Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

LULC Related Abstracts

9 Evaluating the Effect of Climate Change and Land Use/Cover Change on Catchment Hydrology of Gumara Watershed, Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia

Authors: Gashaw Gismu Chakilu


Climate and land cover change are very important issues in terms of global context and their responses to environmental and socio-economic drivers. The dynamic of these two factors is currently affecting the environment in unbalanced way including watershed hydrology. In this paper individual and combined impacts of climate change and land use land cover change on hydrological processes were evaluated through applying the model Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) in Gumara watershed, Upper Blue Nile basin Ethiopia. The regional climate; temperature and rainfall data of the past 40 years in the study area were prepared and changes were detected by using trend analysis applying Mann-Kendall trend test. The land use land cover data were obtained from land sat image and processed by ERDAS IMAGIN 2010 software. Three land use land cover data; 1973, 1986, and 2013 were prepared and these data were used for base line, model calibration and change study respectively. The effects of these changes on high flow and low flow of the catchment have also been evaluated separately. The high flow of the catchment for these two decades was analyzed by using Annual Maximum (AM) model and the low flow was evaluated by seven day sustained low flow model. Both temperature and rainfall showed increasing trend; and then the extent of changes were evaluated in terms of monthly bases by using two decadal time periods; 1973-1982 was taken as baseline and 2004-2013 was used as change study. The efficiency of the model was determined by Nash-Sutcliffe (NS) and Relative Volume error (RVe) and their values were 0.65 and 0.032 for calibration and 0.62 and 0.0051 for validation respectively. The impact of climate change was higher than that of land use land cover change on stream flow of the catchment; the flow has been increasing by 16.86% and 7.25% due to climate and LULC change respectively, and the combined change effect accounted 22.13% flow increment. The overall results of the study indicated that Climate change is more responsible for high flow than low flow; and reversely the land use land cover change showed more significant effect on low flow than high flow of the catchment. From the result we conclude that the hydrology of the catchment has been altered because of changes of climate and land cover of the study area.

Keywords: Climate, SWAT, Ethiopia, LULC

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8 Rice Area Determination Using Landsat-Based Indices and Land Surface Temperature Values

Authors: Burçin Saltık, Levent Genç


In this study, it was aimed to determine a route for identification of rice cultivation areas within Thrace and Marmara regions of Turkey using remote sensing and GIS. Landsat 8 (OLI-TIRS) imageries acquired in production season of 2013 with 181/32 Path/Row number were used. Four different seasonal images were generated utilizing original bands and different transformation techniques. All images were classified individually using supervised classification techniques and Land Use Land Cover Maps (LULC) were generated with 8 classes. Areas (ha, %) of each classes were calculated. In addition, district-based rice distribution maps were developed and results of these maps were compared with Turkish Statistical Institute (TurkSTAT; TSI)’s actual rice cultivation area records. Accuracy assessments were conducted, and most accurate map was selected depending on accuracy assessment and coherency with TSI results. Additionally, rice areas on over 4° slope values were considered as mis-classified pixels and they eliminated using slope map and GIS tools. Finally, randomized rice zones were selected to obtain maximum-minimum value ranges of each date (May, June, July, August, September images separately) NDVI, LSWI, and LST images to test whether they may be used for rice area determination via raster calculator tool of ArcGIS. The most accurate classification for rice determination was obtained from seasonal LSWI LULC map, and considering TSI data and accuracy assessment results and mis-classified pixels were eliminated from this map. According to results, 83151.5 ha of rice areas exist within study area. However, this result is higher than TSI records with an area of 12702.3 ha. Use of maximum-minimum range of rice area NDVI, LSWI, and LST was tested in Meric district. It was seen that using the value ranges obtained from July imagery, gave the closest results to TSI records, and the difference was only 206.4 ha. This difference is normal due to relatively low resolution of images. Thus, employment of images with higher spectral, spatial, temporal and radiometric resolutions may provide more reliable results.

