Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 31

Literature Related Abstracts

31 Promoting Visual Literacy from Primary to Tertiary Levels through Literature

Authors: Mohd Nazri Latiff Azmi, Mairas Abd Rahman

Abstract:

Traditionally, literacy has been commonly defined as the ability to read and write at an adequate level of proficiency that is necessary for communication. However, as time goes by, literacy has started to refer to reading and writing at a level adequate for communication, or at a level that lets one understand and communicate ideas in a literate society, so as to take part in that society. Meanwhile, visual literacy is a set of abilities that enables an individual to effectively find, interpret, evaluate, use, and create images and visual media. This study aims to investigate the collaboration between visual literacy and literature, eventually to determine how visual literacy can enhance learner’s ability to comprehend literary texts such as poems and short stories and develop his intellectuality, especially critical and creative thinking skills, and also to find out the different impacts of literature in visual literacy at four levels of education: pre-school, primary and secondary schools and university. This study is based on Malaysian environment and involves a qualitative method consisting of observation and interviews. The initial findings show that people with different levels of education grasp visual literacy differently but all levels show outstanding impacts of using literature.

Keywords: Higher Education, Language Studies, Literature, Visual Literacy

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30 Feminism and the Nigerian Female Question: A Feminist Appraisal of Zaynab Alkali’s Stillborn

Authors: Ogbu Harry Omilonye

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This paper examines feminism as a literary ideology which attempts to win for women a status of recognition and parity in a male-dominated society like Nigeria. This article deals essentially with the emergence of the ideology and literary personalities behind it. It focuses sharply on Zaynab Alkali’s brand of feminism as demonstrated in the delineation of her female characters vis-à-vis her male characters. The woman’s destiny, this paper believes, lies in her hand, and that true emancipation of women can only be realized through education and hard work.

Keywords: Literature, Feminism, stillborn, literary ideology

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29 Mirror of Princes as a Literary Genre in Classic Arabic Literature

Authors: Samir Kittaniy

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The “Mirrors of Princes” is considered one of the most important literary types in Arabic and Islamic heritage. The term can be found in various types of “Adab”. The paper deals with the phrase: “Mirrors of princes” itself, showing its nature and the extent of its spread among researchers. Thus, the article relates to one of the main cultural pillars of the literary heritage. Creative individuals within the framework of this type of “Adab” have viewed the rulers as the ultimate goal they try to reach in their classification efforts, with the aim of educating, entertaining and amusing. Most literary classifications were submitted as a gift to the rulers, in an attempt to get closer to them. Pragmatic moral and political advices were among the most prominent issues to gain the approval of rulers.

Keywords: Literature, Islam, Middle East, Arabic, mirrors of princes

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28 The Ra 9262 (Anti-Violence Against Women and Their Children Act of 2004) in the Literature Classroom via the Movie ‘Enough’

Authors: Jay Neil Garciso Verano, Peter Rosales Bobiles

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This study tried to integrate RA 9262 in literature through the use of film. It identified RA 9262 provisions reflected in the students’ concepts in their oral participation and written outputs and pointed out different attitudes toward violence against women and respect to women as shaped by the film through their responses. Four Literature 121 (World Literature) classes with more or less similar characteristics participated in this study. The discussion of Paulette Kelly’s I Got Flowers Today took place during the first session while the viewing of the film Enough and discussion of the film followed to enrich and bolster students’ concepts and awareness on violence against women and to introduce RA 9262 provisions. The students’ attitudes toward violence against women and respect to women were lifted from the students’ oral and written responses. The film Enough presented eight provisions from RA 9262 reflected in students’ concepts which centered on the acts of violence against women tarnishing women’s rights and dignity. There were 25 attitudes toward violence against women and respect to women which surfaced, 11 of which are what initiate the acts, seven tell about the results from or effects of violence against women, and another seven exemplify respect to women. With the findings, it can be viewed that RA 9262 can be integrated in a literature course to awaken students’ minds on the prevalent issues on violating women’s rights and dignity. The discussion of Paulette Kelly’s I Got Flowers Today reinforced by the viewing of Enough deduced issues on the violation of women’s rights and dignity, attitudes toward violence against women, and students’ perception with regard respect to women.

Keywords: Literature, Film, Feminism, anti-violence against women, enough

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27 Representation of Reality in Nigerian Poetry

Authors: Zainab Abdulkarim

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Literature is the study of life, a source of knowledge. It involves the truth about many things in life. Most of these creative artistes most especially the poets are representatives of the voices of the people. These set of artistes have been the critics to all involved in the development of their nation. This paper will examine how Nigerian Poets goes further not just by writing but by showing the different ways the country has been convoluted. This paper intends to show the power and ability literature has in representation. The power is to represent the important values of life. There is no doubt that literature asserts truth. Through the various poems examined in this paper, Nigerian Poets have proved to portray the realities of the nation.

