Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

lithium ion battery Related Abstracts

6 Synthesis of SnO Novel Cabbage Nanostructure and Its Electrochemical Property as an Anode Material for Lithium Ion Battery

Authors: Fengping Wang, Yan Li, Yongkui Cui, Muhammad Zubair Iqbal, Ziya Wang, Hailei Zhao, Pengpeng LV


The novel 3D SnO cabbages self-assembled by nanosheets were successfully synthesized via template-free hydrothermal growth method under facile conditions.The XRD results manifest that the as-prepared SnO is tetragonal phase. The TEM and HRTEM results show that the cabbage nanosheets are polycrystalline structure consisted of considerable single-crystalline nanoparticles. Two typical Raman modes A1g=210 and Eg=112 cm-1 of SnO are observed by Raman spectroscopy. Moreover, galvanostatic cycling tests has been performed using the SnO cabbages as anode material of lithium ion battery and the electrochemical results suggest that the synthesized SnO cabbage structures are a promising anode material for lithium ion batteries.

Keywords: Hydrothermal Synthesis, electrochemical property, lithium ion battery, stannous oxide

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5 Development of Sb/MWCNT Free Standing Anode for Li-Ion Batteries

Authors: Indu Elizabeth


Antimony/Multi Walled Carbon nano tube nanocomposite (Sb/MWCNT) is synthesized using ethylene glycol mediated reduction process. Binder free, self-supporting and flexible Sb/MWCNT nanocomposite paper has been prepared by employing the vacuum filtration technique. The samples are characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Raman spectroscopy (RS), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) to evaluate the structure of anode and tested for its performance in a Lithium rechargeable cell. Electrochemical measurements demonstrate that the Sb/MWCNT composite paper anode delivers a specific discharge capacity of ~400 mAh g-1 up to a current density of 100 mA g-1.

Keywords: antimony, lithium ion battery, multiwalled carbon nanotube, specific capacity

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4 Microstructure and Electrochemical Properties of LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3-xAlxO2 Cathode Material for Lithium Ion Batteries

Authors: Wei-Bo Hua, Zhuo Zheng, Xiao-Dong Guo, Ben-He Zhong


The layered structure LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3-xAlxO2 (x = 0 ~ 0.04) series cathode materials were synthesized by a carbonate co-precipitation method, followed by a high temperature calcination process. The influence of Al substitution on the microstructure and electrochemical performances of the prepared materials was investigated by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and galvanostatic charge/discharge test. The results show that the LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3-xAlxO2 has a well-ordered hexagonal "α" -NaFeO2 structure. Although the discharge capacity of Al-doped samples decreases as x increases, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3-0.02Al0.02O2 exhibits superior capacity retention at high voltage (4.6 V). Therefore, LiNi1/3Co1/3Mn1/3-0.02Al0.02O2 is a promising material for “green” vehicles.

Keywords: Doping, Microstructure, electrochemical properties, lithium ion battery, carbonate co-precipitation

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3 Understanding the Lithiation/Delithiation Mechanism of Si₁₋ₓGeₓ Alloys

Authors: Laura C. Loaiza, Elodie Salager, Nicolas Louvain, Athmane Boulaoued, Antonella Iadecola, Patrik Johansson, Lorenzo Stievano, Vincent Seznec, Laure Monconduit


Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) have an important place among energy storage devices due to their high capacity and good cyclability. However, the advancements in portable and transportation applications have extended the research towards new horizons, and today the development is hampered, e.g., by the capacity of the electrodes employed. Silicon and germanium are among the considered modern anode materials as they can undergo alloying reactions with lithium while delivering high capacities. It has been demonstrated that silicon in its highest lithiated state can deliver up to ten times more capacity than graphite (372 mAh/g): 4200 mAh/g for Li₂₂Si₅ and 3579 mAh/g for Li₁₅Si₄, respectively. On the other hand, germanium presents a capacity of 1384 mAh/g for Li₁₅Ge₄, and a better electronic conductivity and Li ion diffusivity as compared to Si. Nonetheless, the commercialization potential of Ge is limited by its cost. The synergetic effect of Si₁₋ₓGeₓ alloys has been proven, the capacity is increased compared to Ge-rich electrodes and the capacity retention is increased compared to Si-rich electrodes, but the exact performance of this type of electrodes will depend on factors like specific capacity, C-rates, cost, etc. There are several reports on various formulations of Si₁₋ₓGeₓ alloys with promising LIB anode performance with most work performed on complex nanostructures resulting from synthesis efforts implying high cost. In the present work, we studied the electrochemical mechanism of the Si₀.₅Ge₀.₅ alloy as a realistic micron-sized electrode formulation using carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) as the binder. A combination of a large set of in situ and operando techniques were employed to investigate the structural evolution of Si₀.₅Ge₀.₅ during lithiation and delithiation processes: powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS), Raman spectroscopy, and 7Li solid state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). The results have presented a whole view of the structural modifications induced by the lithiation/delithiation processes. The Si₀.₅Ge₀.₅ amorphization was observed at the beginning of discharge. Further lithiation induces the formation of a-Liₓ(Si/Ge) intermediates and the crystallization of Li₁₅(Si₀.₅Ge₀.₅)₄ at the end of the discharge. At really low voltages a reversible process of overlithiation and formation of Li₁₅₊δ(Si₀.₅Ge₀.₅)₄ was identified and related with a structural evolution of Li₁₅(Si₀.₅Ge₀.₅)₄. Upon charge, the c-Li₁₅(Si₀.₅Ge₀.₅)₄ was transformed into a-Liₓ(Si/Ge) intermediates. At the end of the process an amorphous phase assigned to a-SiₓGey was recovered. Thereby, it was demonstrated that Si and Ge are collectively active along the cycling process, upon discharge with the formation of a ternary Li₁₅(Si₀.₅Ge₀.₅)₄ phase (with a step of overlithiation) and upon charge with the rebuilding of the a-Si-Ge phase. This process is undoubtedly behind the enhanced performance of Si₀.₅Ge₀.₅ compared to a physical mixture of Si and Ge.

