Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

LPS Related Abstracts

3 The Aminoguanidine Reduced NO Synthase Activity and Infiltration of Macrophages in Inflammation Induced by LPS in Rats

Authors: Hakim Chayeb


Macrophages (Mo) play an essential role in host defense against pathogens. These inflammatory cells contain a large group of inducible enzymes such as NO synthase (NOS). This study was conducted to characterize experimentally induced inflammation in vivo by lipopolysaccharides (LPS). LPS is an essential component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria and a potent inducer of macrophage. Except control rats, all rats received different doses of LPS intra-peritoneally. The involvement of inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and constitutive (cNOS ) in the modulation of the inflammatory response was studied by treating the rats with L-NAME (non-selective NOS inhibitor) or aminoguanidine (AG inhibitor of iNOS). Inhibitors were injected 24 hours before LPS administration. The results showed that esterase activity (a marker of macrophage infiltration) which is induced by LPS is reduced by AG, was potentiated by treatment with L-NAME in tissue homogenates of the liver, kidney and spleen. Meanwhile, the concentrations of nitric oxide (NO) induced by LPS were reduced with AG and are completely inhibited with L-NAME in the tissues studied. NO concentrations and plasma transaminase levels have undergone remarkable increases in rats treated with LPS alone. However, the AG significantly reduced these rates. Our results highlighted the role of NO synthase inhibitors in reducing of inflammatory responses that characterize many infectious diseases.

Keywords: Nitric Oxide, aminoguanidine, esterase, LPS, L-NAME, macrophage

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2 Magnesium Ameliorates Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Liver Injury in Mice

Authors: D. M. El-Tanbouly, R. M. Abdelsalam, A. S. Attia, M. T. Abdel-Aziz


Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) endotoxin, a component of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria, is involved in the pathogenesis of sepsis. LPS administration induces systemic inflammation that mimics many of the initial clinical features of sepsis and has deleterious effects on several organs including the liver and eventually leading to septic shock and death. The present study aimed to investigate the protective effect of magnesium, a well-known cofactor in many enzymatic reactions and a critical component of the antioxidant system, on hepatic damage associated with LPS induced- endotoxima in mice. Mg (20 and 40 mg/kg, po) was administered for 7 consecutive days. Systemic inflammation was induced one hour after the last dose of Mg by a single dose of LPS (2 mg/kg, ip) and three hours thereafter plasma was separated, animals were sacrificed and their livers were isolated. LPS-treated mice suffered from hepatic dysfunction revealed by histological observation, elevation in plasma transaminases activities, C-reactive protein content and caspase-3, a critical marker of apoptosis. Liver inflammation was evident by elevation in liver cytokines contents (TNF-α and IL-10) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Additionally, oxidative stress was manifested by increased liver lipoperoxidation, glutathione depletion, elevated total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) content and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity. Pretreatment with Mg largely mitigated these alternations through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant potentials. Mg, therefore, could be regarded as an effective strategy for prevention of liver damage associated with septicemia.

Keywords: Septicemia, Magnesium, LPS, liver damage

Procedia PDF Downloads 283
1 Computational Analysis of Thermal Degradation in Wind Turbine Spars' Equipotential Bonding Subjected to Lightning Strikes

Authors: Antonio A. M. Laudani, Igor O. Golosnoy, Ole T. Thomsen


Rotor blades of large, modern wind turbines are highly susceptible to downward lightning strikes, as well as to triggering upward lightning; consequently, it is necessary to equip them with an effective lightning protection system (LPS) in order to avoid any damage. The performance of existing LPSs is affected by carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) structures, which lead to lightning-induced damage in the blades, e.g. via electrical sparks. A solution to prevent internal arcing would be to electrically bond the LPS and the composite structures such that to obtain the same electric potential. Nevertheless, elevated temperatures are achieved at the joint interfaces because of high contact resistance, which melts and vaporises some of the epoxy resin matrix around the bonding. The produced high-pressure gasses open up the bonding and can ignite thermal sparks. The objective of this paper is to predict the current density distribution and the temperature field in the adhesive joint cross-section, in order to check whether the resin pyrolysis temperature is achieved and any damage is expected. The finite element method has been employed to solve both the current and heat transfer problems, which are considered weakly coupled. The mathematical model for electric current includes Maxwell-Ampere equation for induced electric field solved together with current conservation, while the thermal field is found from heat diffusion equation. In this way, the current sub-model calculates Joule heat release for a chosen bonding configuration, whereas the thermal analysis allows to determining threshold values of voltage and current density not to be exceeded in order to maintain the temperature across the joint below the pyrolysis temperature, therefore preventing the occurrence of outgassing. In addition, it provides an indication of the minimal number of bonding points. It is worth to mention that the numerical procedures presented in this study can be tailored and applied to any type of joints other than adhesive ones for wind turbine blades. For instance, they can be applied for lightning protection of aerospace bolted joints. Furthermore, they can even be customized to predict the electromagnetic response under lightning strikes of other wind turbine systems, such as nacelle and hub components.

Keywords: wind turbine blades, Finite Element Method, FEM, LPS, lightning protection system, carbon fibre reinforced polymer, equipotential bonding

Procedia PDF Downloads 28