Keywords: Literature, Representation, Reality, poets

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26 Students Reading and Viewing the American Novel in a University EFL/ESL Context: A Picture of Real Life

Authors: Nola Nahla Bacha

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Research has indicated that ESL/EFL (nonnative students of English) students have difficulty in reading at the university as often times the requirements are long texts in which both cultural and linguistic factors impede their understanding and thus their motivation. This is especially the case in literature courses. It is the author’s view that if readings are selected according to the students’ interests and linguistic level, related to life situations and coupled with film study they will not only be motivated to read, but they will find reading interesting and exciting. They will view novels, and thus literature, as a picture of life. Students will also widen their vocabulary repertoire and overcome many of their linguistic problems. This study describes the procedure used in in a 20th Century American Novel class at one English medium university in Lebanon and explores students’ views on the novels assigned and their recommendations. Findings indicate that students significantly like to read novels, contrary to what some faculty claim and view the inclusion of novels as helping them with expanding their vocabulary repertoire and learning about real life which helps them linguistically, pedagogically, and above all personally during their life in and out of the university. Annotated texts, pictures and film will be used through technological aids to show how the class was conducted and how the students’ interacted with the novels assigned. Implications for teaching reading in the classroom are made.

Keywords: Literature, Language, Reading, Novels, university teaching

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25 Ideology and Lexicogrammar: Discourse Against the Power in Lyrical Texts (XIII, XVII and XX Centuries)

Authors: Ulisses Tadeu Vaz de Oliveira

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The development of multifunctional studies in the theoretical-methodological perspective of the Systemic-Functional Grammar (SFG) and the increasing number of critical literary studies have introduced new opportunities for the study of ideologies and societies, but also brought up new challenges across and within many areas. In this regard, the Critical Linguistics researches allow a form of pairing a textual linguistic analysis method (micro level) with a social language theory in political and ideological processes (macro level), presented in the literature. This presentation will report on strategies to criticize power holders in literary productions from three distinct eras, namely: (a) Satirical Galego-Portuguese chants of Gil Pérez Conde (thirteenth century), (b) Poems of Gregorio de Matos Guerra (seventeenth century), and (c) Songs of Chico Buarque de Holanda (twentieth century). The analysis of these productions is based on the SFG proposals, which considers the clause as a social event. Therefore, the structure serves to realize three concurrent meanings (metafunctions): Ideational, Interpersonal and Textual. The presenter aims to shed light on the core issues relevant to the successes of the authors to criticize authorities in repressive times while caring about face-threatening and politeness. The effective and meaningful critical discourse was a way of moving the society`s chains towards new ideologies reflected in the lexicogrammatical choices made and the rhetorical functions of the persuasive structures used by the authors.

Keywords: Literature, Ideology, Persuasion, systemic-functional grammar

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24 Arabic Literature as a Tool for Educational Transformation in Nigeria

Authors: Abdulfatah A Raji

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This paper started with the definitions of literature, Arabic literature, transformation and went further to highlight the components of educational transformation. The general history of Arabic literature was discussed with focus on how it undergoes some transformations from pre-Islamic period through Quranic era, Abbasid literature to renaissance period in which the modernization of Arabic literature started in Egypt. It also traces the spread of Arabic literature in Nigeria from the pre-colonial era during the Kanuri rulers to Jihad of Usman Dan Fodio and the development of literature which manifested to the Teacher’s Colleges and Bayero University in Northern Nigeria. Also, the establishment of primary and post-primary schools by Muslim organizations in many cities and towns of the Western part of Nigeria. Literary criticism was also discussed in line with Arabic literature. Poetry work of eminent poets were cited to show its importance in line with educational transformation in Nigerian literature and lessons from the cited Arabic poetry works were also highlighted to include: motivation to behave well and to tolerate others, better spirits of interaction, love and co-existence among different sexes, religion etc. All these can help in developing a better educational transformation in Nigeria which can in turn help in how to conduct researches for national development. The paper recommended compulsory Arabic literature at all levels of the nations’ educational system as well as publication of Arabic books and journals to encourage peace in this era of conflicts and further transform Nigeria’s educational system for better.

Keywords: Development, Literature, Peace, Nigeria, Arabic

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23 Literature, Culture, and Shakespeare's Dramatization of Linguistic Scenes

Authors: Cheang Wai Fong

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This paper takes language and its interconnection with power as a point of departure to analyze some linguistic scenes played up by William Shakespeare. By placing language into the big picture of literature and culture, and by reexamining the etymological relations between the three terms, language, literature and culture, the paper attempts to formulate an understanding of their more expansive meanings. It compares their respective traditional notions with their modern concepts brought up by literary critics, anthropologists and sociolinguists. Then it uses these expansive meanings to reinterpret Shakespeare’s linguistic scenes featuring language contentions, and to discuss Shakespeare’s success as a signification of literature’s role within the linguistic and cultural context of Elizabethan England.

