Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 23

Literacy Related Abstracts

23 Epidemiology, Knowledge, Attitude, and Practices among Patients of Stroke

Authors: Vijay nandmer, Ajay Nandmer


Stigmatized psycho-social perception poses a serious challenge and source of discrimination which impedes stroke patients from attaining a satisfactory quality of life. The present study was aimed to obtain information on knowledge, attitudes and practices (KAP) of stroke patients in the institute. We included 1000 people in our random sampling survey. Demographic details and responses to a questionnaire assessing the knowledge, attitude and practices were recorded. Although the majority of the patients belonged to low socioeconomic strata, the literacy rate was reasonably high (96.3%). A large majority (91.3%) of people had heard about stroke and (85.2%) knew that stroke can be treated with modern drugs. However, a negative attitude was reflected in the belief that stroke happens due to supernatural powers (hawa lagne se) (50.6%). Analysis of the data revealed regional differences in KAP which could be attributed to local Factors, such as literacy, awareness about stroke, and practice of different systems of medicine. Some of the differences can also be attributed to a category of study population whether it included patients or non-stroke individuals since the former are likely to have less negative attitudes than the public. There is a need to create awareness about stroke on a nation-wide basis to dispel the misconceptions and stigma through effective and robust programs with the aim to lessen the disease burden.

Keywords: Epidemiology, Literacy, Stroke, sroke

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22 Literacy in First and Second Language: Implication for Language Education

Authors: Inuwa Danladi Bawa


One of the challenges of African states in the development of education in the past and the present is the problem of literacy. Literacy in the first language is seen as a strong base for the development of second language; they are mostly the language of education. Language development is an offshoot of language planning; so the need to develop literacy in both first and second language affects language education and predicts the extent of achievement of the entire education sector. The need to balance literacy acquisition in first language for good conditioning the acquisition of second language is paramount. Likely constraints that includes; non-standardization, underdeveloped and undeveloped first languages are among many. Solutions to some of these include the development of materials and use of the stages and levels of literacy acquisition. This is with believed that a child writes well in second language if he has literacy in the first language.

Keywords: Linguistics, English Language, Literacy, Second Language, first language

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21 The Contemporary Visual Spectacle: Critical Visual Literacy

Authors: Lai-Fen Yang


In this increasingly visual world, how can we best decipher and understand the many ways that our everyday lives are organized around looking practices and the many images we encounter each day? Indeed, how we interact with and interpret visual images is a basic component of human life. Today, however, we are living in one of the most artificial visual and image-saturated cultures in human history, which makes understanding the complex construction and multiple social functions of visual imagery more important than ever before. Themes regarding our experience of a visually pervasive mediated culture, here, termed visual spectacle.

Keywords: Visual Culture, Contemporary, Images, Literacy

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20 Using Computerized Analogical Reasoning Tasks as a Way to Improve Literacy Skills in Children with Mild Intellectual Disability

Authors: Caroline Denaes


The ability to read is crucial for a successful path in school and in a social and professional context. Children with mild intellectual disability are confronted to serious difficulties in literacy. A lot of them do not read or are illiterate. Only one child out of five is able to acquire basic reading skills, which increases the likelihood to misfit in society, especially when these children grow up and cannot manage themselves in situations requiring higher reading levels. One way to help these children acquiring basic reading skills is to use analogical reasoning, as some researchers demonstrated that this mechanism is fundamental for any reading process. For this purpose, we developed computerized analogies displayed on a touch screen tablet. Analogies are comparisons that give children a framework they can use to understand new information. They work by comparing one thing to another in order to emphasize some mutual quality. If one of the items is unfamiliar, that mutual quality can help make it understandable, or it can cause the children to consider something familiar in some new way, such as transferring what they know about familiar words to help them identify unfamiliar words. In addition, using touch screen tablets represents several advantages: the ease of use, the relevance to this specific population and the appeal of a self-directed activity gives individuals and practitioners a modern tool that differs from the traditional paper-and-pencil material. In addition, the touch screen dimension is especially appropriate for children as assistive technology has been found to be more motivating that any other types of devices and improves the children’ attention span.

Keywords: Literacy, Intellectual Disabilities, touch screen techonology, literacy skill

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19 The Use of Digital Stories in the Development of Critical Literacy

Authors: Victoria Zenotz


For Fairclough (1989) critical literacy is a tool to enable readers and writers to build up meaning in discourse. More recently other authors (Leu et al., 2004) have included the new technology context in their definition of literacy. In their view being literate nowadays means to “successfully use and adapt to the rapidly changing information and communication technologies and contexts that continuously emerge in our world and influence all areas of our personal and professional lives.” (Leu et al., 2004: 1570). In this presentation the concept of critical literacy will be related to the creation of digital stories. In the first part of the presentation concepts such as literacy and critical literacy are examined. We consider that real social practices will help learners may improve their literacy level. Accordingly, we show some research, which was conducted at a secondary school in the north of Spain (2013-2014), to illustrate how the “writing” of digital stories may contribute to the development of critical literacy. The use of several instruments allowed the collection of data at the different stages of their creative process including watching and commenting models for digital stories, planning a storyboard, creating and selecting images, adding voices and background sounds, editing and sharing the final product. The results offer some valuable insights into learners’ literacy progress.

