Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 26

low back pain Related Abstracts

26 Disability and Quality of Life in Low Back Pain: A Cross-Sectional Study

Authors: Zarina Zahari, Maria Justine, Kamaria Kamaruddin


Low back pain (LBP) is a major musculoskeletal problem in global population. This study aimed to examine the relationship between pain, disability and quality of life in patients with non-specific low back pain (LBP). One hundred LBP participants were recruited in this cross-sectional study (mean age = 42.23±11.34 years old). Pain was measured using Numerical Rating Scale (11-point). Disability was assessed using the revised Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire (ODQ) and quality of life (QoL) was evaluated using the SF-36 v2. Majority of participants (58%) presented with moderate pain and 49% experienced severe disability. Thus, the pain and disability were found significant with negative correlation (r= -0.712, p<0.05). The pain and QoL also showed significant and positive correlation with both Physical Health Component Summary (PHCS) (r= .840, p<0.05) and Mental Health Component Summary (MHCS) (r= 0.446, p<0.05). Regression analysis indicated that pain emerged as an indicator of both disability and QoL (PHCS and MHCS) accounting for 51%, 71% and 21% of the variances respectively. This indicates that pain is an important factor in predicting disability and QoL in LBP sufferers.

Keywords: Disability, low back pain, Pain, Quality of Life

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25 Low Back Pain and Patients Lifting Behaviors among Nurses Working in Al Sadairy Hospital, Aljouf

Authors: Fatma Abdel Moneim Al Tawil


Low back pain (LBP) among nurses has been the subject of research studies worldwide. However, evidence of the influence of patients lifting behaviors and LBP among nurses in Saudi Arabia remains scarce. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between LBP and nurses lifting behaviors. LBP questionnaire was distributed to 100 nurses working in Alsadairy Hospital distributed as Emergency unit(9),Coronary Care unit (9), Intensive Care Unit (7), Dialysis unit (30), Burn unit (5), surgical unit (11), Medical (14) and, X-ray unit (15). The questionnaire included demographic data, attitude scale, Team work scale, Back pain history and Knowledge scale. Regarding to emergency unit, there is appositive significant relation between teamwork scale and Knowledge as r = (0.807) and P =0.05. Regarding to ICU unit, there is a positive significant relation between teamwork scale and attitude scale as r= (0.781) and P =0.05. Regarding to Dialysis unit, there is a positive significant relation between attitude scale and teamwork scale as r=(0.443) and P =0.05. The findings suggest enhanced awareness of occupational safety with safe patient handling practices among nursing students must be emphasized and integrated into their educational curriculum. Moreover, back pain prevention program should incorporate the promotion of an active lifestyle and fitness training the implementation of institutional patient handling policies.

Keywords: low back pain, team work, Nurses, lifting behaviors

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24 The Effects of High Velocity Low Amplitude Thrust Manipulation versus Low Velocity Low Amplitude Mobilization in Treatment of Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain

Authors: Ahmed R. Z. Baghdadi,  Mona H. Gamal Eldein, Ibrahim M. I. Hamoda, Ibrahim Magdy Elnaggar


Background: High-velocity low amplitude thrust (HVLAT) manipulation and low-velocity low amplitude (LVLA) mobilization are an effective treatment for low back pain (LBP). Purpose: This study compared the effects of HVLAT versus LVLA on pain, functional deficits and segmental mobility in treatment of chronic mechanical LBP. Methods: Ninety patients suffering from chronic mechanical LBP are classified to three groups; Thirty patients treated by HVLAT (group I), thirty patients treated by LVLA (group II) and thirty patients as control group (group III) participated in the study. The mean age was 28.00±2.92, 27.83±2.28 and 28.07±3.05 years and BMI 27.98±2.60, 28.80±2.40 and 28.70±2.53 kg/m2 for group I, II and III respectively. The Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), the Oswestry low back pain disability questionnaire and modified schoper test were used for assessment. Assessments were conducted two weeks before and after treatment with the control group being assessed at the same time intervals. The treatment program group one was two weeks single session per week, and for group II two sessions per week for two weeks. Results: The One-way ANOVA revealed that group I had significantly lower pain scores and Oswestry score compared with group II two weeks after treatment. Moreover, the mobility in modified schoper increased significantly and the pain scores and Oswestry scores decreased significantly after treatment in group I and II compared with control group. Interpretation/Conclusion: HVLAT is preferable to LVLA mobilization, possibly due to a beneficial neurophysiological effect by Stimulating mechanically sensitive neurons in the lumbar facet joint capsule.

Keywords: low back pain, Manipulation, mobilization, low velocity

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23 Relation between Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain and Hip Rotation

Authors: Mohamed M. Diab, Koura G. Mohamed, A. Balbaa, Radwan Sh. Ahamed


Background: Chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP) is the most common complaint of the working-age population. Mechanical low back pain is often a chronic, dull, aching pain of varying intensity that affects the lower spine. In the current proposal the hip rotation-CMLBP relationship is based on that limited hip motion will be compensated by motion in the lumbopelvic region and this increase force translates to the lumbar spine. The purpose of this study was to investigate if there a relationship between chronic mechanical low back pain (CMLBP) and hip medial and lateral rotation (peak torque and Range of motion (ROM) in patients with CMLBP. Methods: Sixty patients with CMLBP diagnosed by an orthopedist participated in the current study after signing a consent form. Their mean of age was (23.76±2.39) years, mean of weight (71.8±12.7) (Kg), mean of height (169.65±7.49) (Cm) and mean of BMI (25.5±3.86) (Kg/m2). Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) was used to assess pain. Fluid Filled Inclinometer was used to measure Hip rotation ROM (medial and lateral). Isokinetic Dynamometer was used to measure peak torque of hip rotators muscles (medial and lateral), concentric peak torque with tow Isokinetic speeds (60ᵒ/sec and 180ᵒ/sec) was selected to measure peak torque. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that there is poor relationship between pain and hip external rotation ROM, also there is poor relation between pain and hip internal rotation ROM. There is poor relation between pain and hip internal rotators peak torque and hip external rotators peak torque in both speeds. Conclusion: Depending on the current study it is not recommended to give an importance to hip rotation in treating Chronic Mechanical Low Back Pain.