Keywords: Literature, Culture, Language, shakespeare

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22 Remembering and Forgetting in Shakespeare Sonnets

Authors: Nasreddin Bushra Ahmed

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Humans use language to externalize their mental perceptions and conceptions and thereby set up an interdependent consciousness about the concrete and abstract spheres of their existence. Language also represents a recording device whereby they capture the transient moment in their lives. Literature with it its various manifestations help keep the individual and collective memories alive. Works of the English literature’s prototypical figure, William Shakespeare provides the best illustration of this fact. Shakespeare’s sonnets abound in prescient insights about the intricacies of human relations. Though they have been the concern of scholars’ investigations for centuries, many of their thematic potentialities are yet to be tapped. The present study aspires to highlight the theme of remembering and forgetting in some of these sonnets as reverse faces of the same coin. Using close reading it is intended to demonstrate how Shakespeare, through imagery and literary tropes, plays with the issues of mortality and immortality, and how he has reaffirmed that literature can provide a locus for perennial presence despite the temporariness of individuals’ existence.

Keywords: Literature, forgetting, shakespeare, immortality, remembering, sonnet

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21 Paucity of Trauma Literature from a Highly Burdened Developing Country

Authors: Rizwan Sultan, Hasnain Zafar

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Trauma is the leading cause of death among young population not only in USA but Pakistan as well. The high prevalence of disease should result in larger amount of data and larger number of publications resulting in exploring room for improvement in the field. We aimed to review trauma literature generated from Pakistan in journals indexed with PubMed from January 2010 to December 2014. Search using term “Trauma AND Pakistan” filtering for relevant dates and species human was done on Pubmed. The abstracts and articles were reviewed by the authors to collect data on a preformed performa. 114 articles were published from Pakistan during these 5 years. 64% articles were published in international journals. 63% articles were published in journals with impact factor less than 1. 54% articles were published from one of the four provinces of Pakistan. 64% of articles provided level 4 while 14% articles provided level 5 evidence on the topic. 55% articles discussed epidemiology in non-representative populations. Trauma literature from Pakistan is not only lacking significantly but is also of poor quality and is unable to offer conclusions on this particular subject. There is a lot of space for improvement in the upcoming years.

Keywords: Trauma, Literature, Pakistan, level of evidence

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20 The Arabic Literary Text, between Proficiency and Pedagogy

Authors: Abdul Rahman M. Chamseddine, Mahmoud El-ashiri

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In the field of language teaching, communication skills are essential for the learner to achieve, however, these skills, in general, might not support the comprehension of some texts of literary or artistic nature like poetry. Understanding sentences and expressions is not enough to understand a poem; other skills are needed in order to understand the special structure of a text which literary meaning is inapprehensible even when the lingual meaning is well comprehended. And then there is the need for many other components that surpass one text to other similar texts that can be understood through solid traditions, which do not form an obstacle in the face of change and progress. This is not exclusive to texts that are classified as a literary but it is also the same with some daily short phrases and indicatively charged expressions that can be classified as literary or bear a taste of literary nature.. it can be found in Newpapers’ titles, TV news reports, and maybe football commentaries… the need to understand this special lingual use – described as literary – is highly important to understand this discourse that can be generally classified as very far from literature. This work will try to explore the role of the literary text in the language class and the way it is being covered or dealt with throughout all levels of acquiring proficiency. It will also attempt to survery the position of the literary text in some of the most important books for teaching Arabic around the world. The same way grammar is needed to understand the language, another (literary) grammar is also needed for understanding literature.

Keywords: Language Teaching, Literature, pedagogy, Arabic, language proficiency

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19 A Critique of Kenya’s Obsession with Ngugi Winning Literature Nobel Prize

Authors: Alexander Ernesto Khamala Opicho

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The month of October in Kenya is full of events and literary speculations. For the past five years it has all been about Ngugi wa Thiong’o a Kenyan novelist winning the Nobel Prize. This goes on with a dint of self senselessness among the people involved. This paper surveys why some Kenyans are keen on Ngugi winning Nobel Prize for literature, and it also shows where and why they are wrong. The paper will end up with a comment on the proper position of African or Kenyan literature in the global literary citizenship.

