Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 14

Load Balancing Related Abstracts

14 Hierarchical Queue-Based Task Scheduling with CloudSim

Authors: Kai Qian, Wanqing You, Ying Qian


The concepts of Cloud Computing provide users with infrastructure, platform and software as service, which make those services more accessible for people via Internet. To better analysis the performance of Cloud Computing provisioning policies as well as resources allocation strategies, a toolkit named CloudSim proposed. With CloudSim, the Cloud Computing environment can be easily constructed by modelling and simulating cloud computing components, such as datacenter, host, and virtual machine. A good scheduling strategy is the key to achieve the load balancing among different machines as well as to improve the utilization of basic resources. Recently, the existing scheduling algorithms may work well in some presumptive cases in a single machine; however they are unable to make the best decision for the unforeseen future. In real world scenario, there would be numbers of tasks as well as several virtual machines working in parallel. Based on the concepts of multi-queue, this paper presents a new scheduling algorithm to schedule tasks with CloudSim by taking into account several parameters, the machines’ capacity, the priority of tasks and the history log.

Keywords: Information Technology, Load Balancing, hierarchical queue, CloudSim

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13 Shopping Cart System: Load Balancing and Fault Tolerance in the OSGi Service Platform

Authors: Arne Koschel, Irina Astrova, Thole Schneider, Johannes Westhuis, Jürgen Westerkamp


The main purpose of this paper was to find a simple solution for load balancing and fault tolerance in OSGi. The challenge was to implement a highly available web application such as a shopping cart system with load balancing and fault tolerance, without having to change the core of OSGi.

Keywords: Fault tolerance, Load Balancing, OSGi, shopping cart system

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12 The Load Balancing Algorithm for the Star Interconnection Network

Authors: Ahmad M. Awwad, Jehad Al-Sadi


The star network is one of the promising interconnection networks for future high speed parallel computers, it is expected to be one of the future-generation networks. The star network is both edge and vertex symmetry, it was shown to have many gorgeous topological proprieties also it is owns hierarchical structure framework. Although much of the research work has been done on this promising network in literature, it still suffers from having enough algorithms for load balancing problem. In this paper we try to work on this issue by investigating and proposing an efficient algorithm for load balancing problem for the star network. The proposed algorithm is called Star Clustered Dimension Exchange Method SCDEM to be implemented on the star network. The proposed algorithm is based on the Clustered Dimension Exchange Method (CDEM). The SCDEM algorithm is shown to be efficient in redistributing the load balancing as evenly as possible among all nodes of different factor networks.

Keywords: Algorithm, Interconnection Networks, Load Balancing, star network

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11 Improving Fault Tolerance and Load Balancing in Heterogeneous Grid Computing Using Fractal Transform

Authors: Saad M. Darwish, Adel A. El-Zoghabi, Moustafa F. Ashry


The popularity of the Internet and the availability of powerful computers and high-speed networks as low-cost commodity components are changing the way we use computers today. These technical opportunities have led to the possibility of using geographically distributed and multi-owner resources to solve large-scale problems in science, engineering, and commerce. Recent research on these topics has led to the emergence of a new paradigm known as Grid computing. To achieve the promising potentials of tremendous distributed resources, effective and efficient load balancing algorithms are fundamentally important. Unfortunately, load balancing algorithms in traditional parallel and distributed systems, which usually run on homogeneous and dedicated resources, cannot work well in the new circumstances. In this paper, the concept of a fast fractal transform in heterogeneous grid computing based on R-tree and the domain-range entropy is proposed to improve fault tolerance and load balancing algorithm by improve connectivity, communication delay, network bandwidth, resource availability, and resource unpredictability. A novel two-dimension figure of merit is suggested to describe the network effects on load balance and fault tolerance estimation. Fault tolerance is enhanced by adaptively decrease replication time and message cost while load balance is enhanced by adaptively decrease mean job response time. Experimental results show that the proposed method yields superior performance over other methods.