Keywords: low back pain, hip rotation ROM, hip rotators strength, chronic mechanical

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22 Immediate Effect of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerves Stimulation on Flexibility and Health Status in Patients with Chronic Nonspecific Low Back Pain (A Pilot Study)

Authors: Narupon Kunbootsri, Patpiya Sirasaporn


Low back pain is the most common of chief complaints in chronic pain. Low back pain directly affect to activities daily living and also has high socioeconomic costs. The prevalence of low back pain is high in both genders in all populations. The symptoms of low back pain including, pain at low back area, muscle spasm, tenderness points and stiff back. Trancutanous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) is one of modalities mainly use for control pain. There was indicated that TENS is wildly use in low back pain, but no scientific data about the flexibility of muscle after TENS in low back pain. Thus the aim of this study was to investigate immediate effect of TENS on flexibility and health status in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain. Eight chronic nonspecific low back pain patients 1 male and 7 female employed in this study. Participants were diagnosed by a doctor based on history and physical examination. Each participant received treatment at physiotherapy unit. Participants completed Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire (RMDQ), numeric rating scale (NRS) and trunk flexibility before treatment. Each participant received low frequency TENS set at asymmetrical, 10 Hz, 20 minutes per point. Immediately after treatment, participants completed RNS, RMDQ and trunk flexibility again. All participants were treated by only one physiotherapist. There was a statistically significant increased in flexibility immediately after low frequency TENS [mean difference -6.37 with 95%CI were (-8.35)-(-4.39)]. There was a statistically significant decreased in numeric rating scale [mean difference 2.13 with 95%CI were 1.08-3.16]. Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire showed improvement of health status average 44.8% immediately after treatment. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicate that immediately effect after low frequency TENS can decrease pain and improve flexibility of back muscle in chronic nonspecific low back pain patients.

Keywords: low back pain, Flexibility, chronic, TENS

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21 Whole Body Vibration and Low Back Disorder among Saskatchewan Farmers: A Prospective Cohort Study

Authors: Samuel Kwaku Essien, Catherine Trask, Niels Koehncke, Brenna Bath


Background: Low back disorder (LBD) is the most common musculoskeletal problem among farmers, with higher prevalence than other occupations. Operators of tractors and other farm machinery such as combines or all-terrain vehicles (ATV) can have considerable cumulative exposure to whole body vibration (WBV). Although there appears to be an association between LBD and WBV, lack of prospective studies makes the relationship between LBD and WBV unclear. Purpose: This study investigates the association between WBV and LBD among Saskatchewan farmers using a prospective cohort study Methods: The Saskatchewan Farm Injury Cohort Study Phase I (2007) and II (2013) data were used. Baseline data were collected via postal questionnaire on accumulated yearly tractor, combine, and ATV use as well as several covariates to support a biopsychosocial model of LBD. Follow-up data on musculoskeletal symptoms were collected for the 6-year with sample size of 1149. Questions on ‘low back trouble’ (ache, pain, discomfort) experienced in the last 12 months answered by farmer participants as ‘yes’ or ‘no’. A GEE-modified Poisson approach was performed using SPSS 22 and SAS 9.4. Results: Twelve-month Prevalence of LBD was 59.8%. In multivariate analysis of the 6-year follow-up, LBD was associated with ATV operation and tractor operation, with a dose-response relationship for annual accumulated tractor operation. Although combine operation ≥ 61 hrs/year was related to LBD in bivariate analysis, this difference did not persist after adjustment for confounder. Age was found to be a confounder in relationship between WBV and LBD and no interactions were found. Conclusion: Longer annual tractor operation and older age are important predictors of LBD symptoms in farmers. Future research involving direct measurement can help identify appropriate prevention strategies.

Keywords: Agriculture, low back pain, Occupational Health, low back disorder

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20 A Systematic Review: Prevalence and Risk Factors of Low Back Pain among Waste Collection Workers

Authors: Catherine Trask, Brenna Bath, Benedicta Asante, Olugbenga Adebayo


Background: Waste Collection Workers’ (WCWs) activities contribute greatly to the recycling sector and are an important component of the waste management industry. As the recycling sector evolves, reports of injuries and fatal accidents in the industry demand notice particularly common and debilitating musculoskeletal disorders such as low back pain (LBP). WCWs are likely exposed to diverse work-related hazards that could contribute to LBP. However, to our knowledge there has never been a systematic review or other synthesis of LBP findings within this workforce. The aim of this systematic review was to determine the prevalence and risk factors of LBP among WCWs. Method: A comprehensive search was conducted in Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and Global Health e-publications with search term categories ‘low back pain’ and ‘waste collection workers’. Articles were screened at title, abstract, and full-text stages by two reviewers. Data were extracted on study design, sampling strategy, socio-demographic, geographical region, and exposure definition, definition of LBP, risk factors, response rate, statistical techniques, and LBP prevalence. Risk of bias (ROB) was assessed based on Hoy Damien’s ROB scale. Results: The search of three databases generated 79 studies. Thirty-two studies met the study inclusion criteria for both title and abstract; thirteen full-text articles met the study criteria at the full-text stage. Seven articles (54%) reported prevalence within 12 months of LBP between 42-82% among WCW. The major risk factors for LBP among WCW included: awkward posture; lifting; pulling; pushing; repetitive motions; work duration; and physical loads. Summary data and syntheses of findings was presented in trend-lines and tables to establish the several prevalence periods based on age and region distribution. Public health implications: LBP is a major occupational hazard among WCWs. In light of these risks and future growth in this industry, further research should focus on more detail ergonomic exposure assessment and LBP prevention efforts.