Keywords: Literature, obsession, onamastics, cultural Darwinism, Nobel Prize, denotation

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18 Men's Relationships in D. H. Lawrence's 'Sons and Lovers'

Authors: Chaich Hamza Walid

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The primary goal of this paper is to question the situation of men’s place in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers. Our question is what is the role of each man in the novel? And how a mother’s possessiveness had changed the life of all men in the family? David Herbert Lawrence was an important and controversial English writer of the 20th century. He wrote many great works, one of his most popular novels, Sons and Loves, is an autobiographical account of his youth. This novel is about the life of the Morels. The author develops the story by portraying the relationships between many characters, especially the male ones we focus on. ‘Sons and Lovers’ seems to be written especially to women, all what Lawrence wrote is about women but when we go deeper, we see that Lawrence was also interested in men. This work will approach the question in two ways. The first chapter will deal with men’s place in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers, more exactly with Paul and his father Walter Morel, and with Baxter Dawes. We will focus on each man’s behavior with one another. In the second chapter, we will analyze possessiveness, that is to say, the desire of holding or having someone as one’s own or under one’s control. We will try to prove this view from the spiritual and symbolic possession of different relationships. Our study will be through an intensive psychological analysis of a wife’s possessiveness to her husband, and a mother’s possessiveness to her son’s; William and Paul. The conclusion will review all the important aspects of this analysis. It is very important to know about men’s relationships in D.H Lawrence’s Sons and Lovers this will give us another vision of the novel, and where we can situate Paul’s true relationships, that is to say, his relationships with his father and the other men in the novel.

Keywords: Literature, Language, English, civilisation

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17 Walking in the Steps of Poets: Evoking Past Poets in Sufi Poetry

Authors: Bilal Orfali

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It is common practice in modern times to read mystical poetry and apply it to our mundane lives and loves. Sufis in the early period did the opposite. Their mystical hymns often spun out of the courtly poetic ghazal, panegyric, and wine songs. This paper highlights the relation of the Arabic courtly poetic canon to early Sufism. Sufi akhbār and poetry evoke past poets and their poetic heritage. They tend to quote or refer to eminent poets whose poetry must have been widely circulated and memorized. However, Sufism places this readily recognizable poetry in a new context that deliberately changes the past. It is a process of a metaphorization in which the reality of the pre-Islamic, Umayyad, and Abbasid models now acts as a device or metaphor for the Sufi poetics.

Keywords: Literature, Sufism, Arabic poetry, Islamic literature, Abbasid

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16 Between Fiction and Reality: Reading the Silences in Partition History

Authors: Shazia Salam

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This paper focuses on studying the literary reactions of selected Muslim women writers to the event of Partition of India in the north western region. It aims to explore how Muslim women experienced the Partition and how that experience was articulated through their writing. There is a serious dearth of research on the experience of Muslim women who had to witness the momentous event of the subcontinent. Since scholars have often questioned the silence around the historiography related to the experiences of Muslim women, this paper aims to explore if literature could provide insights that may be less readily available in other modes of narration. Using literature as an archival source, it aims to delve into the arenas of history that have been cloistered and closed. Muslim women have been silent about their experiences of Partition which at the cost of essentializing could be attributed to patriarchal constraints, and taboos, on speaking of intimate matters. These silences have consigned the question of their experience to a realm of anonymity. The lack of ethnographic research has in a way been compensated in the realm of literature, mainly poetry and fiction. Besides reportage, literature remains an important source of social history about Partition and how Muslim women lived through it. Where traditional history fails to record moments of rupture and dislocation, literature serves the crucial purpose. The central premise in this paper is that there is a need to revise the history of partition owing to the gaps in historiography. It looks into if literature can serve as a ground for developing new approaches to history since the question of the representation always confronts us--between what a text represents and how it represents it since imagination of the writer plays a great role in the construction of any text. With this approach as an entry point, this paper aims to unpack the questions of representation, the coalescing of history /literature and the gendered nature of partition history. It concludes that the gaps in the narratives of Partition and the memory of Partition can be addressed by way of suing literary as a source to fill in the cracks and fissures.

Keywords: Literature, Gender, History, partition

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15 Comprehensive Interpretation of Leadership from the Narratives in Literature

Authors: Nidhi Kaushal, Sanjit Mishra

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Narrative writings in literature are ample source of knowledge and easily understandable. In every old tradition, we found that people learn ethics from oral tales. They had their leaders and lessons of leadership in their stories. In India, we have sufficient amount of stories of leaders. Whether the story is of an ordinary person or a corporate leader of large firm, it always has a unique message of motivation. The objective of this paper is to elaborate the story lines in literature and get the leadership lessons from them, so that we can set up a new concept of leadership based on scholarship of literature. This is our hypothesis that leadership lessons can be learned from the study of literary writings and it can also act an innovative way of learning the management skills through literature. The role of the leader can be familiarly communicated in the form of the tales. Describing a positive psychological narrative from the text is the best way to manifesting an idea into the minds of people. We accomplished this paper that leadership as an attribute can be learned from the folk psychological literary writings.

