companionship. After the patient was discharged from the hospital, the nursing staff followed up with caring phone calls to help the patient and his family make life-style adjustments to normalcy. The author hopes that his distinctive nursing experience can be useful as a reference for the clinical care of lung cancer patients undergoing the initial stage of concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy treatment.

Keywords: Lung cancer, nursing care, initiate diagnosis, concurrent chemotherapy and radiation therapy

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6 Evaluation of Promoter Hypermethylation in Tissue and Blood of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Patients and Association with Survival

Authors: Kriti Upadhyay, Ashraf Ali, Puja Sohal, Randeep Guleria, Anant Mohan

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Background: Gene silencing by aberrant promoter hypermethylation is common in lung cancer and is an initiating event in its development. Aim: To evaluate the gene promoter hypermethylation frequency in serum and tissue of lung cancer patients. Method: 95 newly diagnosed untreated advance stage lung cancer patients and 50 cancer free matched controls were studied. Bisulfite modification of tissue and serum DNA was done; modified DNA was used as a template for methylation-specific PCR analysis. Survival was assessed for one year. Results: Of 95 patients, 82% were non-small cell lung cancer (34% squamous cell carcinoma, 34% non-small cell lung cancer and 14% adenocarcinoma) and 18% were small cell lung cancer. Biopsy revealed that tissue of 89% and 75% of lung cancer patients and 85% and 52% of controls had promoter hypermethylated for MGMT (p=0.35) and p16(p<0.001) gene, respectively. In serum, 33% and 49% of lung cancer patients and 28% and 43% controls were positive for MGMT and p16 gene. No significant correlation was found between survival and clinico-pathological parameters. Conclusion: High gene promoter methylation frequency of p16 gene in tissue biopsy may be linked with early stages of carcinogenesis. Appropriate follow-up is required for confirmation of this finding.

Keywords: Molecular Biology, Lung cancer, methylation, MS- PCR

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5 PathoPy2.0: Application of Fractal Geometry for Early Detection and Histopathological Analysis of Lung Cancer

Authors: Rhea Kapoor

Abstract:

Fractal dimension provides a way to characterize non-geometric shapes like those found in nature. The purpose of this research is to estimate Minkowski fractal dimension of human lung images for early detection of lung cancer. Lung cancer is the leading cause of death among all types of cancer and an early histopathological analysis will help reduce deaths primarily due to late diagnosis. A Python application program, PathoPy2.0, was developed for analyzing medical images in pixelated format and estimating Minkowski fractal dimension using a new box-counting algorithm that allows windowing of images for more accurate calculation in the suspected areas of cancerous growth. Benchmark geometric fractals were used to validate the accuracy of the program and changes in fractal dimension of lung images to indicate the presence of issues in the lung. The accuracy of the program for the benchmark examples was between 93-99% of known values of the fractal dimensions. Fractal dimension values were then calculated for lung images, from National Cancer Institute, taken over time to correctly detect the presence of cancerous growth. For example, as the fractal dimension for a given lung increased from 1.19 to 1.27 due to cancerous growth, it represents a significant change in fractal dimension which lies between 1 and 2 for 2-D images. Based on the results obtained on many lung test cases, it was concluded that fractal dimension of human lungs can be used to diagnose lung cancer early. The ideas behind PathoPy2.0 can also be applied to study patterns in the electrical activity of the human brain and DNA matching.