Keywords: low back pain, scavenger, waste collection workers, waste pickers

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19 Low Back Pain-Related Absenteeism among Healthcare Workers in Kibuli Muslim Hospital, Kampala Uganda

Authors: Aremu Abdulmujeeb Babatunde


Background: Low back pain was not only considered to be the most common reason for functional disability worldwide, but also estimated to have affected 90% of the universal population. This study aimed at determining the prevalence, consequences and socio-demographic factors associated with low back pain. Methods; A cross-sectional survey was employed and a total number of 150 self-structured questionnaire was distributed among healthcare workers and this was used to determine the prevalence of low back pain and work related absenteeism. Data was entered using Epi info soft-ware and analyzed using SPSS. Results; An overall response rate of 84% (n = 140) was achieved. The study established that majority (37%) of the respondents were in the age bracket of 20-39 years, 57% female (n=59) and 64% of them were married. the pint prevalence was 84%, 31% of the respondents took leave from work as a result of low back pain. There was high prevalence of sick leave among nursing staff 45.2%, Chi-square test shows that there was a statistically significant association between the respondents occupations and daily time spent during their work (P value 0.011 and 0.042) respectively. Socio-demographic factors like age, marital status and gender were not statistically significant at P<0.05. Conclusions; The medical and socio-professional consequences of low back pain among healthcare workers was as a result of their occupation designations and the daily time spent in carry out this occupations.

Keywords: low back pain, Prevalence, healthcare workers, sick leave

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18 Prevalence and Risk Factors of Low Back Disorder among Waste Collection Workers: A Systematic Review

Authors: Catherine Trask, Brenna Bath, Benedicta Asante


Background: Waste Collection Workers’ (WCWs) activities contribute greatly to the recycling sector and are an important component of the waste management industry. As the recycling sector evolves, there is the increase in reports of injuries, particularly for common and debilitating musculoskeletal disorders such as low back disorder (LBD). WCWs are likely exposed to diverse work-related hazards that could contribute to LBD. However, there is currently no summary of the state of knowledge on the prevalence and risk factors of LBD within this workforce. Method: A comprehensive search was conducted in Ovid Medline, EMBASE, and Global Health e-publications with search term categories ‘low back disorder’ and ‘waste collection workers’. Two reviewers screened articles at title, abstract, and full-text stages. Data were extracted on study design, sampling strategy, socio-demographics, geographical region, and exposure definition, the definition of LBD, response rate, statistical techniques, LBD prevalence and risk factors. The risk of bias was assessed with a standardized tool. Results: The search of three databases generated 79 studies. Thirty-two studies met the study inclusion criteria for both title and abstract; only thirteen full-text articles met the study criteria and underwent data extraction. The majority of articles reported a 12-month prevalence of LBD between 16-74%. Although none of the included studies quantified relationships between risk factors and LBD, the suggested risk factors for LBD among WCWs included: awkward posture; lifting; pulling; pushing; repetitive motions; work duration; and physical loads. Conclusion: LBD is a major occupational health issue among WCWs. In light of these risks and future growth in this industry, further research should focus on the investigation of risk factors, with more focus on ergonomic exposure assessment, and LBD prevention efforts.

Keywords: low back pain, scavenger, waste collection workers, waste pickers

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17 Epidemiology of Low Back Pain among Nurses Working in Public Hospitals of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia

Authors: Mengestie Mulugeta Belay, Serebe Abay Gebrie, Biruk Lambbiso Wamisho, Amare Worku


Background: Low back pain (LBP) related to nursing profession, is a very common public health problem throughout the world. Various risk factors have been implicated in the etiology and LBP is assumed to be of multi-factorial origin as individual, work-related and psychosocial factors can contribute to its development. Objectives: To determine the prevalence and to identify risk factors of LBP among nurses working in Addis Ababa City Public Hospitals, Ethiopia, in the year 2015. Settings: Addis Ababa University, Black-Lion (‘Tikur Anbessa’) Hospital-BLH, is the country’s highest tertiary level referral and teaching Hospital. The three departments in connection with this study: Radiology, Pathology and Orthopedics, run undergraduate and residency programs and receive referred patients from all over the country. Methods: A cross-sectional study with internal comparison was conducted throughout the period October-December, 2015. Sample was chosen by simple random sampling technique by taken the lists of nurses from human resource departments as a sampling frame. A well-structured, pre-tested and self-administered questionnaire was used to collect quantifiable information. The questionnaire included socio-demographic, back pain features, consequences of back pain, work-related and psychosocial factors. The collected data was entered into EpiInfo version 3.5.4 and was analyzed by SPSS. A probability level of 0.05 or less and 95% confidence level was used to indicate statistical significance. Ethical clearance was obtained from all respected administrative bodies, Hospitals and study participants. Results: The study included 395 nurses and gave a response rate of 91.9%. The mean age was 30.6 (±8.4) years. Majority of the respondents were female (285, 72.2%). Nearly half of the participants (n=181, 45.8% (95% CI (40.8%- 50.6%))) were complained low back pain. There was statistical significant association between low back pain and working shift, physical activities at work; sleep disturbance and felt little pleasure by doing things. Conclusion: A high prevalence of low back pain was found among nurses working in Addis Ababa Public Hospitals. Recognition and preventive measures like providing resting periods should be taken to reduce the risk of low back pain in nurses working in Public hospitals.

Keywords: low back pain, Risk Factors, Nurses, public hospitals

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16 Effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic and Static Magnetic Fields on Musculoskeletal Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review Approach

