Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Litigation Related Abstracts

4 The Search of New Laws for a Gluten Kingdom

Authors: Mohammed Saleem Tariq


The enthusiasm for gluten avoidance in a growing market is met by improvements in sensitive detection methods for analysing gluten content. Paradoxically, manufacturers employ no such systems in the production process but continue to market their product as gluten free, a significant risk posed to an undetermined coeliac population. The paper resonates with an immunological response that causes gastrointestinal scarring and villous atrophy with the conventional description of personal injury. The current developing regime in the UK however, it is discussed, has avoided creating specific rules to provide an adequate level of protection for this type of vulnerable ‘characteristic’. Due to the struggle involved with identifying an appropriate cause of action, this paper analyses whether a claim brought in misrepresentation, negligence and/or under the Consumer Protect Act 1987 could be sustained. A necessary comparison is then made with the approach adopted by the Americans with Disability Act 1990 which recognises this chronic disease as a disability. The ongoing failure to introduce a level of protection which matches that afforded to those who fall into any one of the ‘protected characteristics’ under the Equality Act 2010, is inconceivable given the outstanding level of legal vulnerability.

Keywords: Litigation, Negligence, coeliac, misrepresentation

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3 Mediation as an Effective Tool for Resolving Sports Disputes

Authors: Mohd Akram Shair Mohamad


The relation to the infinite variety issues sprouting in sports or lex sportiva, like lex mercatoria in the early centuries, has now come of age and even begun a maturing process in the past thirty-five years or so. Lex sportiva now straddles sports management, sports medicine, tort, criminal law, employment contract, competition law and a host of multifarious activities related to sports. This has catapulted a host of legal issue and problems, demanding urgent legal solutions to actual or potential disputes. This paper discusses the nature and development of lex sportiva, and how it is able to resolve sports disputes. Resolving sports dispute via the tiresome, dilatory and expensive process of litigation is most unsuitable. Arbitration may not be equally a satisfactory solution. The paper strongly advocates the far the most effective and resolution friendly mode of settling sports disputes namely, mediation. In support it highlights numerous advantages mediation has to offer and with reference to many significant sports disputes which had been successfully resolved via mediation.

Keywords: Mediation, Arbitration, Litigation, alternative dispute resolution

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2 Beware the Trolldom: Speculative Interests and Policy Implications behind the Circulation of Damage Claims

Authors: Antonio Davola


Moving from the evaluations operated by Richard Posner in his judgment on the case Carhart v. Halaska, the paper seeks to analyse the so-called ‘litigation troll’ phenomenon and the development of a damage claims market, i.e. a market in which the right to propose claims is voluntary exchangeable for money and can be asserted by private buyers. The aim of our study is to assess whether the implementation of a ‘damage claims market’ might represent a resource for victims or if, on the contrary, it might operate solely as a speculation tool for private investors. The analysis will move from the US experience, and will then focus on the EU framework. Firstly, the paper will analyse the relation between the litigation troll phenomenon and the patent troll activity: even though these activities are considered similar by Posner, a comparative study shows how these practices significantly differ in their impact on the market and on consumer protection, even moving from similar economic perspectives. The second part of the paper will focus on the main specific concerns related to the litigation trolling activity. The main issues that will be addressed are the risk that the circulation of damage claims might spur non-meritorious litigation and the implications of the misalignment between the victim of a tort and the actual plaintiff in court arising from the sale of a claim. In its third part, the paper will then focus on the opportunities and benefits that the introduction and regulation of a claims market might imply both for potential claims sellers and buyers, in order to ultimately assess whether such a solution might actually increase individual’s legal empowerment. Through the damage claims market compensation would be granted more quickly and easily to consumers who had suffered harm: tort victims would, in fact, be compensated instantly upon the sale of their claims without any burden of proof. On the other hand, claim-buyers would profit from the gap between the amount that a consumer would accept for an immediate refund and the compensation awarded in court. In the fourth part of the paper, the analysis will focus on the legal legitimacy of the litigation trolling activity in the US and the EU framework. Even though there is no express provision that forbids the sale of the right to pursue a claim in court - or that deems such a right to be non-transferable – procedural laws of single States (especially in the EU panorama) must be taken into account in evaluating this aspect. The fifth and final part of the paper will summarize the various data collected to suggest an evaluation on if, and through which normative solutions, the litigation trolling might comport benefits for competition and which would be its overall effect over consumer’s protection.

Keywords: Competition, Litigation, claims, consumer's protection

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1 Economic Impact of Mediation: Analyzing the Strengths and Weaknesses of Portuguese Mediation System

Authors: C. M. Cebola, V. H. Ferreira, M. L. Mesquita


Mediation is an increasingly important mechanism, particularly in the European context, as demonstrated, for example, by the publication by the European Union of the Directive 2008/52/EC on certain aspects of mediation in civil and mercantile matters. Developments in international trade and globalization in this new century have led to an increase of the number of litigations, often cross-border, and the courts have failed to respond adequately. From the economic point of view, competitive negotiation can generate negative external effects in social terms. Not always the solution found in court is the most efficient solution taking into account all elements of society. On the other hand, the administration of justice adds in economic terms transaction costs that can be mitigated by the application of other forms of conflict resolution, such as mediation. In this paper, the economic benefits of mediation will be analysed in the light of various studies on the functioning of justice. Several theoretical arguments will be confronted with empirical studies to demonstrate that mediation has significant positive economic effects. In the Portuguese legal system, legislative frameworks for mediation display a state committed to creating a new architecture for the administration of justice, based on the construction of a multi-faceted legal system for dispute resolution mechanisms. Understanding the way in which the system of mediation in Portugal was introduced, allows us to point out that our internal ordering is creating the legal instruments which can assist citizens in the effective protection of their rights. However, data on the use of mediation in concrete proceedings and the consequent effectiveness of mediation in settling disputes, reveal a mechanism that is still far from the ideal results that were initially sought.

Keywords: Mediation, Access to justice, Litigation, alternative dispute resolution

Procedia PDF Downloads 30