Keywords: Image Processing, Lung cancer, Fractals, histopathological analysis, Minkowski dimension

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4 Survey of Indoor Radon/Thoron Concentrations in High Lung Cancer Incidence Area in India

Authors: Zoliana Bawitlung, B. K. Sahoo, B. K. Sapra, J. Malsawma, P. C. Rohmingliana, L. Z. Chhangte, Remlal Siama, Hming Chungnunga, Vanram Lawma, L. Hnamte

Abstract:

Mizoram state has the highest lung cancer incidence rate in India due to its high-level consumption of tobacco and its products which is supplemented by the food habits. While smoking is mainly responsible for this incidence, the effect of inhalation of indoor radon gas cannot be discarded as the hazardous nature of this radioactive gas and its progenies on human population have been well-established worldwide where the radiation damage to bronchial cells eventually can be the second leading cause of lung cancer next to smoking. It is also known that the effect of radiation, however, small may be the concentration, cannot be neglected as they can bring about the risk of cancer incidence. Hence, estimation of indoor radon concentration is important to give a useful reference against radiation effects as well as establishing its safety measures and to create a baseline for further case-control studies. The indoor radon/thoron concentrations in Mizoram had been measured in 41 dwellings selected on the basis of spot gamma background radiation and construction type of the houses during 2015-2016. The dwellings were monitored for one year, in 4 months cycles to indicate seasonal variations, for the indoor concentration of radon gas and its progenies, outdoor gamma dose, and indoor gamma dose respectively. A time-integrated method using Solid State Nuclear Track Detector (SSNTD) based single entry pin-hole dosimeters were used for measurement of indoor Radon/Thoron concentration. Gamma dose measurements for indoor as well as outdoor were carried out using Geiger Muller survey meters. Seasonal variation of indoor radon/ thoron concentration was monitored. The results show that the annual average radon concentrations varied from 54.07 – 144.72 Bq/m³ with an average of 90.20 Bq/m³ and the annual average thoron concentration varied from 17.39 – 54.19 Bq/m³ with an average of 35.91 Bq/m³ which are below the permissible limit. The spot survey of gamma background radiation level varies between 9 to 24 µR/h inside and outside the dwellings throughout Mizoram which are all within acceptable limits. From the above results, there is no direct indication that radon/thoron is responsible for the high lung cancer incidence in the area. In order to find epidemiological evidence of natural radiations to high cancer incidence in the area, one may need to conduct a case-control study which is beyond this scope. However, the derived data of measurement will provide baseline data for further studies.

Keywords: Lung cancer, seasonal variation, background gamma radiation, indoor radon/thoron

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3 The Effects of Terrein: A Secondary Metabolite from Aspergillus terreus as Anticancer and Antimetastatic Agent on Lung Cancer Cells

Authors: Paiwan Buachan, Maneekarn Namsa-Aid, Suchada Jongrungruangchok, Foengchat Jarintanan, Wanlaya Uthaisang-Tanechpongtamb

Abstract:

Lung cancer or pulmonary carcinoma is the uncontrolled growth of abnormal cells in one or both of the lungs. These abnormal cells can spread to other organs of the body through lymphatic system or bloodstream which is called metastatic stage that leading cause of cancer death. Terrein (C₈H₁₀O₃; MW= 154.06 kDa) is a secondary bioactive fungal metabolite, which was isolated from the Aspergillus terreus. In this study, we investigated the effects of terrein on the inhibition of human lung cancer cell proliferation and metastasis. The A549 human non-small cell lung cancer cell line was used as a model. Terrein significantly inhibited lung cancer cell proliferation measuring by a colorimetric MTT assay (IC₅₀ 0.32 mM) and significantly inhibited metastatic processes including migration, invasion, and adhesion that determined by wound healing assay, transwell assay, and adhesion assay, respectively. These findings indicate that terrein could be a potential therapeutic agent for lung cancer.