Keywords: Psychology, Leadership, Management, Literature

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14 Literature and the Extremism: Case Study on and Qualitative Analysis of the Impact of Literature on Extremism in Afghanistan

Authors: Mohibullah Zegham

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In conducting a case study to analyze the impact of literature on extremism and fundamentalism in Afghanistan, the author of this paper uses qualitative research method. For this purpose the author of the paper has a glance at the history of extremism and fundamentalism in Afghanistan, as well the major causes and predisposing factors of it; then analyzes the impact of literature on extremism and fundamentalism using qualitative method. This study relies on the moral engagement theory to reveal how some extreme-Islamists quit the ideological interpretation of Islam and return to normal life by reading certain literary works. The goal of this case study is to help fighting extremism and fundamentalism by using literature. The research showed that literary works are useful in this regard and there are several evidences of its effectiveness.

Keywords: Literature, Extremism, Communist, Jihad, fundamentalism, madrasa

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13 Carolina Maria De Jesus' Narrative in a Fundamental Rights Perspective

Authors: Eliziane Fernanda Navarro, Aparecida Eleonora Sitta

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Child of the Dark is the work of the Brazilian author Carolina Maria de Jesus, published at the first time by Ática and Francisco Alves in 1960. It is, mostly, a story of lack of rights. It lacks to men who live in the slums what is essential in order to take advantage of the privilege of rationality to develop themselves as civilized humans. It is, therefore, in the withholding of the basic rights that inequality finds space to build itself to be the main misery on Earth. Antonio Candido, a Brazilian sociologist claims that it is the right to literature has the ability to humanize men, once the aptitude to create fiction and fable is essential to the social balance. Hence, for the forming role that literature holds, it must be thought as the number of rights that assure human dignity, such as housing, education, health, freedom, etc. When talking about her routine, Carolina puts in evidence something that has great influence over the formation of human beings, contributing to the way they live: the slum. Even though it happens in a distinct way and using her own linguistics variation, Carolina writes about something that will only be discussed later on Brazil’s Cities Statute and Erminia Maricato: the right to the city, and how the slums are, although inserted in the city, an attachment, an illegal city, a dismissing room. It interests ourselves, for that matter, in this work, to analyse how the deprivation of the rights to the city and literature, detailed in Carolina’s journal, conditions human beings to a life where the instincts overcome the social values.

Keywords: Literature, Fundamental Rights, Brazil, slum, Child of the Dark, architecture and urbanism

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12 Didactics of Literature within the Brechtian Theatre in Edward Albee's Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? and Ernest Lehman's Screenplay Adaptation from an Audiovisual Perspective

Authors: Angel Mauricio Castillo

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The background to the way theatrical performances and music dramas- as they were known in the mid-nineteenth century, provided the audience with a complete immersion into the feelings of the characters through poetry, music and other artistic representations which create a false sense of reality. However, a novel representation on stage some eighty years later, which is non-cathartic, is significant because it represents the antithesis to the common creations of the period and is originated by the separation of the elements as a dominant. A succinct description of the basic methodologies includes the sense of defamiliarization that results as a near translation of the German word Verfremdung will be referred to along this work as the V-effect (also known as the ‘alienation effect’) and will embody the representation of the performing techniques that enables the audience to watch a play being fully aware of its nature. A play might sometimes present the audience with a constant reminder that it is only a play; therefore, all elements will be introduced to provoke dissimilar reactions and opinions. A clear indication of the major findings of the study is that there is a strong correlation between Hegel, Marx and Brecht as it is disclosed how the didactics of Literature have been influencing not only Brecht’s productions but also every educational context in which these ideas are intertwined. The result is a new dialectical process that is to say, a new thesis that creates independent thinking skills on the part of the audience. Therefore, this model opposes to the Hegelian formula thesis-antithesis-synthesis in that the synthesis in the Brechtian theatre will inevitably fall into the category of a different thesis within an enlightening type of discourse. The confronting ideas of illusion versus reality will create a new dialectical thesis instead of resulting into a synthesis.