Keywords: Grid Computing, Fault tolerance, Heterogeneous systems, Load Balancing, R-tree

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10 Hybrid Bee Ant Colony Algorithm for Effective Load Balancing and Job Scheduling in Cloud Computing

Authors: Thomas Yeboah


Cloud Computing is newly paradigm in computing that promises a delivery of computing as a service rather than a product, whereby shared resources, software, and information are provided to computers and other devices as a utility (like the electricity grid) over a network (typically the Internet). As Cloud Computing is a newly style of computing on the internet. It has many merits along with some crucial issues that need to be resolved in order to improve reliability of cloud environment. These issues are related with the load balancing, fault tolerance and different security issues in cloud environment.In this paper the main concern is to develop an effective load balancing algorithm that gives satisfactory performance to both, cloud users and providers. This proposed algorithm (hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm) is a combination of two dynamic algorithms: Ant Colony Optimization and Bees Life algorithm. Ant Colony algorithm is used in this hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm to solve load balancing issues whiles the Bees Life algorithm is used for optimization of job scheduling in cloud environment. The results of the proposed algorithm shows that the hybrid Bee Ant Colony algorithm outperforms the performances of both Ant Colony algorithm and Bees Life algorithm when evaluated the proposed algorithm performances in terms of Waiting time and Response time on a simulator called CloudSim.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Performance, Load Balancing, ant colony optimization algorithm, bees life algorithm, scheduling algorithm

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9 Load Balancing Technique for Energy - Efficiency in Cloud Computing

Authors: Rani Danavath, V. B. Narsimha


Cloud computing is emerging as a new paradigm of large scale distributed computing. Cloud computing is a model for enabling ubiquitous, convenient, on-demand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e.g., three service models, and four deployment networks, servers, storage, applications, and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. This cloud model is composed of five essential characteristics models. Load balancing is one of the main challenges in cloud computing, which is required to distribute the dynamic workload across multiple nodes, to ensure that no single node is overloaded. It helps in optimal utilization of resources, enhancing the performance of the system. The goal of the load balancing is to minimize the resource consumption and carbon emission rate, that is the direct need of cloud computing. This determined the need of new metrics energy consumption and carbon emission for energy-efficiency load balancing techniques in cloud computing. Existing load balancing techniques mainly focuses on reducing overhead, services, response time and improving performance etc. In this paper we introduced a Technique for energy-efficiency, but none of the techniques have considered the energy consumption and carbon emission. Therefore, our proposed work will go towards energy – efficiency. So this energy-efficiency load balancing technique can be used to improve the performance of cloud computing by balancing the workload across all the nodes in the cloud with the minimum resource utilization, in turn, reducing energy consumption, and carbon emission to an extent, which will help to achieve green computing.

Keywords: Distributed Computing, Cloud Computing, Green Computing, Energy Efficiency, Energy Consumption, Carbon Emission, Load Balancing

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8 IACOP - Route Optimization in Wireless Networks Using Improved Ant Colony Optimization Protocol

Authors: S. Vasundra, D. Venkatesh


Wireless networks have gone through an extraordinary growth in the past few years, and will keep on playing a crucial role in future data communication. The present wireless networks aim to make communication possible anywhere and anytime. With the converging of mobile and wireless communications with Internet services, the boundary between mobile personal telecommunications and wireless computer networks is disappearing. Wireless networks of the next generation need the support of all the advances on new architectures, standards, and protocols. Since an ad hoc network may consist of a large number of mobile hosts, this imposes a significant challenge on the design of an effective and efficient routing protocol that can work well in an environment with frequent topological changes. This paper proposes improved ant colony optimization (IACO) technique. It also maintains load balancing in wireless networks. The simulation results show that the proposed IACO performs better than existing routing techniques.