Keywords: X-Ray Diffraction, lithium ion battery, silicon germanium anode, in situ characterization

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2 Numerical Optimization of Cooling System Parameters for Multilayer Lithium Ion Cell and Battery Packs

Authors: Mohammad Alipour, Ekin Esen, Riza Kizilel


Lithium-ion batteries are a commonly used type of rechargeable batteries because of their high specific energy and specific power. With the growing popularity of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles, increasing attentions have been paid to rechargeable Lithium-ion batteries. However, safety problems, high cost and poor performance in low ambient temperatures and high current rates, are big obstacles for commercial utilization of these batteries. By proper thermal management, most of the mentioned limitations could be eliminated. Temperature profile of the Li-ion cells has a significant role in the performance, safety, and cycle life of the battery. That is why little temperature gradient can lead to great loss in the performances of the battery packs. In recent years, numerous researchers are working on new techniques to imply a better thermal management on Li-ion batteries. Keeping the battery cells within an optimum range is the main objective of battery thermal management. Commercial Li-ion cells are composed of several electrochemical layers each consisting negative-current collector, negative electrode, separator, positive electrode, and positive current collector. However, many researchers have adopted a single-layer cell to save in computing time. Their hypothesis is that thermal conductivity of the layer elements is so high and heat transfer rate is so fast. Therefore, instead of several thin layers, they model the cell as one thick layer unit. In previous work, we showed that single-layer model is insufficient to simulate the thermal behavior and temperature nonuniformity of the high-capacity Li-ion cells. We also studied the effects of the number of layers on thermal behavior of the Li-ion batteries. In this work, first thermal and electrochemical behavior of the LiFePO₄ battery is modeled with 3D multilayer cell. The model is validated with the experimental measurements at different current rates and ambient temperatures. Real time heat generation rate is also studied at different discharge rates. Results showed non-uniform temperature distribution along the cell which requires thermal management system. Therefore, aluminum plates with mini-channel system were designed to control the temperature uniformity. Design parameters such as channel number and widths, inlet flow rate, and cooling fluids are optimized. As cooling fluids, water and air are compared. Pressure drop and velocity profiles inside the channels are illustrated. Both surface and internal temperature profiles of single cell and battery packs are investigated with and without cooling systems. Our results show that using optimized Mini-channel cooling plates effectively controls the temperature rise and uniformity of the single cells and battery packs. With increasing the inlet flow rate, cooling efficiency could be reached up to 60%.

Keywords: Thermal Management, lithium ion battery, mini-channel cooling plates

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1 Electrolyte Loaded Hexagonal Boron Nitride/Polyacrylonitrile Nanofibers for Lithium Ion Battery Application

Authors: Hamide Aydin, Ayhan Bozkurt, Umran Kurtan, Sevim Unugur Celik


In the present work, novel hBN/polyacrylonitrile composite nanofibers were produced via electrospinning approach and loaded with the electrolyte for rechargeable lithium-ion battery applications. The electrospun nanofibers comprising various hBN contents were characterized by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The influence of hBN/PAN ratios onto the properties of the porous composite system, such as fiber diameter, porosity, and the liquid electrolyte uptake capability were systematically studied. Ionic conductivities and electrochemical characterizations were evaluated after loading electrospun hBN/PAN composite nanofiber with liquid electrolyte, i.e., 1 M lithium hexafluorophosphate (LiPF6) in ethylene carbonate (EC)/ethyl methyl carbonate (EMC) (1:1 vol). The electrolyte loaded nanofiber has a highest ionic conductivity of 10−3 S cm⁻¹ at room temperature. According to cyclic voltammetry (CV) results it exhibited a high electrochemical stability window up to 4.7 V versus Li+/Li. Li//10 wt% hBN/PAN//LiCO₂ cell was produced which delivered high discharge capacity of 144 mAhg⁻¹ and capacity retention of 92.4%. Considering high safety and low cost properties of the resulting hBN/PAN fiber electrolytes, these materials can be suggested as potential separator materials for lithium-ion batteries.

Keywords: Electrospinning, polyacrylonitrile, hexagonal boron nitride, lithium ion battery

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