Authors: Mohammad Javaherian, Siamak Bashardoust Tajali, Monavvar Hadizadeh


Objective: This systematic review study was conducted to evaluate the effects of Pulsed Electromagnetic (PEMF) and Static Magnetic Fields (SMG) on pain relief and functional improvement in patients with musculoskeletal Low Back Pain (LBP). Methods: Seven electronic databases were searched by two researchers independently to identify the published Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) on the efficacy of pulsed electromagnetic, static magnetic, and therapeutic nuclear magnetic fields. The identified databases for systematic search were Ovid Medline®, Ovid Cochrane RCTs and Reviews, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, CINAHL, and EMBASE from 1968 to February 2016. The relevant keywords were selected by Mesh. After initial search and finding relevant manuscripts, all references in selected studies were searched to identify second hand possible manuscripts. The published RCTs in English would be included to the study if they reported changes on pain and/or functional disability following application of magnetic fields on chronic musculoskeletal low back pain. All studies with surgical patients, patients with pelvic pain, and combination of other treatment techniques such as acupuncture or diathermy were excluded. The identified studies were critically appraised and the data were extracted independently by two raters (M.J and S.B.T). Probable disagreements were resolved through discussion between raters. Results: In total, 1505 abstracts were found following the initial electronic search. The abstracts were reviewed to identify potentially relevant manuscripts. Seventeen possibly appropriate studies were retrieved in full-text of which 48 were excluded after reviewing their full-texts. Ten selected articles were categorized into three subgroups: PEMF (6 articles), SMF (3 articles), and therapeutic nuclear magnetic fields (tNMF) (1 article). Since one study evaluated tNMF, we had to exclude it. In the PEMF group, one study of acute LBP did not show significant positive results and the majority of the other five studies on Chronic Low Back Pain (CLBP) indicated its efficacy on pain relief and functional improvement, but one study with the lowest sessions (6 sessions during 2 weeks) did not report a significant difference between treatment and control groups. In the SMF subgroup, two articles reported near significant pain reduction without any functional improvement although more studies are needed. Conclusion: The PEMFs with a strength of 5 to 150 G or 0.1 to 0.3 G and a frequency of 5 to 64 Hz or sweep 7 to 7KHz can be considered as an effective modality in pain relief and functional improvement in patients with chronic low back pain, but there is not enough evidence to confirm their effectiveness in acute low back pain. To achieve the appropriate effectiveness, it is suggested to perform this treatment modality 20 minutes per day for at least 9 sessions. SMFs have not been reported to be substantially effective in decreasing pain or improving the function in chronic low back pain. More studies are necessary to achieve more reliable results.

Keywords: low back pain, pulsed electromagnetic field, static magnetic field, magnetotherapy

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15 The Effects of Functionality Level on Gait in Subjects with Low Back Pain

Authors: Gamze Kurt, Vedat Kurt, Tansel Koyunoglu, Ozgen Aras


Low back pain is one of the most common health problem in public. Common symptoms that can be associated with low back pain include; pain, functional disability, gait disturbances. The aim of the study was to investigate the differences between disability scores and gait parameters in subjects with low back pain. Sixty participants are included in our study, (35 men, 25 women, mean age: 37.65±10.02 years). Demographic characteristics of participants were recorded. Pain (visual analog scale) and disability level (Oswestry Disability Index(ODI)) were evaluated. Gait parameters were measured with Zebris-FDM-2 platform. Independent samples t-test was used to analyse the differences between subjects with under 40 points (n=31, mean age:35.8±11.3) and above 40 points (n=29, mean age:39.6±8.1) of ODI scores. Significant level in statistical analysis was accepted as 0.05. There was no significant difference between the ODI scores and groups’ ages. Statistically significant differences were found in step width between subjects with under 40 points of ODI and above 40 points of ODI score(p < 0.05). But there were non-significant differences with other gait parameters (p > 0.05). The differences between gait parameters and pain scores were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Researchers generally agree that individuals with LBP walk slower and take shorter steps and have asymmetric step lengths when compared with than their age-matched pain-free counterparts. Also perceived general disability may have moderate correlation with walking performance. In the current study, the patients classified as minimal/moderate and severe disability level by using ODI scores. As a result, a patient with LBP who have higher disability level tends to increase support surface. On the other hand, we did not find any relation between pain intensity and gait parameters. It may be caused by the classification system of pain scores. Additional research is needed to investigate the effects of functionality level and pain intensity on gait in subjects with low back pain under different classification types.

Keywords: low back pain, Pain, Functionality, gait

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14 Low Back Pain among Nurses in Penang Public Hospitals: A Study on Prevalence and Factors Associated

Authors: Izani Uzair Zubair, Mohd Ismail Ibrahim, Mohd Nazri Shafei, Hassan Merican Omar Naina Merican, Mohamad Sabri Othman, Mohd Izmi Ahmad Ibrahim, Rasilah Ramli, Rajpal Singh Karam Singh


Nurses experience a higher prevalence of low back pain (LBP) and musculoskeletal complaints as compared to other hospital workers. Due to no proper policy related to LBP, the job has exposed them to the problem. Thus, the current study aims to look at the intensity of the problem and factors associated with development of LBP. Method and Tools: A cross sectional study was carried out among 1292 nurses from six public hospitals in Penang. They were randomly selected and those who were pregnant and have been diagnosed to have LBP were excluded. A Malay validated BACK Questionnaire was used. The associated factors were determined by using multiple logistic regression from SPSS version 20.0. Result: Most of the respondents were at mean age 30 years old and had mean working experience 86 months. The prevalence of LBP was identified as 76% (95% CI 74, 82). Factors that were associated with LBP among nurses include lifting a heavy object (OR2.626 (95% CI 1.978, 3.486) p =0.001 and the estimation weight of the lifted object (OR1.443 (95% CI 1.056, 1.970) p =0.021. Conclusion: Nurses who practice lifting heavy object and weight of the object lifted give a significant contribution to the development of LBP. The prevalence of the problem is significantly high. Thus, a proper no weight lifting policy should be considered.

Keywords: low back pain, Nurses, Penang public hospital, Penang

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13 Comparing Effects of Supervised Exercise Therapy versus Home-Based Exercise Therapy on Low Back Pain Severity, Muscle Strength and Anthropometric Parameters in Patients with Nonspecific Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Haleh Dadgostar, Masoud Solaymani-Dodaran, Faramarz Akbari, Hosien Vahid Tari, Mohammad Razi


Introduction: There are a number of exercises-protocols have been applied to improve low back pain. We compared the effect of supervised exercise therapy and home-based exercise therapy among patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain. Methods: 70 patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain were randomly (using a random number generator, excel) divided into two groups to compare the effects of two types of exercise therapy. After a common educational session to learn how to live with low back pain as well as to use core training protocols to strengthen the muscles, the subjects were randomly assigned to follow supervised exercise therapy (n = 31) or home-based exercise therapy (n = 34) for 20 weeks. Results: Although both types of exercise programs resulted in reduced pain, this factor decreased more significantly in supervised exercise program. All scores of fitness improved significantly in supervised exercise group. But only knee extensor strength score was increased in the home base exercise group. Conclusion: Comparing between two types of exercise, supervised group exercise showed more effective than the other one. Reduction in low back pain severity and improvement in muscle flexibility and strength can be more achieved by using a 20-week supervised exercise program compared to the home-based exercise program in patients with nonspecific chronic low back pain.

