Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

logic Related Abstracts

6 Evolution of Performance Measurement Methods in Conditions of Uncertainty: The Implementation of Fuzzy Sets in Performance Measurement

Authors: E. A. Tkachenko, E. M. Rogova, V. V. Klimov


One of the basic issues of development management is connected with performance measurement as a prerequisite for identifying the achievement of development objectives. The aim of our research is to develop an improved model of assessing a company’s development results. The model should take into account the cyclical nature of development and the high degree of uncertainty in dealing with numerous management tasks. Our hypotheses may be formulated as follows: Hypothesis 1. The cycle of a company’s development may be studied from the standpoint of a project cycle. To do that, methods and tools of project analysis are to be used. Hypothesis 2. The problem of the uncertainty when justifying managerial decisions within the framework of a company’s development cycle can be solved through the use of the mathematical apparatus of fuzzy logic. The reasoned justification of the validity of the hypotheses made is given in the suggested article. The fuzzy logic toolkit applies to the case of technology shift within an enterprise. It is proven that some restrictions in performance measurement that are incurred to conventional methods could be eliminated by implementation of the fuzzy logic apparatus in performance measurement models.

Keywords: Performance Measurement, logic, Fuzzy Sets, project analysis

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5 Calculation of Inflation from Salaries Instead of Consumer Products: A Logical Exercise

Authors: E. Dahlen


Inflation can be calculated from either the prices of consumer products or from salaries. This paper presents a logical exercise that shows it is easier to calculate inflation from salaries than from consumer products. While the prices of consumer products may change due to technological advancement, such as automation, which must be corrected for, salaries do not. If technological advancements are not accounted for within calculations based on consumer product prices, inflation can be confused with real wage changes, since both inflation and real wage changes affect the prices of consumer products. The method employed in this paper is a logical exercise. Logical arguments are presented that suggest the existence of many different feasible ways by which inflation can be determined. Then a short mathematical exercise will be presented which shows that one of these methods –using salaries – contains the fewest number of unknown parameters, and hence, is the preferred method, since the risk of mistakes is lower. From the results, it can be concluded that salaries, rather than consumer products, should be used to calculate inflation.

Keywords: logic, Inflation, math, real wages

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4 Logic and Arabic Grammar Debates at Medieval Ages: A Quest for Muslim Contributions to Philosophical Development

Authors: Umar Sheikh Tahir


This paper focuses on the historiography of the relationship between Logic and Arabic grammar in the Muslim Medieval Ages (a period between 750 and 1100/ 150 and 500 Ah). This sensation appears in the famous debate among many others between grammarians represented by abū Sa'id al-Sairafī and logicians represented by abū Bishr Mattā on Logic and its validity. This incident took place in Baghdad around 932 AD. However, this study singlehandedly samples these debates as the base for the contributions of Islamic philosophers to philosophy of language as well as Epistemology. The question that shapes this research is: What is the intellectual development for Muslim thinkers to philosophy of language in regards to this debate? The current research addresses the Arabic grammar and logical debates by conducting historiography to emphasize on Islamic philosophers’ concerns about this issue. Consequently, this debate generates philosophical phenomena and resolutions in deep-thinking. In addition, these dialogues create a language impression for Philosophy in Islamic world from the period under study. Thereupon, Islamic philosophers’ discourse on this phenomenon serves as contribution to the Philosophy of Language.

Keywords: logic, Epistemology, Islamic philosophy, debates, grammar and grammarians, philosophy language

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3 Teaching Computer Programming to Diverse Students: A Comparative, Mixed-Methods, Classroom Research Study

Authors: Almudena Konrad, Tomás Galguera


Lack of motivation and interest is a serious obstacle to students’ learning computing skills. A need exists for a knowledge base on effective pedagogy and curricula to teach computer programming. This paper presents results from research evaluating a six-year project designed to teach complex concepts in computer programming collaboratively, while supporting students to continue developing their computer thinking and related coding skills individually. Utilizing a quasi-experimental, mixed methods design, the pedagogical approaches and methods were assessed in two contrasting groups of students with different socioeconomic status, gender, and age composition. Analyses of quantitative data from Likert-scale surveys and an evaluation rubric, combined with qualitative data from reflective writing exercises and semi-structured interviews yielded convincing evidence of the project’s success at both teaching and inspiring students.

Keywords: logic, Teaching Methods, computational thinking, Computing Education, computer programming curriculum

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2 Plotting of an Ideal Logic versus Resource Outflow Graph through Response Analysis on a Strategic Management Case Study Based Questionnaire

Authors: Vinay A. Sharma, Shiva Prasad H. C.