Keywords: Rice, NDVI, LST, LULC, landsat 8 (OLI-TIRS), LSWI

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7 Relocation of Livestocks in Rural of Canakkale Province Using Remote Sensing and GIS

Authors: Melis Inalpulat, Levent Genc, Unal Kizil, Tugce Civelek


Livestock production is one of the most important components of rural economy. Due to the urban expansion, rural areas close to expanding cities transform into urban districts during the time. However, the legislations have some restrictions related to livestock farming in such administrative units since they tend to create environmental concerns like odor problems resulted from excessive manure production. Therefore, the existing animal operations should be moved from the settlement areas. This paper was focused on determination of suitable lands for livestock production in Canakkale province of Turkey using remote sensing (RS) data and GIS techniques. To achieve the goal, Formosat 2 and Landsat 8 imageries, Aster DEM, and 1:25000 scaled soil maps, village boundaries, and village livestock inventory records were used. The study was conducted using suitability analysis which evaluates the land in terms of limitations and potentials, and suitability range was categorized as Suitable (S) and Non-Suitable (NS). Limitations included the distances from main and crossroads, water resources and settlements, while potentials were appropriate values for slope, land use capability and land use land cover status. Village-based S land distribution results were presented, and compared with livestock inventories. Results showed that approximately 44230 ha area is inappropriate because of the distance limitations for roads and etc. (NS). Moreover, according to LULC map, 71052 ha area consists of forests, olive and other orchards, and thus, may not be suitable for building such structures (NS). In comparison, it was found that there are a total of 1228 ha S lands within study area. The village-based findings indicated that, in some villages livestock production continues on NS areas. Finally, it was suggested that organized livestock zones may be constructed to serve in more than one village after the detailed analysis complemented considering also political decisions, opinion of the local people, etc.

Keywords: Remote Sensing, Livestock, GIS, LULC, suitable lands

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6 Study of Land Use Land Cover Change of Bhimbetka with Temporal Satellite Data and Information Systems

Authors: Pranita Shivankar, Devashree Hardas, Prabodhachandra Deshmukh, Arun Suryavanshi


Bhimbetka Rock Shelters is the UNESCO World Heritage Site located about 45 kilometers south of Bhopal in the state of Madhya Pradesh, India. Rapid changes in land use land cover (LULC) adversely affect the environment. In recent past, significant changes are found in the cultural landscape over a period of time. The objective of the paper was to study the changes in land use land cover (LULC) of Bhimbetka and its peripheral region. For this purpose, the supervised classification was carried out by using satellite images of Landsat and IRS LISS III for the year 2000 and 2013. Use of remote sensing in combination with geographic information system is one of the effective information technology tools to generate land use land cover (LULC) change information.

Keywords: landsat, LULC, UNESCO, world heritage site, IRS LISS III

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5 Post-Soviet LULC Analysis of Tbilisi, Batumi and Kutaisi Using of Remote Sensing and Geo Information System

Authors: Lela Gadrani, Mariam Tsitsagi


Human is a part of the urban landscape and responsible for it. Urbanization of cities includes the longest phase; thus none of the environment ever undergoes such anthropogenic impact as the area of large cities. The post-Soviet period is very interesting in terms of scientific research. The changes that have occurred in the cities since the collapse of the Soviet Union have not yet been analyzed best to our knowledge. In this context, the aim of this paper is to analyze the changes in the land use of the three large cities of Georgia (Tbilisi, Kutaisi, Batumi). Tbilisi as a capital city, Batumi as a port city, and Kutaisi as a former industrial center. Data used during the research process are conventionally divided into satellite and supporting materials. For this purpose, the largest topographic maps (1:10 000) of all three cities were analyzed, Tbilisi General Plans (1896, 1924), Tbilisi and Kutaisi historical maps. The main emphasis was placed on the classification of Landsat images. In this case, we have classified the images LULC (LandUse / LandCover) of all three cities taken in 1987 and 2016 using the supervised and unsupervised methods. All the procedures were performed in the programs: Arc GIS 10.3.1 and ENVI 5.0. In each classification we have singled out the following classes: built-up area, water bodies, agricultural lands, green cover and bare soil, and calculated the areas occupied by them. In order to check the validity of the obtained results, additionally we used the higher resolution images of CORONA and Sentinel. Ultimately we identified the changes that took place in the land use in the post-Soviet period in the above cities. According to the results, a large wave of changes touched Tbilisi and Batumi, though in different periods. It turned out that in the case of Tbilisi, the area of developed territory has increased by 13.9% compared to the 1987 data, which is certainly happening at the expense of agricultural land and green cover, in particular, the area of agricultural lands has decreased by 4.97%; and the green cover by 5.67%. It should be noted that Batumi has obviously overtaken the country's capital in terms of development. With the unaided eye it is clear that in comparison with other regions of Georgia, everything is different in Batumi. In fact, Batumi is an unofficial summer capital of Georgia. Undoubtedly, Batumi’s development is very important both in economic and social terms. However, there is a danger that in the uneven conditions of urban development, we will eventually get a developed center - Batumi, and multiple underdeveloped peripheries around it. Analysis of the changes in the land use is of utmost importance not only for quantitative evaluation of the changes already implemented, but for future modeling and prognosis of urban development. Raster data containing the classes of land use is an integral part of the city's prognostic models.