Keywords: low back pain, anthropometric parameters, supervised exercise therapy, home-based exercise therapy

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12 The Effects of Pilates and McKenzie Exercises on Quality of Life and Lumbar Spine Position Sense in Patients with Low Back Pain: A Comparative Study with a 4-Week Follow-Up

Authors: Vahid Mazloum, Mansour Sahebozamani, Amirhossein Barati, Nouzar Nakhaee, Pouya Rabiei


Non-specific chronic low back pain (NSCLBP) is a common condition with no exact diagnosis and mechanism for its occurrence. Recently, different therapeutic exercises have taken into account to manage NSCLBP. So, the aim of this study has mainly been placed on comparing the effects of Pilates and Mackenzie exercises on quality of life (QOL) lumbar spine position sense (LSPS) in patients with NSCLBP. In this randomized clinical trial, 47 patients with NSCLBP were voluntarily divided into three groups of Pilates (n=16) (with mean age 37.1 ± 9.5 years, height 168.9 ± 7.4 cm, body mass 76.1 ± 5.9 k), McKenzie (n=15) (with mean age 42.7 ± 8.1 years, height 165.7 ± 6.8, body mass 74.1 ± 4.8 kg) and control (n=16) (with mean age 39.3 ± 9.8 years, height 168.1 ± 8.1 cm, body mass 74.2 ± 5.8 kg). Primary outcome included QOL and secondary was LSPS. Both variables were assessed by the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires and electrogoniameter, respectively. The measurements were performed at baseline, following a 6-week intervention, and after a 4-week follow-up. The ANCOVA test at P < 0.05 was administrated to analyze the collected data using SPSS software. There was a statistically significant difference between experimental groups and the control group to improve QOL. But, no difference was seen regarding the effects of two exercises on LSPS (p < 0.05). Both Pilates and Mackenzie exercises demonstrated improvement in QOL after 6-week intervention and a 4-week follow-up while none of them considerably affected LSPS. Further studies are required to establish a supporting evidence for the effectiveness of two exercises on NSCLBP.

Keywords: Physical Health, low back pain, Pilates, Mackenzie, preconception

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11 The Relationship between Personal, Psycho-Social and Occupational Risk Factors with Low Back Pain Severity in Industrial Workers

Authors: Omid Giahi, Ebrahim Darvishi, Mahdi Akbarzadeh


Introduction: Occupational low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent work-related musculoskeletal disorders in which a lot of risk factors are involved that. The present study focuses on the relation between personal, psycho-social and occupational risk factors and LBP severity in industrial workers. Materials and Methods: This research was a case-control study which was conducted in Kurdistan province. 100 workers (Mean Age ± SD of 39.9 ± 10.45) with LBP were selected as the case group, and 100 workers (Mean Age ± SD of 37.2 ± 8.5) without LBP were assigned into the control group. All participants were selected from various industrial units, and they had similar occupational conditions. The required data including demographic information (BMI, smoking, alcohol, and family history), occupational (posture, mental workload (MWL), force, vibration and repetition), and psychosocial factors (stress, occupational satisfaction and security) of the participants were collected via consultation with occupational medicine specialists, interview, and the related questionnaires and also the NASA-TLX software and REBA worksheet. Chi-square test, logistic regression and structural equation modeling (SEM) were used to analyze the data. For analysis of data, IBM Statistics SPSS 24 and Mplus6 software have been used. Results: 114 (77%) of the individuals were male and 86 were (23%) female. Mean Career length of the Case Group and Control Group were 10.90 ± 5.92, 9.22 ± 4.24, respectively. The statistical analysis of the data revealed that there was a significant correlation between the Posture, Smoking, Stress, Satisfaction, and MWL with occupational LBP. The odds ratios (95% confidence intervals) derived from a logistic regression model were 2.7 (1.27-2.24) and 2.5 (2.26-5.17) and 3.22 (2.47-3.24) for Stress, MWL, and Posture, respectively. Also, the SEM analysis of the personal, psycho-social and occupational factors with LBP revealed that there was a significant correlation. Conclusion: All three broad categories of risk factors simultaneously increase the risk of occupational LBP in the workplace. But, the risks of Posture, Stress, and MWL have a major role in LBP severity. Therefore, prevention strategies for persons in jobs with high risks for LBP are required to decrease the risk of occupational LBP.

Keywords: low back pain, Psychosocial Factors, industrial workers occupational, occupational risk factors

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10 Prevalence and Occupational Factors Associated with Low Back Pain among the Female Garment Workers: A Cross-Sectional Study in Bangladesh

Authors: Fazle Rabbi, Mashuda Khanom Tithi, Tasnim Mirza, Sanjida Rowshan Anannya, Ahmed Hossain


Background: Low Back Pain (LBP) is one of the common health problems among the garment workers that causes workers absenteeism from the work. The purpose of the study is to identify the association between occupational factors and LBP among the female garment workers in Bangladesh. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 487 female garment workers from three compliant garment factories of Bangladesh. Face-to-face interview on four different LBP measures along with questions on socio-demographic, occupational, and physical factors were used to collect the data. Result: The prevalence rates for LBP lasts for at least one day during the last six months, chronic pain, intense pain, and seeking medical care for LBP were found 63.04%, 38.60%, 13.76%, and 18.89%, respectively among the female garments workers. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicates that duration of employment (>5 years), regular weight bearing and extended weekly working hours (>48 hours) are positively associated with LBP. Besides, age, BMI, family income, marital status and number of children are also found positively associated with the LBP measures. Conclusion: The prevalence of LBP among female garment workers in Bangladesh is found high. The duration of employment (>5 years), regular weight bearing and extended weekly working hours (>48 hours) play a significant role in developing LBP among the female workers. Factories need to consider training programs on the appropriate technique of weight bearing. It is also important to conduct regular screening programs to identify LBP, especially with married, overweight/obese and older age group to reduce the occurrence of LBP.

