Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

Lubrication Related Abstracts

6 Pressure Distribution, Load Capacity, and Thermal Effect with Generalized Maxwell Model in Journal Bearing Lubrication

Authors: A. Ouibrahim, M. Guemmadi

Abstract:

This numerical investigation aims to evaluate how a viscoelastic lubricant described by a generalized Maxwell model, affects the pressure distribution, the load capacity and thermal effect in a journal bearing lubrication. We use for the purpose the CFD package software completed by adapted user define functions (UDFs) to solve the coupled equations of momentum, of energy and of the viscoelastic model (generalized Maxwell model). Two parameters, viscosity and relaxation time are involved to show how viscoelasticity substantially affect the pressure distribution, the load capacity and the thermal transfer by comparison to Newtonian lubricant. These results were also compared with the available published results.

Keywords: Computational Modelling, Lubrication, journal bearing, Maxwell model, viscoelastic fluids, load capacity

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5 Thermal and Starvation Effects on Lubricated Elliptical Contacts at High Rolling/Sliding Speeds

Authors: VINOD KUMAR, Surjit Angra

Abstract:

The objective of this theoretical study is to develop simple design formulas for the prediction of minimum film thickness and maximum mean film temperature rise in lightly loaded high-speed rolling/sliding lubricated elliptical contacts incorporating starvation effect. Herein, the reported numerical analysis focuses on thermoelastohydrodynamically lubricated rolling/sliding elliptical contacts, considering the Newtonian rheology of lubricant for wide range of operating parameters, namely load characterized by Hertzian pressure (PH = 0.01 GPa to 0.10 GPa), rolling speed (>10 m/s), slip parameter (S varies up to 1.0), and ellipticity ratio (k = 1 to 5). Starvation is simulated by systematically reducing the inlet supply. This analysis reveals that influences of load, rolling speed, and level of starvation are significant on the minimum film thickness. However, the maximum mean film temperature rise is strongly influenced by slip in addition to load, rolling speed, and level of starvation. In the presence of starvation, reduction in minimum film thickness and increase in maximum mean film temperature are observed. Based on the results of this study, empirical relations are developed for the prediction of dimensionless minimum film thickness and dimensionless maximum mean film temperature rise at the contacts in terms of various operating parameters.

Keywords: Lubrication, traction, starvation, elliptical contact, minimum film thickness

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4 Simple and Effective Method of Lubrication and Wear Protection

Authors: Xavier Banquy, Buddha Ratna Shrestha, Jimmy Faivre

Abstract:

By precisely controlling the molecular interactions between anti-wear macromolecules and bottle-brush lubricating molecules in the solution state, we obtained a fluid with excellent lubricating and wear protection capabilities. The reason for this synergistic behavior relies on the subtle interaction forces between the fluid components which allow the confined macromolecules to sustain high loads under shear without rupture. Our results provide rational guides to design such fluids for virtually any type of surfaces. The lowest friction coefficient and the maximum pressure that it can sustain is 5*10-3 and 2.5 MPa which is close to the physiological pressure. Lubricating and protecting surfaces against wear using liquid lubricants is a great technological challenge. Until now, wear protection was usually imparted by surface coatings involving complex chemical modifications of the surface while lubrication was provided by a lubricating fluid. Hence, we here research for a simple, effective and applicable solution to the above problem using surface force apparatus (SFA). SFA is a powerful technique with sub-angstrom resolution in distance and 10 nN/m resolution in interaction force while performing friction experiment. Thus, SFA is used to have the direct insight into interaction force, material and friction at interface. Also, we always know the exact contact area. From our experiments, we found that by precisely controlling the molecular interactions between anti-wear macromolecules and lubricating molecules, we obtained a fluid with excellent lubricating and wear protection capabilities. The reason for this synergistic behavior relies on the subtle interaction forces between the fluid components which allow the confined macromolecules to sustain high loads under shear without rupture. The lowest friction coefficient and the maximum pressure that it can sustain in our system is 5*10-3 and 2.5 GPA which is well above the physiological pressure. Our results provide rational guides to design such fluids for virtually any type of surfaces. Most importantly this process is simple, effective and applicable method of lubrication and protection as until now wear protection was usually imparted by surface coatings involving complex chemical modifications of the surface. Currently, the frictional data that are obtained while sliding the flat mica surfaces are compared and confirmed that a particular mixture of solution was found to surpass all other combination. So, further we would like to confirm that the lubricating and antiwear protection remains the same by performing the friction experiments in synthetic cartilages.