Keywords: Wireless Networks, Architecture, Ant colony optimization, Load Balancing

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7 Analysis of Operation System Reorganization for Load Balancing of Parcel Sorting

Authors: J. H. Lee


As the internet and smartphone use increases, the E-Commerce is constantly growing. Therefore, the parcel is increasing continuously every year. If the larger amount than the processing capacity of the current facilities is received, they do not process, and the delivery quality becomes low. In this paper, therefore, we analyze comparatively at the cost perspective between the case of building a new facility for the increasing parcel volumes and the case of reorganizing the current operating system. We propose the optimal discount policy per parcel by calculating the construction cost of new automated facility and manual facilities until the construction of the new automated facility, and discount price.

Keywords: Load Balancing, system reorganization, parcel sorting, discount policy

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6 A Two Level Load Balancing Approach for Cloud Environment

Authors: Rajneesh Kumar, Anurag Jain


Cloud computing is the outcome of rapid growth of internet. Due to elastic nature of cloud computing and unpredictable behavior of user, load balancing is the major issue in cloud computing paradigm. An efficient load balancing technique can improve the performance in terms of efficient resource utilization and higher customer satisfaction. Load balancing can be implemented through task scheduling, resource allocation and task migration. Various parameters to analyze the performance of load balancing approach are response time, cost, data processing time and throughput. This paper demonstrates a two level load balancer approach by combining join idle queue and join shortest queue approach. Authors have used cloud analyst simulator to test proposed two level load balancer approach. The results are analyzed and compared with the existing algorithms and as observed, proposed work is one step ahead of existing techniques.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Load Balancing, task scheduling, cloud analyst, join idle queue, join shortest queue

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5 A Parallel Algorithm for Solving the PFSP on the Grid

Authors: Samia Kouki


Solving NP-hard combinatorial optimization problems by exact search methods, such as Branch-and-Bound, may degenerate to complete enumeration. For that reason, exact approaches limit us to solve only small or moderate size problem instances, due to the exponential increase in CPU time when problem size increases. One of the most promising ways to reduce significantly the computational burden of sequential versions of Branch-and-Bound is to design parallel versions of these algorithms which employ several processors. This paper describes a parallel Branch-and-Bound algorithm called GALB for solving the classical permutation flowshop scheduling problem as well as its implementation on a Grid computing infrastructure. The experimental study of our distributed parallel algorithm gives promising results and shows clearly the benefit of the parallel paradigm to solve large-scale instances in moderate CPU time.

Keywords: Grid Computing, Load Balancing, branch and bound, permutation flow shop problem

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4 Improved Throttled Load Balancing Approach for Cloud Environment

Authors: Anurag Jain, Sushant Singh, Seema Sabharwal


Cloud computing is advancing with a rapid speed. Already, it has been adopted by a huge set of users. Easy to use and anywhere access like potential of cloud computing has made it more attractive relative to other technologies. This has resulted in reduction of deployment cost on user side. It has also allowed the big companies to sell their infrastructure to recover the installation cost for the organization. Roots of cloud computing have extended from Grid computing. Along with the inherited characteristics of its predecessor technologies it has also adopted the loopholes present in those technologies. Some of the loopholes are identified and corrected recently, but still some are yet to be rectified. Two major areas where still scope of improvement exists are security and performance. The proposed work is devoted to performance enhancement for the user of the existing cloud system by improving the basic throttled mapping approach between task and resources. The improved procedure has been tested using the cloud analyst simulator. The results are compared with the original and it has been found that proposed work is one step ahead of existing techniques.