Keywords: low back pain, Occupational Health, Bangladesh, garment workers

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9 Comparison of Trunk and Hip Muscle Activities and Anterior Pelvic Tilt Angle during Three Different Bridging Exercises in Subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain

Authors: Da-Eun Kim, Heon-Seock Cynn, Sil-Ah Choi, A-Reum Shin


Bridging exercise in supine position with the hips and knees flexed have been commonly performed as one of the therapeutic exercises and is a comfortable and pain-free position to most individuals with chronic low back pain (CLBP). Many previous studies have investigated the beneficial way of performing bridging exercises to improve activation of abdominal and gluteal muscle and reduce muscle activity of hamstrings (HAM) and erector spinae (ES) and compensatory lumbopelvic motion. The purpose of this study was to compare the effects of three different bridging exercises on the HAM, ES, gluteus maximus (Gmax), gluteus medius (Gmed), and transverse abdominis/internal abdominis oblique (TrA/IO) activities and anterior pelvic tilt angle in subjects with CLBP. Seventeen subjects with CLBP participated in this study. They performed bridging under three different conditions (with 30° hip abduction, isometric hip abduction, and isometric hip adduction). Surface electromyography was used to measure muscle activity, and the ImageJ software was used to calculate anterior pelvic tilt angle. One-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to assess the statistical significance of the measured variables. HAM activity was significantly lower in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction than in bridging with isometric hip adduction. Gmax and Gmed activities were significantly greater in bridging with isometric hip abduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip adduction. TrA/IO muscle activity was significantly greater and anterior pelvic tilt angle was significantly lower in bridging with isometric hip adduction than in bridging with 30° hip abduction and isometric hip abduction. Bridging with isometric hip abduction using Thera-Band can effectively reduce HAM activity, and increase Gmax and Gmed activities in subjects with CLBP. Bridging with isometric hip adduction using a pressure biofeedback unit can be a beneficial exercise to improve TrA/IO activity and minimize anterior pelvic tilt in subjects with CLBP.

Keywords: low back pain, electromyography, bridging exercise, lower limb exercise

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8 Single Item Presenteeism Question Reliability and Validity of Persian Version in Low Back Pain Patients

Authors: Mohammadreza Khanmohammadi, Noureddin Nakhostin Ansari, Soofia Naghdi


Purpose: Our study aimed to validate single item presenteeism question (SIPQ) into the Persian language for patients with low back pain. Background information: low back pain is a common health problem, and it is one of the most prevalent disorder in working people. There are the different subjective way to evaluate the effect of back pain on work productivity that one of them is by implementing single item presenteeism question. This question has not been validated into the Persian language. Method: Patients were asked to answer SIPQ and pain from 0 to 10 according to numerical rating scale (NRS). The functional rating index was administrated to evaluate construct validity. For test-retest reliability, almost 50 patients re-completed the Persian SIPQ. The construct validity of SIPQ was assessed by analyzing Spearman rank correlation between this question and the Persian version of Functional rating index questionnaire. To analyze test-retest reliability, we assessed intraclass correlation coefficient (agreement) (ICC agreement) (two-way random effects model, single measure). Results: The SIPQ score of two groups of patients (84 males, 16 females, mean age ±SD: 33.85±11.16 years, range: 19-67 years) and healthy subjects (48 male, 2 female ones, mean age ±SD: 24.24 ±8.07 years) was statistically significant. (Mann-Whitney U =198.00, P<.001). The Spearman correlation of data showed that there is a significant correlation between Persian SIPQ score and Persian FRI band (r= .559, P<.001). The ICC was .62. So, the analysis indicated good, test-retest reliability. Conclusion: This study showed that Persian version of SIPQ is reliable and valid when applied to back pain patients.

Keywords: low back pain, Translation, economic burden, cross cultural adaptation, Persian language

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7 The Professional Rehabilitation of Workers Affected by Chronic Low Back Pain in 'Baixada Santista' Region, Brazil

Authors: Maria Do Carmo Baracho De Alencar


Back pain is considered a worldwide public health problem and has led to numerous work-related absence from work and public spending on rehabilitation, as well as difficulties in the process of professional rehabilitation and return to work. Also, the rehabilitation of workers is one of the great challenges today and for the field of Workers' Health in Brazil. Aim: To investigate the procedures related to the professional rehabilitation of insured workers affected by chronic low back pain, based on the perceptions of professional counselors. Methods: A list of related professional counselors was obtained from the Professional Rehabilitation Coordination of the Baixada Santista (SP) region, and from the Social Security National Institute of Brazil, and in which cities they worked. Semistructured and individual interview was scheduled, based on a pre-elaborated script, containing questions about procedures, experiences at work and feelings. The interviews were recorded and transcribed in full for content analysis. Results: Ten (10) professional counselors of both genders and from nine (9) cities from the Baixada Santista region participated in the study. Aged between 31 and 64 years, and time in service between 4 and 38 years. Only one of the professionals was graduaded in Psychology. Among the testimonies emerged the high demand of work, the lack of interest of companies, medical authority, the social helplessness after rehabilitation process, difficulty in assessing invisible pain, and suffering, anguish, and frustration at work, between others. Conclusion: The study contributes to reflections about the importance of interdisciplinary actions and the Psychology in the processes of professional rehabilitation and readaptation in the process of return to work.