Keywords: Tribology, Lubrication, hyaluronic acid, bottle brush polymer

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3 Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication Study Using Discontinuous Finite Volume Method

Authors: Prawal Sinha, Peeyush Singh, Pravir Dutt

Abstract:

Problems in elastohydrodynamic lubrication have attracted a lot of attention in the last few decades. Solving a two-dimensional problem has always been a big challenge. In this paper, a new discontinuous finite volume method (DVM) for two-dimensional point contact Elastohydrodynamic Lubrication (EHL) problem has been developed and analyzed. A complete algorithm has been presented for solving such a problem. The method presented is robust and easily parallelized in MPI architecture. GMRES technique is implemented to solve the matrix obtained after the formulation. A new approach is followed in which discontinuous piecewise polynomials are used for the trail functions. It is natural to assume that the advantages of using discontinuous functions in finite element methods should also apply to finite volume methods. The nature of the discontinuity of the trail function is such that the elements in the corresponding dual partition have the smallest support as compared with the Classical finite volume methods. Film thickness calculation is done using singular quadrature approach. Results obtained have been presented graphically and discussed. This method is well suited for solving EHL point contact problem and can probably be used as commercial software.

Keywords: Lubrication, elastohydrodynamic, discontinuous finite volume method, GMRES technique

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2 Improving Lubrication Efficiency at High Sliding Speeds by Plasma Surface Texturing

Authors: Xueyuan Nie, Wei Zha, Jingzeng Zhang, Chen Zhao, Ran Cai

Abstract:

Cathodic plasma electrolysis (CPE) is used to create surface textures on cast iron samples for improving the tribological properties. Micro craters with confined size distribution were successfully formed by CPE process. These craters can generate extra hydrodynamic pressure that separates two sliding surfaces, increase the oil film thickness and accelerate the transition from boundary to mixed lubrication. It was found that the optimal crater size was 1.7 μm, at which the maximum lubrication efficiency was achieved. The Taguchi method was used to optimize the process parameters (voltage and roughness) for CPE surface texturing. The orthogonal array and the signal-to-noise ratio were employed to study the effect of each process parameter on the coefficient of friction. The results showed that with higher voltage and lower roughness, the lower friction coefficient can be obtained, and thus the lubrication can be more efficiently used for friction reduction.

Keywords: Lubrication, friction, cathodic plasma electrolysis, plasma surface texturing

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1 On a Determination of Residual Stresses and Wear Resistance of Thermally Sprayed Stainless Steel Coating

Authors: Merzak Laribi, Abdelmadjid Kasser

Abstract:

Thermal spraying processes are widely used to produce coatings on original constructions as well as in repair and maintenance of long standing structures. A lot of efforts forwarding to develop thermal spray coatings technology have been focused on improving mechanical characteristics, minimizing residual stress level and reducing porosity of the coatings. The specific aim of this paper is to determine either residual stresses distribution or wear resistance of stainless steel coating thermally sprayed on a carbon steel substrate. Internal stresses determination was performed using an extensometric method in combination with a simultaneous progressive electrolytic polishing. The procedure consists of measuring micro-deformations using a bi-directional extensometric gauges glued on the substrate side of the materials. Very thin layers of the deposits are removed by electrochemical polishing across the sample surface. Micro-deformations are instantaneously measured, leading to residual stresses calculation after each removal. Wear resistance of the coating has been determined using a ball-on-plate tribometer. Friction coefficient is instantaneously measured during the tribological test. Attention was particularly focused on the influence of a post-annealing at 850 °C for one hour in vacuum either on the residual stresses distribution or on the wear resistance behavior under specific wear and lubrication conditions. The obtained results showed that the microstructure of the obtained arc sprayed stainless steel coating is classical. It is homogeneous and contains un-melted particles, metallic oxides and also pores and micro-cracks. The internal stresses are in compression in the coating. They are more or less scattered between -50 and -270 MPa on the surface and decreased more at the interface. The value at the surface of the substrate is about –700 MPa, partially due to the molten particles impact with the substrate. The post annealing has reduced the residual stresses in both coating and surface of the steel substrate so that the hole material becomes more relaxed. Friction coefficient has an average value of 0.3 and 0.4 respectively for non annealed and annealed specimen. It is rather oil lubrication which is really benefit so that friction coefficient is decreased to about 0.06.

Keywords: Coating, Residual Stresses, Wear Resistance, Lubrication, annealing, stainless steel, thermal spraying

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