Keywords: Analysis, Remote Sensing, LULC, geo information system

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4 Simulating the Surface Runoff for the Urbanized Watershed of Mula-Mutha River from Western Maharashtra, India

Authors: Anargha A. Dhorde, Deshpande Gauri, Amit G. Dhorde


Mula-Mutha basin is one of the speedily urbanizing watersheds, wherein two major urban centers, Pune and Pimpri-Chinchwad, have developed at a shocking rate in the last two decades. Such changing land use/land cover (LULC) is prone to hydrological problems and flash floods are a frequent, eventuality in the lower reaches of the basin. The present research brings out the impact of varying LULC, impervious surfaces on urban surface hydrology and generates storm-runoff scenarios for the hydrological units. The two multi-temporal satellite images were processed and supervised classification is performed with > 75% accuracy. The built-up has increased from 14.4% to 34.37% in the 28 years span, which is concentrated in and around the Pune-PCMC region. Impervious surfaces that were obtained by population calibrated multiple regression models. Almost 50% area of the watershed is impervious, which attribute to increase surface runoff and flash floods. The SCS-CN method was employed to calculate surface runoff of the watershed. The comparison between calculated and measured values of runoff was performed in a statistically precise way which shows no significant difference. Increasing built-up areas, as well as impervious surface areas due to rapid urbanization and industrialization, may lead to generating high runoff volumes in the basin especially in the urbanized areas of the watershed and along the major transportation arteries. Simulations generated with 50 mm and 100 mm rainstorm depth conspicuously noted that most of the changes in terms of increased runoff are constricted to the highly urbanized areas. Considering whole watershed area, the runoff values 39 m³ generated with 1'' rainfall whereas only urbanized areas of the basin (Pune and Pimpari-Chinchwad) were generated 11154 m³ runoff. Such analysis is crucial in providing information regarding their intensity and location, which proves instrumental in their analysis in order to formulate proper mitigation measures and rehabilitation strategies.

Keywords: Surface Hydrology, land use/land cover, LULC, impervious surfaces, storm-runoff scenarios

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3 Impacts of Aquaculture Farms on the Mangroves Forests of Sundarbans, India (2010-2018): Temporal Changes of NDVI

Authors: Sandeep Thakur, Ismail Mondal, Phani Bhusan Ghosh, Papita Das, Tarun Kumar De


Sundarbans Reserve forest of India has been undergoing major transformations in the recent past owing to population pressure and related changes. This has brought about major changes in the spatial landscape of the region especially in the western parts. This study attempts to assess the impacts of the Landcover changes on the mangrove habitats. Time series imageries of Landsat were used to analyze the Normalized Differential Vegetation Index (NDVI) patterns over the western parts of Indian Sundarbans forest in order to assess the heath of the mangroves in the region. The images were subjected to Land use Land cover (LULC) classification using sub-pixel classification techniques in ERDAS Imagine software and the changes were mapped. The spatial proliferation of aquaculture farms during the study period was also mapped. A multivariate regression analysis was carried out between the obtained NDVI values and the LULC classes. Similarly, the observed meteorological data sets (time series rainfall and minimum and maximum temperature) were also statistically correlated for regression. The study demonstrated the application of NDVI in assessing the environmental status of mangroves as the relationship between the changes in the environmental variables and the remote sensing based indices felicitate an efficient evaluation of environmental variables, which can be used in the coastal zone monitoring and development processes.

