Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

loi Related Abstracts

3 Flame Retardancy of Organophosphorus Compound on Cellulose - an Eco Friendly Concern

Authors: M. A. Hannan, N. Matthias Neisius

Abstract:

Organophosphorus compound diethyloxymethyl-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPAC) was applied on cotton cellulose to impart eco-friendly flame retardant property to it. Here acetal linkage was introduced rather than conventionally used ester linkage to rescue from the undurability problem of flame retardant compound. Some acidic catalysts, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were successfully used to form acetal linkage between the base material and flame retardant compound. Inspiring limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 22.4 was found after exclusive washing treatment. A good outcome of total heat of combustion (THC) 6.05 KJ/g was found possible during pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) test of the treated sample. Low temperature dehydration with sufficient amount of char residue (14.89%) was experienced in case of treated sample. In addition, the temperature of peak heat release rate (TPHRR) 343.061°C supported the expected low temperature pyrolysis in condensed phase mechanism. With the consequence of pyrolysis effects, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also reported inspiring weight retention% of the treated samples.

Keywords: Organophosphorus, acetal linkage, char residue, cotton cellulose, flame retardant, loi, low temperature pyrolysis, THC, THRR

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2 Catalytic Effect on Eco Friendly Functional Material in Flame Retardancy of Cellulose

Authors: Md. Abdul Hannan

Abstract:

Two organophosphorus compounds, namely diethyloxymethyl-9-oxa-10- phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPAC) and diethyl (2,2-diethoxyethyl) phosphonate (DPAC) were applied on cotton cellulose to impart non-carcinogenic and durable (in alkaline washing) flame retardant property to it. Some acidic catalysts, sodium dihydrogen phosphate (NaH2PO4), ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4) and phosphoric acid (H3PO4) were successfully used. Synergistic acidic catalyzing effect of NaH2PO4+H3PO4 and NaH2PO4+NH4H2PO4 was also investigated. Appreciable limiting oxygen index (LOI) value of 23.2% was achieved in case of the samples treated with flame retardant (FR) compound DPAC along with the combined acidic catalyzing effect. A distinguishing outcome of total heat of combustion (THC) 3.27 KJ/g was revealed during pyrolysis combustion flow calorimetry (PCFC) test of the treated sample. In respect of thermal degradation, low temperature dehydration in conjugation with sufficient amount of char residue (30.5%) was obtained in case of DPAC treated sample. Consistently, the temperature of peak heat release rate (TPHRR) (325°C) of DPAC treated sample supported the expected low temperature pyrolysis in condensed phase mechanism. Subsequent thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) also reported inspiring weight retention% of the treated samples. Furthermore, for both of the flame retardant compounds, effect of different catalysts, considering both individual and combined, effect of solvents and overall the optimization of the process parameters were studied in detail.

Keywords: acetal linkage, char residue, cotton cellulose, loi, THC, organophosphorus flame retardant, HRR, PHHR

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1 Texture Characteristics and Depositional Environment of the Lower Mahi River Sediment, Mainland Gujarat, India

Authors: Shazi Farooqui, Anupam Sharma

Abstract:

The Mahi River (~600km long) is an important west flowing the river of Central India. It originates in Madhya Pradesh and starts flowing in NW direction and enters into the state of Rajasthan. It flows across southern Rajasthan and then enters into Gujarat and finally debouches in the Gulf of Cambay. In Gujarat state, it flows through all four geomorphic zones i.e. eastern upland zone, shallow buried piedmont zone, alluvial zone and coastal zone. In lower reaches and particularly when it is flowing under the coastal regime, it provides an opportunity to study – 1. Land–Sea interaction and role of relative sea level changes, 2. Coastal/estuarine geological process, 3. Landscape evolution in marginal areas and so on. The Late Quaternary deposits of Mainland Gujarat is appreciably studied by Chamyal and his group of MS University of Baroda, and they have established that the 30-35m thick sediment package of the Mainland Gujarat is comprised of marine, fluvial and aeolian sediments. It is also established that in the estuarine zone, the upper few meter thick sediments package is of marine nature. However, its thickness, characters and the depositional environment including the role of climate and tectonics is still not clearly defined. To understand few aspects of the above mentioned, in the present study, a 17m subsurface sediment core has been retrieved from the estuarine zone of Mahi river basin. The Multiproxy studies which include the textural analysis (grain size), Loss on ignition (LOI), Bulk and clay mineralogy and geochemical studies have been carried out. In the entire sedimentary sequence, the grain size largely varies from coarse sand to clay; however, a solitary gravel bed is also noticed. The lower part (depth 9-17m), is mainly comprised of sub equal proportion of sand and silt. The sediments mainly have bimodal and leptokurtic distribution and deposited in alternate sand-silt package, probably indicating flood deposits. Relatively low moisture (1.8%) and organic carbon (2.4%) with increased carbonate values (12%) indicate that conditions must have to remain oxidizing. The middle part (depth 9–6m) has a 1m thick gravel bed at the bottom and overlain by coarse sand to very fine sand showing fining upward sequence. The presence of gravel bed suggests some kind of tectonic activity resulting into change in base level or enhanced precipitation in the catchment region. The upper part (depth 6–0m; top part of sequence) mainly comprised of fine sand to silt size grains (with appreciable clay content). The sediment of this part is Unimodal and very leptokurtic in nature suggesting wave and winnowing process and deposited in low energy suspension environment. This part has relatively high moisture (2.1%) and organic carbon (2.7%) with decreased carbonate content (4.2%) indicating change in the depositional environment probably under estuarine conditions. The presence of chlorite along with smectite clay mineral further supports the significant marine contribution in the formation of upper part of the sequence.

Keywords: Statistical Analysis, Clay Minerals, loi, grain size, late quaternary

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