The initial stages of any project are often observed to be in a mixed set of conditions. Setting up the project is a tough task, but taking the initial decisions is rather not complex, as some of the critical factors are yet to be introduced into the scenario. These simple initial decisions potentially shape the timeline and subsequent events that might later be plotted on it. Proceeding towards the solution for a problem is the primary objective in the initial stages. The optimization in the solutions can come later, and hence, the resources deployed towards attaining the solution are higher than what they would have been in the optimized versions. A ‘logic’ that counters the problem is essentially the core of the desired solution. Thus, if the problem is solved, the deployment of resources has led to the required logic being attained. As the project proceeds along, the individuals working on the project face fresh challenges as a team and are better accustomed to their surroundings. The developed, optimized solutions are then considered for implementation, as the individuals are now experienced, and know better of the consequences and causes of possible failure, and thus integrate the adequate tolerances wherever required. Furthermore, as the team graduates in terms of strength, acquires prodigious knowledge, and begins its efficient transfer, the individuals in charge of the project along with the managers focus more on the optimized solutions rather than the traditional ones to minimize the required resources. Hence, as time progresses, the authorities prioritize attainment of the required logic, at a lower amount of dedicated resources. For empirical analysis of the stated theory, leaders and key figures in organizations are surveyed for their ideas on appropriate logic required for tackling a problem. Key-pointers spotted in successfully implemented solutions are noted from the analysis of the responses and a metric for measuring logic is developed. A graph is plotted with the quantifiable logic on the Y-axis, and the dedicated resources for the solutions to various problems on the X-axis. The dedicated resources are plotted over time, and hence the X-axis is also a measure of time. In the initial stages of the project, the graph is rather linear, as the required logic will be attained, but the consumed resources are also high. With time, the authorities begin focusing on optimized solutions, since the logic attained through them is higher, but the resources deployed are comparatively lower. Hence, the difference between consecutive plotted ‘resources’ reduces and as a result, the slope of the graph gradually increases. On an overview, the graph takes a parabolic shape (beginning on the origin), as with each resource investment, ideally, the difference keeps on decreasing, and the logic attained through the solution keeps increasing. Even if the resource investment is higher, the managers and authorities, ideally make sure that the investment is being made on a proportionally high logic for a larger problem, that is, ideally the slope of the graph increases with the plotting of each point.

Keywords: Leadership, Strategic Management, logic, Decision-making

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1 Examining the Current Divisive State of American Political Discourse through the Lens of Peirce's Triadic Logical Structure and Pragmatist Metaphysics

Authors: Nathan Garcia


The polarizing dialogue of contemporary political America results from core philosophical differences. But these differences are beyond ideological and reach metaphysical distinction. Good intellectual historians have theorized that fundamental concepts such as freedom, God, and nature have been sterilized of their intellectual vigor. They are partially correct. 19th-century pragmatist Charles Sanders Peirce offers a penetrating philosophy which can yield greater insight into the contemporary political divide. Peirce argues that metaphysical and ethical issues are derivative of operational logic. His triadic logical structure and ensuing metaphysical principles constructed therefrom is contemporaneously applicable for three reasons. First, Peirce’s logic aptly scrutinizes the logical processes of liberal and conservative mindsets. Each group arrives at a cosmological root metaphor (abduction), resulting in a contemporary assessment (deduction), ultimately prompting attempts to verify the original abduction (induction). Peirce’s system demonstrates that liberal citizens develop a cosmological root metaphor in the concept of fairness (abduction), resulting in a contemporary assessment of, for example, underrepresented communities being unfairly preyed upon (deduction), thereby inciting anger toward traditional socio-political structures suspected of purposefully destabilizing minority communities (induction). Similarly, conservative citizens develop a cosmological root metaphor in the concept of freedom (abduction), resulting in a contemporary assessment of, for example, liberal citizens advocating an expansion of governmental powers (deduction), thereby inciting anger towards liberal communities suspected of attacking freedoms of ordinary Americans in a bid to empower their interests through the government (induction). The value of this triadic assessment is the categorization of distinct types of inferential logic by their purpose and boundaries. Only deductive claims can be concretely proven, while abductive claims are merely preliminary hypotheses, and inductive claims are accountable to interdisciplinary oversight. Liberals and conservative logical processes preclude constructive dialogue because of (a) an unshared abductive framework, and (b) misunderstanding the rules and responsibilities of their types of claims. Second, Peircean metaphysical principles offer a greater summary of the contemporaneously divisive political climate. His insights can weed through the partisan theorizing to unravel the underlying philosophical problems. Corrosive nominalistic and essentialistic presuppositions weaken the ability to share experiences and communicate effectively, both requisite for any promising constructive dialogue. Peirce’s pragmatist system can expose and evade fallacious thinking in pursuit of a refreshing alternative framework. Finally, Peirce’s metaphysical foundation enables a logically coherent, scientifically informed orthopraxis well-suited for American dialogue. His logical structure necessitates radically different anthropology conducive to shared experiences and dialogue within a dynamic, cultural continuum. Pierce’s fallibilism and sensitivity to religious sentiment successfully navigate between liberal and conservative values. In sum, he provides a normative paradigm for intranational dialogue that privileges individual experience and values morally defensible notions of freedom, God, and nature. Utilizing Peirce’s thought will yield fruitful analysis and offers a promising philosophical alternative for framing and engaging in contemporary American political discourse.

Keywords: logic, Pragmatism, Charles s. Peirce, american politics

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