Keywords: mangrove, NDVI, LULC, aquaculture farms

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2 Evaluating the Impact of Expansion on Urban Thermal Surroundings: A Case Study of Lahore Metropolitan City, Pakistan

Authors: Usman Ahmed Khan


Urbanization directly affects the existing infrastructure, landscape modification, environmental contamination, and traffic pollution, especially if there is a lack of urban planning. Recently, the rapid urban sprawl has resulted in less developed green areas and has devastating environmental consequences. This study was aimed to study the past urban expansion rates and measure LST from satellite data. The land use land cover (LULC) maps of years 1996, 2010, 2013, and 2017 were generated using landsat satellite images. Four main classes, i.e., water, urban, bare land, and vegetation, were identified using unsupervised classification with iterative self-organizing data analysis (isodata) technique. The LST from satellite thermal data can be derived from different procedures: atmospheric, radiometric calibrations and surface emissivity corrections, classification of spatial changeability in land-cover. Different methods and formulas were used in the algorithm that successfully retrieves the land surface temperature to help us study the thermal environment of the ground surface. To verify the algorithm, the land surface temperature and the near-air temperature were compared. The results showed that, From 1996-2017, urban areas increased to about a considerable increase of about 48%. Few areas of the city also shown in a reduction in LST from the year 1996-2017 that actually began their transitional phase from rural to urban LULC. The mean temperature of the city increased averagely about 1ºC each year in the month of October. The green and vegetative areas witnessed a decrease in the area while a higher number of pixels increased in urban class.

Keywords: Urbanization, LST, LULC, isodata

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1 Strategies for Conserving Ecosystem Functions of the Aravalli Range to Combat Land Degradation: Case of Kishangarh and Tijara Tehsil in Rajasthan, India

Authors: Saloni Khandelwal


The Aravalli hills are one of the oldest and most distinctive mountain chains of peninsular India spanning in around 692 Km. More than 60% of it falls in the state of Rajasthan and influences ecological equilibrium in about 30% of the state. Because of natural and human-induced activities, physical gaps in the Aravallis are increasing, new gaps are coming up, and its physical structure is changing. There are no strict regulations to protect and monitor the Aravallis and no comprehensive research and study has been done for the enhancement of ecosystem functions of these ranges. Through this study, various factors leading to Aravalli’s degradation are identified and its impacts on selected areas are analyzed. A literature study is done to identify factors responsible for the degradation. To understand the severity of the problem at the lowest level, two tehsils from different districts in Rajasthan, which are the most affected due to illegal mining and increasing physical gaps are selected for the study. Case-1 of three-gram panchayats in Kishangarh Tehsil of Ajmer district focuses on the expanding physical gaps in the Aravalli range, and case-2 of three-gram panchayats in Tijara Tehsil of Alwar district focuses on increasing illegal mining in the Aravalli range. For measuring the degradation, physical, biological and social indicators are identified through literature review and for both the cases analysis is done on the basis of these indicators. Primary survey and focus group discussions are done with villagers, mining owners, illegal miners, and various government officials to understand dependency of people on the Aravalli and its importance to them along with the impact of degradation on their livelihood and environment. From the analysis, it has been found that green cover is continuously decreasing in both cases, dense forest areas do not exist now, the groundwater table is depleting at a very fast rate, soil is losing its moisture resulting in low yield and shift in agriculture. Wild animals which were easily seen earlier are now extinct. Cattles of villagers are dependent on the forest area in the Aravalli range for food, but with a decrease in fodder, their cattle numbers are decreasing. There is a decrease in agricultural land and an increase in scrub and salt-affected land. Analysis of various national and state programmes, acts which were passed to conserve biodiversity has been done showing that none of them is helping much to protect the Aravalli. For conserving the Aravalli and its forest areas, regional level and local level initiatives are required and are proposed in this study. This study is an attempt to formulate conservation and management strategies for the Aravalli range. These strategies will help in improving biodiversity which can lead to the revival of its ecosystem functions. It will also help in curbing the pollution at the regional and local level. All this will lead to the sustainable development of the region.

Keywords: Ecosystem, Rajasthan, LULC, Aravalli

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