Keywords: Cloud Computing, Load Balancing, cloud analyst, throttled

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3 Research on Load Balancing Technology for Web Service Mobile Host

Authors: Yao Lu, Xiuguo Zhang, Zhiying Cao


In this paper, Load Balancing idea is used in the Web service mobile host. The main idea of Load Balancing is to establish a one-to-many mapping mechanism: An entrance-mapping request to plurality of processing node in order to realize the dividing and assignment processing. Because the mobile host is a resource constrained environment, there are some Web services which cannot be completed on the mobile host. When the mobile host resource is not enough to complete the request, Load Balancing scheduler will divide the request into a plurality of sub-requests and transfer them to different auxiliary mobile hosts. Auxiliary mobile host executes sub-requests, and then, the results will be returned to the mobile host. Service request integrator receives results of sub-requests from the auxiliary mobile host, and integrates the sub-requests. In the end, the complete request is returned to the client. Experimental results show that this technology adopted in this paper can complete requests and have a higher efficiency.

Keywords: Web Service, Load Balancing, Dinic, mobile host

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2 Enhancing the Performance of Automatic Logistic Centers by Optimizing the Assignment of Material Flows to Workstations and Flow Racks

Authors: Sharon Hovav, Ilya Levner, Oren Nahum, Istvan Szabo


In modern large-scale logistic centers (e.g., big automated warehouses), complex logistic operations performed by human staff (pickers) need to be coordinated with the operations of automated facilities (robots, conveyors, cranes, lifts, flow racks, etc.). The efficiency of advanced logistic centers strongly depends on optimizing picking technologies in synch with the facility/product layout, as well as on optimal distribution of material flows (products) in the system. The challenge is to develop a mathematical operations research (OR) tool that will optimize system cost-effectiveness. In this work, we propose a model that describes an automatic logistic center consisting of a set of workstations located at several galleries (floors), with each station containing a known number of flow racks. The requirements of each product and the working capacity of stations served by a given set of workers (pickers) are assumed as predetermined. The goal of the model is to maximize system efficiency. The proposed model includes two echelons. The first is the setting of the (optimal) number of workstations needed to create the total processing/logistic system, subject to picker capacities. The second echelon deals with the assignment of the products to the workstations and flow racks, aimed to achieve maximal throughputs of picked products over the entire system given picker capacities and budget constraints. The solutions to the problems at the two echelons interact to balance the overall load in the flow racks and maximize overall efficiency. We have developed an operations research model within each echelon. In the first echelon, the problem of calculating the optimal number of workstations is formulated as a non-standard bin-packing problem with capacity constraints for each bin. The problem arising in the second echelon is presented as a constrained product-workstation-flow rack assignment problem with non-standard mini-max criteria in which the workload maximum is calculated across all workstations in the center and the exterior minimum is calculated across all possible product-workstation-flow rack assignments. The OR problems arising in each echelon are proved to be NP-hard. Consequently, we find and develop heuristic and approximation solution algorithms based on exploiting and improving local optimums. The LC model considered in this work is highly dynamic and is recalculated periodically based on updated demand forecasts that reflect market trends, technological changes, seasonality, and the introduction of new items. The suggested two-echelon approach and the min-max balancing scheme are shown to work effectively on illustrative examples and real-life logistic data.

Keywords: Load Balancing, assignment, logistics center, product-workstation, maximum performance, fast algorithm

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1 Reconfigurable Ubiquitous Computing Infrastructure for Load Balancing

Authors: Khaled Sellami, Lynda Sellami, Pierre F. Tiako


Ubiquitous computing helps make data and services available to users anytime and anywhere. This makes the cooperation of devices a crucial need. In return, such cooperation causes an overload of the devices and/or networks, resulting in network malfunction and suspension of its activities. Our goal in this paper is to propose an approach of devices reconfiguration in order to help to reduce the energy consumption in ubiquitous environments. The idea is that when high-energy consumption is detected, we proceed to a change in component distribution on the devices to reduce and/or balance the energy consumption. We also investigate the possibility to detect high-energy consumption of devices/network based on devices abilities. As a result, our idea realizes a reconfiguration of devices aimed at reducing the consumption of energy and/or load balancing in ubiquitous environments.

Keywords: Ubiquitous Computing, Load Balancing, reconfiguration, device energy consumption

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