Keywords: Lung cancer, anticancer, terrein, antimetastatic

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2 Profiling of the Cell-Cycle Related Genes in Response to Efavirenz, a Non-Nucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor in Human Lung Cancer

Authors: Rahaba Marima, Clement Penny

Abstract:

The Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) for HIV positive patients has improved since the introduction of the highly active antiretroviral treatment (HAART). However, in the present HAART era, HIV co-morbidities such as lung cancer, a non-AIDS (NAIDS) defining cancer have been documented to be on the rise. Under normal physiological conditions, cells grow, repair and proliferate through the cell-cycle as cellular homeostasis is important in the maintenance and proper regulation of tissues and organs. Contrarily, the deregulation of the cell-cycle is a hallmark of cancer, including lung cancer. The association between lung cancer and the use of HAART components such as Efavirenz (EFV) is poorly understood. This study aimed at elucidating the effects of EFV on the cell-cycle genes’ expression in lung cancer. For this purpose, the human cell-cycle gene array composed of 84 genes was evaluated on both normal lung fibroblasts (MRC-5) cells and adenocarcinoma (A549) lung cells, in response to 13µM EFV or 0.01% vehicle. The ±2 up or down fold change was used as a basis of target selection, with p < 0.05. Additionally, RT-qPCR was done to validate the gene array results. Next, In-silico bio-informatics tools, Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes/Proteins (STRING), Reactome, Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis (IPA) were used for gene/gene interaction studies as well as to map the molecular and biological pathways influenced by the identified targets. Interestingly, the DNA damage response (DDR) pathway genes such as p53, Ataxia telangiectasia mutated and Rad3 related (ATR), Growth arrest and DNA damage inducible alpha (GADD45A), HUS1 checkpoint homolog (HUS1) and Role of radiation (RAD) genes were shown to be upregulated following EFV treatment, as revealed by STRING analysis. Additionally, functional enrichment analysis by the KEGG pathway revealed that most of the differentially expressed gene targets function at the cell-cycle checkpoint such as p21, Aurora kinase B (AURKB) and Mitotic Arrest Deficient-Like 2 (MAD2L2). Core analysis by IPA revealed that p53 downstream targets such as survivin, Bcl2, and cyclin/cyclin dependent kinases (CDKs) complexes are down-regulated, following exposure to EFV. Furthermore, Reactome analysis showed a significant increase in cellular response to stress genes, DNA repair genes, and apoptosis genes, as observed in both normal and cancerous cells. These findings implicate the genotoxic effects of EFV on lung cells, provoking the DDR pathway. Notably, the constitutive expression of this pathway (DDR) often leads to uncontrolled cell proliferation and eventually tumourigenesis, which could be the attribute of HAART components’ (such as EFV) effect on human cancers. Targeting the cell-cycle and its regulation holds a promising therapeutic intervention to the potential HAART associated carcinogenesis, particularly lung cancer.

Keywords: Lung cancer, Efavirenz, DNA damage response, cell-cycle

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1 Comparing Accuracy of Semantic and Radiomics Features in Prognosis of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Mutation in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer

Authors: Mahya Naghipoor

Abstract:

Purpose: Non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is the most common lung cancer type. Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutation is the main reason which causes NSCLC. Computed tomography (CT) is used for diagnosis and prognosis of lung cancers because of low price and little invasion. Semantic analyses of qualitative CT features are based on visual evaluation by radiologist. However, the naked eye ability may not assess all image features. On the other hand, radiomics provides the opportunity of quantitative analyses for CT images features. The aim of this review study was comparing accuracy of semantic and radiomics features in prognosis of EGFR mutation in NSCLC. Methods: For this purpose, the keywords including: non-small cell lung cancer, epidermal growth factor receptor mutation, semantic, radiomics, feature, receiver operating characteristics curve (ROC) and area under curve (AUC) were searched in PubMed and Google Scholar. Totally 29 papers were reviewed and the AUC of ROC analyses for semantic and radiomics features were compared. Results: The results showed that the reported AUC amounts for semantic features (ground glass opacity, shape, margins, lesion density and presence or absence of air bronchogram, emphysema and pleural effusion) were %41-%79. For radiomics features (kurtosis, skewness, entropy, texture, standard deviation (SD) and wavelet) the AUC values were found %50-%86. Conclusions: In conclusion, the accuracy of radiomics analysis is a little higher than semantic in prognosis of EGFR mutation in NSCLC.

Keywords: Lung cancer, Mutation, computer tomography, radiomics

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