Keywords: Education, Literature, Brechtian theatre, didactics

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11 On ‘Freaks’ and the Feminine in Margaret Atwood’s ‘Lusus Naturae’

Authors: Shahd Alshammari

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This paper considers one of Margaret Atwood’s short stories ‘Lusus Naturae'. Through a critical lens that makes use of Julia Kristeva’s work on Powers of Horror and abjection, this paper suggests that the monstrous girl is the disabled woman, the abject in society. The monster is used as a metaphor for the unknown, the misunderstood, and the ‘different’ woman. Culturally Relevant Teaching (CRT) is a pedagogy that calls for making course material accessible and relevant to students. Through the study of literary texts, we are able to help create agency inside and outside the classroom. Stories are a necessary part of establishing connections across borders and boundaries. Stories are meant to raise awareness both inside and outside the classroom. The discussion is equally important, and the text is meant to facilitate relevant questions that the students need to consider when it comes to identity. Questions to consider are: what does it mean to be a ‘girl’ today, and what implications and consequences are at hand when you fail to perform this gendered identity? Gender is sometimes a fatal bond in the Middle East, and even more so, is the disability. In the case of our unnamed protagonist, she undergoes a process of un-becoming, a non-linear process of growing up. In a sense, it is a counter-Bildungsroman. The reading of this text emphasizes that a non-linear narrative is sometimes necessary for the female protagonist’s self-awareness and development. Discussion in class facilitates this sense of agency and questioning of gender and disability.

Keywords: Literature, Gender, pedagogy, Disability

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10 Literary Works as Historical Documents: A New Historicist Reflection on Ahmadou Kourouma's Texts

Authors: Busari Lasisi

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Literary works are often devalued to mere fictions and are left with no essence and contributions to history. The sub-structured rational delineating literary works from history is anchored on the aesthetic and flowery expressions that are therein embedded for artistic enrichment. This does not distance a literary work (from whichever genres it is drawn) reflecting the socio-economic, cultural and political cum religious perspectives of a given people and society. This is the very reason justifying the veracity that a writer does not anchor his writing outside of his society. He writes mirroring (his or a given society’s) events, places and duration of consciousness thereby making history evident. In the light of this reality, literary works are not just seen as fictions, imaginative and unrealistic pieces; for they are never unconnected to history. Thus, making authors of literary works historians and their works engrafted useful historical documents. Using the works of Ahmadou Korouma, a renown Ivorian writer, the praxis of this paper therefore in New Historicism approach postulates that literary works are underlying unexplored historic materials, and literature a jumelle to history.

Keywords: Literature, History, new historicism, authors

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9 Embracing Complex Femininity: A Comparative Analysis of the Representation of Female Sexuality in John Webster and William Faulkner

Authors: Elisabeth Pedersen

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Representations and interpretations of womanhood and female sexualities bring forth various questions regarding gender norms, and the implications of these norms, which are permeating and repetitive within various societies. Literature is one form of media which provides the space to represent and interpret women, their bodies, and sexualities, and also reveals the power of language as an affective and affected force. As literature allows an opportunity to explore history and the representations of gender, power dynamics, and sexuality through historical contexts, this paper uses engaged theory through a comparative analysis of two work of literature, The Duchess of Malfi by John Wester, and The Sound and the Fury by William Faulkner. These novels span across space and time, which lends to the theory that repetitive tropes of womanhood and female sexuality in literature are influenced by and have an influence on the hegemonic social order throughout history. It analyzes how the representation of the dichotomy of male chivalry and honor, and female purity are disputed and questioned when a woman is portrayed as sexually emancipated, and explores the historical context in which these works were written to examine how socioeconomic events challenged the hegemonic social order. The analysis looks at how stereotypical ideals of womanhood and manhood have damaging implications on women, as the structure of society provides more privilege and power to men than to women, thus creating a double standard for men and women in regards to sexuality, sexual expression, and rights to sexual desire. This comparative analysis reveals how strict gender norms are permeating and have negative consequences. However, re-reading stories through a critical lens can provide an opportunity to challenge the repetitive tropes of female sexuality, and thus lead to the embrace of the complexity of female sexuality and expression.

Keywords: Literature, Sexuality, Representation, femininity

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8 Analysis of Perception of Cicero's Personality Today and in Antiquity Based on Cicero's Letters

Authors: Marketa Slazanska

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Cicero is generally perceived as one of the most gifted authors of all the antiquity, which has brought him a great popularity. Even the orator himself was eager to be seen as a man of fine taste for culture and especially literature, which was in his days represented by the interest in everything of a Greek origin. It might, therefore, lead to an assumption that literature was a key interest in his life, too. However, a confirmation of this assumption cannot be found in his letters, which are believed to offer Cicero's most personal statements. Reading his letters thoroughly and comparing them to the respective historical background, it may be found out that the author has mentioned literature mainly in a specific context of his political career losing importance. To analyze the letters have been used in the original Latin version as well as several translations and a large historical and literary background. The object of this paper is to specify, whether Cicero regarded himself more as an author and orator, or as a politician, and how did his correspondents regard him. The respective findings could be useful for better understanding of author's life and work and they may help his readers to see his books from a different, and perhaps more accurate, point of view.