Keywords: Rehabilitation, low back pain, Occupational Health, Work

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6 Evaluation of Joint Contact Forces and Muscle Forces in the Subjects with Non-Specific Low Back Pain

Authors: Mohammad Taghi Karimi, Maryam Hasan Zahraee


Background: Low back pain (LBP) is a common health and socioeconomic problem, especially the chronic one. The joint contact force is an important parameter during walking which increases the incidence of injury and degenerative joint disease. To our best knowledge, there are not enough evidences in literature on the muscular forces and joint contact forces in subjects with low back pain. Purpose: The main hypothesis associated with this research was that joint contact force of L4/L5 of non-specific chronic low back pain subjects was the same as that of normal. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the joint contact force difference between non-specific chronic low back pain and normal subjects. Method: This was an experimental-comparative study. 20 normal subjects and 20 non-specific chronic low back pain patients were recruited in this study. Qualysis motion analysis system and a Kistler force plate were used to collect the motions and the force applied on the leg, respectively. OpenSimm software used to determine joint contact force and muscle forces in this study. Some parameters such as force applied on the legs (pelvis), kinematic of hip and pelvic, peaks of muscles, force of trunk musculature and joint contact force of L5/S1 were used for further analysis. Differences between mean values of all data were measured using two-sample t-test among the subjects. Results: The force produced by Semitendinosus, Biceps Femoris, and Adductor muscles were significantly different between low back pain and normal subjects. Moreover, the mean value of breaking component of the force of the knee joint increased significantly in low back pain subjects, besides a significant decrease in mean value of the vertical component of joint reaction force compared to the normal ones. Conclusions: The forces produced by the trunk and pelvic muscles, and joint contact forces differ significantly between low back pain and normal subjects. It seems that those with non-specific chronic low back pain use trunk muscles more than normal subjects to stabilize the pelvic during walking.

Keywords: low back pain, kinetic, joint contact force, muscle force

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5 Combining Patients Pain Scores Reports with Functionality Scales in Chronic Low Back Pain Patients

Authors: Ivana Knezevic, Kenneth D. Candido, N. Nick Knezevic


Background: While pain intensity scales remain generally accepted assessment tool, and the numeric pain rating score is highly subjective, we nevertheless rely on them to make a judgment about treatment effects. Misinterpretation of pain can lead practitioners to underestimate or overestimate the patient’s medical condition. The purpose of this study was to analyze how the numeric rating pain scores given by patients with low back pain correlate with their functional activity levels. Methods: We included 100 consecutive patients with radicular low back pain (LBP) after the Institutional Review Board (IRB) approval. Pain scores, numeric rating scale (NRS) responses at rest and in the movement,Oswestry Disability Index (ODI) questionnaire answers were collected 10 times through 12 months. The ODI questionnaire is targeting a patient’s activities and physical limitations as well as a patient’s ability to manage stationary everyday duties. Statistical analysis was performed by using SPSS Software version 20. Results: The average duration of LBP was 14±22 months at the beginning of the study. All patients included in the study were between 24 and 78 years old (average 48.85±14); 56% women and 44% men. Differences between ODI and pain scores in the range from -10% to +10% were considered “normal”. Discrepancies in pain scores were graded as mild between -30% and -11% or +11% and +30%; moderate between -50% and -31% and +31% and +50% and severe if differences were more than -50% or +50%. Our data showed that pain scores at rest correlate well with ODI in 65% of patients. In 30% of patients mild discrepancies were present (negative in 21% and positive in 9%), 4% of patients had moderate and 1% severe discrepancies. “Negative discrepancy” means that patients graded their pain scores much higher than their functional ability, and most likely exaggerated their pain. “Positive discrepancy” means that patients graded their pain scores much lower than their functional ability, and most likely underrated their pain. Comparisons between ODI and pain scores during movement showed normal correlation in only 39% of patients. Mild discrepancies were present in 42% (negative in 39% and positive in 3%); moderate in 14% (all negative), and severe in 5% (all negative) of patients. A 58% unknowingly exaggerated their pain during movement. Inconsistencies were equal in male and female patients (p=0.606 and p=0.928).Our results showed that there was a negative correlation between patients’ satisfaction and the degree of reporting pain inconsistency. Furthermore, patients talking opioids showed more discrepancies in reporting pain intensity scores than did patients taking non-opioid analgesics or not taking medications for LBP (p=0.038). There was a highly statistically significant correlation between morphine equivalents doses and the level of discrepancy (p<0.0001). Conclusion: We have put emphasis on the patient education in pain evaluation as a vital step in accurate pain level reporting. We have showed a direct correlation with patients’ satisfaction. Furthermore, we must identify other parameters in defining our patients’ chronic pain conditions, such as functionality scales, quality of life questionnaires, etc., and should move away from an overly simplistic subjective rating scale.

Keywords: low back pain, pain score, functionality scales, lumbar

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4 Risk Factors Associated to Low Back Pain among Active Adults: Cross-Sectional Study among Workers in Tunisian Public Hospital

Authors: Lamia Bouzgarrou, Amira Omrane, Irtyah Merchaoui, Salma Kammoun, Amine Daafa, Neila Chaari


Backgrounds: Currently, low back pain (LBP) is one of the most prevalent public health problems, which caused severe morbidity among a large portion of the adult population. It is also associated with heavy direct and indirect costs, in particular, related to absenteeism and early retirement. Health care workers are one of most occupational groups concerned by LBP, especially because of biomechanical and psycho-organizational risk factors. Our current study aims to investigate risk factors associated with chronic low back pain among Tunisian caregivers in university-hospitals. Methods: Cross-sectional study conducted over a period of 14 months, with a representative sample of caregivers, matched according to age, sex and work department, in two university-hospitals in Tunisia. Data collection included items related to socio-professional characteristics, the evaluation of the working capacity index (WAI), the occupational stress (Karazek job strain questionnaire); the quality of life (SF12), the musculoskeletal disorders Nordic questionnaire, and the examination of the spine flexibility (distance finger-ground, sit-stand maneuver and equilibrium test). Results: Totally, 293 caregivers were included with a mean age equal to 42.64 ± 11.65 years. A body mass index (BMI) exceeding 30, was noted in 20.82% of cases. Moreover, no regular physical activity was practiced in 51.9% of cases. In contrast, domestic activity equal or exceeding 20 hours per week, was reported by 38.22%. Job strain was noted in 19.79 % of cases and the work capacity was 'low' to 'average' among 27.64% of subjects. During the 12 months previous to the investigation, 65% of caregivers complained of LBP, with pain rated as 'severe' or 'extremely severe' in 54.4% of cases and with a frequency of discomfort exceeding one episode per week in 58.52% of cases. During physical examination, the mean distance finger-ground was 7.10 ± 7.5cm. Caregivers assigned to 'high workload' services had the highest prevalence of LBP (77.4%) compared to other categories of hospital services, with no statistically significant relationship (P = 0.125). LBP prevalence was statistically correlated with female gender (p = 0.01) and impaired work capacity (p < 10⁻³). Moreover, the increase of the distance finger-ground was statistically associated with LBP (p = 0.05), advanced age (p < 10⁻³), professional seniority (p < 10⁻³) and the BMI ≥ 25 (p = 0.001). Furthermore, others physical tests of spine flexibility were underperformed among LBP suffering workers with a statistically significant difference (sit-stand maneuver (p = 0.03); equilibrium test (p = 0.01)). According to the multivariate analysis, only the domestic activity exceeding 20H/week, the degraded quality of physical life, and the presence of neck pain were significantly corelated to LBP. The final model explains 36.7% of the variability of this complaint. Conclusion: Our results highlighted the elevate prevalence of LBP among caregivers in Tunisian public hospital and identified both professional and individual predisposing factors. The preliminary analysis supports the necessity of a multidimensional approach to prevent this critical occupational and public health problem. The preventive strategy should be based both on the improvement of working conditions, and also on lifestyle modifications, and reinforcement of healthy behaviors in these active populations.