Keywords: Literature, Antiquity, Cicero, politician, letters, oratory

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7 An Analysis of the Oral Communication Strategies Used by Omani Senior American Literature Students at the Tertiary Level: A Case Study at a Public University in Muscat, Oman

Authors: Susanne Shunnaq

Abstract:

During the past decade, an increasing number of higher education institutions in Oman have sought accreditation in an attempt to assure the quality of their programs. Sultan Qaboos University (SQU), the only public university in the country, has also been seeking accreditation. Hence, the university administration has been encouraging departments to evaluate their programs for development purposes. The Department of English, where 100% of the students are learners of English as a foreign language, already produced a self-study report that outlined the strength and weaknesses of the current program. The department came to the realization that due to a changing local and regional job market, transferrable communication skills are high in demand among stakeholders in the public and private sectors. Failure to equip English literature students, for example, with excellent verbal communicative skills in English may have detrimental effects for undergraduate job-seekers who have to compete for jobs in employment sectors with a predominantly English-speaking workforce. Ongoing extensive discussions about restructuring the current literature program by means of partially replacing literature courses with skills courses, hoping to produce higher quality graduates who are equipped with effective communication skills for local and regional markets, have sparked the idea for this research. The researcher, who is an American Literature specialist at SQU, has set out to investigate to what extent senior American literature students have been able to apply transferable communication skills in an advanced literature course. The study also attempts to unearth performance inhibitors and causes for communication breakdown. The primary data source for the study were audio-recordings of 6 in-class peer-group discussions in an advanced contemporary American literature course during the academic year 2016/2017. The significance of this research lies in the rarity of studies focusing on verbal communication skills in Omani higher education literature classrooms at a time when English programs are in the process of being re-visited and revamped both for accreditation purposes and for meeting job-market demands. The results showed a considerable variation in Omani students' verbal communicative abilities and English proficiency levels. The study also raises crucial questions and provides important recommendations for administrators and teachers alike who are in the process of restructuring English programs in the region and in non-English speaking countries worldwide.

Keywords: Literature, tertiary education, oman, job-market, oral communication skills

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6 Captives on the Frontier: An Exploration of National Identity in Argentine Literature and Art

Authors: Carlos Riobo

Abstract:

This paper analyzes literature and art in Argentina from the nineteenth to the twenty-first centuries as these media used the figure of the white female captive to define a developing national identity. This identity excluded the Indians whose lands the whites were taking and who appeared as the aggressors and captors in writing and paintings. The paper identifies the complicit relationship between art and history in crafting national memory. It also identifies a movement toward purity (as defined by separation of entities) and away from mestizaje (racial and cultural mixtures).

Keywords: Literature, Painting, Borders, Argentina, captives

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5 Research on Health Emergency Management Based on the Bibliometrics

Authors: Jing Sun, Bao-Fang Wen, Meng-Na Dai, Gao-Pei Zhu, Chen-Xi Zhang, Chang-Hai Tang, Zhi-Qiang Feng, Wen-Qiang Yin

Abstract:

Based on the analysis of literature in the health emergency management in China with recent 10 years, this paper discusses the Chinese current research hotspots, development trends and shortcomings in this field, and provides references for scholars to conduct follow-up research. CNKI(China National Knowledge Infrastructure), Weipu, and Wanfang were the databases of this literature. The key words during the database search were health, emergency, and management with the time from 2009 to 2018. The duplicate, non-academic, and unrelated documents were excluded. 901 articles were included in the literature review database. The main indicators of abstraction were, the number of articles published every year, authors, institutions, periodicals, etc. There are some research findings through the analysis of the literature. Overall, the number of literature in the health emergency management in China has shown a fluctuating downward trend in recent 10 years. Specifically, there is a lack of close cooperation between authors, which has not constituted the core team among them yet. Meanwhile, in this field, the number of high-level periodicals and quality literature is scarce. In addition, there are a lot of research hotspots, such as emergency management system, mechanism research, capacity evaluation index system research, plans and capacity-building research, etc. In the future, we should increase the scientific research funding of the health emergency management, encourage collaborative innovation among authors in multi-disciplinary fields, and create high-quality and high-impact journals in this field. The states should encourage scholars in this field to carry out more academic cooperation and communication with the whole world and improve the research in breadth and depth. Generally speaking, the research in health emergency management in China is still insufficient and needs to be improved.

Keywords: Literature, Bibliometrics, health emergency management, research situation

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4 Women Retelling the Iranian Revolution: A Comparative Study of Novelists Maryam Madjidi and Negar Djavadi

Authors: Alessandro Giardino

Abstract:

The Iranian Revolution has been the object of numberless historical and semi-fictional accounts, often providing a monolithic perspective on the events, due to the westerner positioning of those recounting them. Against this tradition, two contemporary French-Iranian novels "Disoriental" (2016) by Negar Djavadi and "Marx and The Doll" (2017) by Maryam Madjidi have offered readers a female-oriented and interestingly layered representation of the Iranian Revolution, hence addressing the responsibilities and misconceptions of Western countries. Furthermore, these two women writers have shed light on the disenchantment of the Iranian intellectual class vis-à-vis the foundation of the Islamic Republic, by particularly focusing on the deterioration of women’s rights, as well as the repression of political, ethnical, religious and sexual minorities. By a psycholinguistic and semasiological analysis of the two novels by Djavadi and Madjidi, this essay will focus on alternative accounts of the revolution in order to reflect upon the role of intersectional literature to the understanding of history. More specifically, as both women, refugees, and bi-cultural writers, Djavadi and Madjidi unearthed moments and figures of the revolution which had disappeared from the prevalent narrative. In doing so, however, these two writers resorted to entirely opposite styles of writing that, it will be argued, stem from different types of female resistance. In defining these two approaches as a "narrative resistance" and a "photographic resistance," the essay will elucidate the dependence of these writers’ language on generational and psychological factors, but it will also stir a reflection on their different communicative strategies.

Keywords: Literature, intersectionality‎, Iranian revolution, French-Iranian, women writers

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3 A Short Survey of Integrating Urban Agriculture and Environmental Planning

Authors: Rayeheh Khatami, Toktam Hanaei, Mohammad Reza Mansouri Daneshvar

Abstract:

The growth of the agricultural sector is known as an essential way to achieve development goals in developing countries. Urban agriculture is a way to reduce the vulnerability of urban populations of the world toward global environmental change. It is a sustainable and efficient system to respond to the environmental, social and economic needs of the city, which leads to urban sustainability. Today, many local and national governments are developing urban agriculture as an effective tool in responding to challenges such as poverty, food security, and environmental problems. In this study, we follow a perspective based on urban agriculture literature in order to indicate the urban agriculture’s benefits in environmental planning strategies in non-western countries like Iran. The methodological approach adopted is based on qualitative approach and documentary studies. A total of 35 articles (mixed quantitative and qualitative methods studies) were studied in final analysis, which are published in relevant journals that focus on this subject. Studies show the wide range of positive benefits of urban agriculture on food security, nutrition outcomes, health outcomes, environmental outcomes, and social capital. However, there was no definitive conclusion about the negative effects of urban agriculture. This paper provides a conceptual and theoretical basis to know about urban agriculture and its roles in environmental planning, and also conclude the benefits of urban agriculture for researchers, practitioners, and policymakers who seek to create spaces in cities for implementation urban agriculture in future.

Keywords: Environmental Planning, Literature, Urban Planning, Urban Agriculture

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2 Actresses as Eunuchs: The Versatility of Cross-Gendered Roles in Eighteenth-Century Orientalist Theatre

Authors: Anne Greenfield

Abstract:

Introductory Statement: During the eighteenth century in London, there were over two dozen theatrical productions that featured eunuchoid characters, most of which were set in 'Eastern' locales, including the Ottoman Empire, Persia, India, and China. These characters have gone largely overlooked by recent scholars, and more analysis is needed in order to illustrate the contemporary values and anxieties reflected in these popular and recurring figures at the time. Methodology: This paper adopts a New Historical and Cultural Studies approach to the subject of theatrical depictions of eunuchs, drawing insights from seventeenth- and eighteenth-century literary works, travel narratives, medical treatises, and histories of the age. Major Findings: As this paper demonstrates, there was a high degree of complexity, variety, and -at times- respect underlying orientalist theatrical depictions of eunuchs. Not only were eunuchoid characters represented in strikingly diverse ways in scripts, but these roles were also played by a heterogeneous group of actors and even actresses. More specifically, this paper looks closely at three actresses who took roles as eunuchs in tragedies: Mrs. Verbruggen (aka Mrs. Mountfort), Mrs. Rogers, and Mrs. Bicknell—all of whom were otherwise best known as comediennes. These casting choices provided an entertaining twist on the breeches roles these actresses often played. In fact, the staging and scripting of these roles, when analyzed through the lens of these cross-gendered roles, becomes ironic and comical in several scenes that are usually assumed (by recent scholars) to be thoroughly tragic. Conclusion: Ultimately, a careful look at the staging of eunuchoid characters sheds light on not only how these productions were performed and understood, but also on how writers and theatre managers navigated the Other, whether in gender identity or culture, during this era.

Keywords: Literature, drama, eunuch, actress

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