Keywords: Prevention, low back pain, risk factor, health care workers

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3 The Effectiveness of Incidental Physical Activity Interventions Compared to Other Interventions in the Management of People with Low Back Pain: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Hosam Alzahrani, Martin Mackey, Emmanuel Stamatakis, Marina B. Pinheiro, Manuela Wicks, Debra Shirley


Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of incidental (non-structured) physical activity interventions compared with other commonly prescribed interventions for the management of people with low back pain (LBP). Methods: We performed a systematic review with meta-analyses of eligible randomized controlled trials obtained by searching Medline, Scopus, CINAHL, EMBASE, and CENTRAL. This review considered trials investigating the effect of incidental physical activity interventions compared to other interventions in people aged 18 years or over, diagnosed with non-specific LBP. Analyses were conducted separately for short-term (≤3 months), intermediate-term (> 3 and < 12 months), and long-term (≥ 12 months), for each outcome. The analyses were conducted using the weighted mean difference (WMD). The overall quality of evidence was assessed using the GRADE system. Meta-analyses were only performed for pain and disability outcomes as there was insufficient data on the other outcomes. Results: For pain, the pooled results did not show any significant effects between the incidental physical activity intervention and other interventions at any time point. For disability, incidental physical activity was not statistically more effective than other interventions at short-term; however, the pooled results favored incidental physical activity at intermediate-term (WMD= -6.05, 95% CI: -10.39 to -1.71, p=0.006) and long-term (WMD= -6.40 95% CI: -11.68 to -1.12, p=0.02) follow-ups among participants with chronic LBP. The overall quality of evidence was rated “moderate quality” based on the GRADE system. Conclusion: The incidental physical activity intervention provided intermediate and long disability relief for people with chronic LBP, although this improvement was small and not likely to be clinically important.

Keywords: Physical Activity, low back pain, Meta-analysis, systematic review, incidental

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2 Real-World Economic Burden of Musculoskeletal Disorders in Nigeria

Authors: F. Fatoye, C. E. Mbada, T. Gebrye, A. O. Ogunsola, C. Fatoye, O. Oyewole


Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) such as low back pain (LBP), cervical spondylosis (CSPD), sprain, osteoarthritis (OA), and post immobilization stiffness (PIS) have a major impact on individuals, health systems and society in terms of morbidity, long-term disability, and economics. This study estimated the direct and indirect costs of common MSDs in Osun State, Nigeria. A review of medical charts for adult patients attending Physiotherapy Outpatient Clinic at the Obafemi Awolowo University Teaching Hospitals Complex, Osun State, Nigeria between 2009 and 2018 was carried out. The occupational class of the patients was determined using the International Labour Classification (ILO). The direct and indirect costs were estimated using a cost-of-illness approach. Physiotherapy related health resource use, and costs of the common MSDs, including consultation fee, total fee charge per session, costs of consumables were estimated. Data were summarised using descriptive statistics mean and standard deviation (SD). Overall, 1582 (Male = 47.5%, Female = 52.5%) patients with MSDs population with a mean age of 47.8 ± 25.7 years participated in this study. The mean (SD) direct costs estimate for LBP, CSPD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other conditions were $18.35 ($17.33), $34.76 ($17.33), $32.13 ($28.37), $35.14 ($44.16), $37.19 ($41.68), and $15.74 ($13.96), respectively. The mean (SD) indirect costs estimate of LBP, CSPD, PIS, sprain, OA, and other MSD conditions were $73.42 ($43.54), $140.57 ($69.31), $128.52 ($113.46), sprain $140.57 ($69.31), $148.77 ($166.71), and $62.98 ($55.84), respectively. Musculoskeletal disorders contribute a substantial economic burden to individuals with the condition and society. The unacceptable economic loss of MSDs should be reduced using appropriate strategies. Further research is required to determine the clinical and cost effectiveness of strategies to improve health outcomes of patients with MSDs. The findings of the present study may assist health policy and decision makers to understand the economic burden of MSDs and facilitate efficient allocation of healthcare resources to alleviate the burden associated with these conditions in Nigeria.

Keywords: low back pain, Musculoskeletal Disorders, economic burden, real-world

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1 Effects of Flexible Flat Feet on Electromyographic Activity of Erector Spinae and Multifidus

Authors: Abdallah Mohamed Kamel Mohamed Ali, Samah Saad Zahran, Mohamed Hamed Rashad


Background: Flexible flatfoot (FFF) has been considered as a risk factor for several lower limb injuries and mechanical low back pain. This was attributed to the dysfunction of the lumbopelvic-hip complex musculature. Objective: To investigate the influence of FFF on electromyographic activities of erector spinae and multifidus. Methods: A cross-section study was held between an FFF group (20 subjects) and a normal foot group (20 subjects). A surface electromyography was used to assess the electromyographic activity of erector spinae and multifidus. Group differences were assessed by the T-test. Results: There was a significant increase in EMG activities of erector spinae and multifidus in the FFF group compared with the normal group. Conclusion: There is an increase in EMG activities in erector spinae and multifidus in FFF subjects compared with normal subjects.

Keywords: low back pain, electromyography, flatfoot, paraspinal muscles

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