Keywords: Literacy, Computer assisted Language Learning, ESL

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18 Qualitative Measurement of Literacy

Authors: Indrajit Ghosh, Jaydip Roy


Literacy rate is an important indicator for measurement of human development. But this is not a good one to capture the qualitative dimension of educational attainment of an individual or a society. The overall educational level of an area is an important issue beyond the literacy rate. The overall educational level can be thought of as an outcome of the educational levels of individuals. But there is no well-defined algorithm and mathematical model available to measure the overall educational level of an area. A heuristic approach based on accumulated experience of experts is effective one. It is evident that fuzzy logic offers a natural and convenient framework in modeling various concepts in social science domain. This work suggests the implementation of fuzzy logic to develop a mathematical model for measurement of educational attainment of an area in terms of Education Index. The contribution of the study is two folds: conceptualization of “Education Profile” and proposing a new mathematical model to measure educational attainment in terms of “Education Index”.

Keywords: Fuzzy Logic, Literacy, education index, education profile

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17 Literacy Performance among Lower Primary School Children : A Malaysian Case Study

Authors: Ratnawati Mohd Asraf, Hazlina Abdullah


Numerous studies on boys’ performance relative to girls’ have been conducted around the globe. However, little has been done in relation to the literacy of primary school boys in the Malaysian context. This paper discusses the results of a study that sought to determine the literacy performance of Grades 1, 2, and 3 primary school students in the state of Selangor, Malaysia. Data on approximately 85,000 students from each grade level were obtained from the Ministry of Education Malaysia, which conducts national screening on literacy and numeracy, or LINUS, in all government primary schools. Teachers’ views were also sought through focus group interviews and journal entries. The results show that although there is an overall improvement in literacy performance in the Malay language among the students as they go into Grades 2 and 3, girls are found to outperform boys in every screening for all grade levels.

Keywords: Literacy, Reading, boys’ underperformance, literacy performance

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16 ICTs Knowledge as a Way of Enhancing Literacy and Lifelong Learning in Nigeria

Authors: Jame O. Ezema, Odenigbo Veronica


The study covers the topic Information Communication and Technology (ICTs) knowledge as a way of enhancing Literacy and Lifelong learning in Nigeria. This work delved into defining of ICTs. Types of ICTs and media technologies were also mentioned. It further explained how ICTs can be strengthened and the uses of ICTs in education was duly emphasized. The paper also enumerated some side effects of ICTs on learners while the role of ICTs in enhancing literacy was explained. The study carried out strategies to use ICTs meaningfully in Literacy Programs and also emphasized the word lifelong learning in Nigeria. Some recommendations were made towards acquiring ICTs knowledge, so as to enhance Literacy and Lifelong learning in Nigeria.

Keywords: e-Learning, Literacy, distance-learning, life-long learning for sustainable development

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15 Cluster Randomized Trial of 'Ready to Learn': An After-School Literacy Program for Children Starting School

Authors: Geraldine Macdonald, Oliver Perra, Nina O’Neill, Laura Neeson, Kathryn Higgins


Background: Despite improvements in recent years, almost one in six children in Northern Ireland (NI) leaves primary school without achieving the expected level in English and Maths. By early adolescence, this ratio is one in five. In 2010-11, around 9000 pupils in NI had failed to achieve the required standard in literacy and numeracy by the time they left full-time education. This paper reports the findings of an experimental evaluation of a programmed designed to improve educational outcomes of a cohort of children starting primary school in areas of high social disadvantage in Northern Ireland. The intervention: ‘Ready to Learn’ comprised two key components: a literacy-rich After School programme (one hour after school, three days per week), and a range of activities and support to promote the engagement of parents with their children’s learning, in school and at home. The intervention was delivered between September 2010 and August 2013. Study aims and objectives: The primary aim was to assess whether, and to what extent, ‘Ready to Learn’ improved the literacy of socially disadvantaged children entering primary schools compared with children in schools without access to the programme. Secondary aims included assessing the programme’s impact on children’s social, emotional and behavioural regulation, and parents’ engagement with their children’s learning. In total, 505 children (almost all) participated in the baseline assessment for the study, with good retention over seven sweeps of data collection. Study design: The intervention was evaluated by means of a cluster randomized trial, with schools as the unit of randomization and analysis. It included a qualitative component designed to examine process and implementation, and to explore the concept of parental engagement. Sixteen schools participated, with nine randomized to the experimental group. As well as outcome data relating to children, 134 semi-structured interviews were conducted with parents over the three years of the study, together with 88 interviews with school staff. Results: Given the children’s ages, not all measures used were direct measures of reading. Findings point to a positive impact of “Ready to Learn” on children’s reading achievement (comprehension and fluency), as assessed by the York Assessment of Reading Comprehension (YARC) and decoding, assessed using the Word Recognition and Phonic Skills (WRaPS3). Effects were not large, but evidence suggests that it is unusual for an after school programme to clearly to demonstrate effects on reading skills. No differences were found on three other measures of literacy-related skills: British Picture Vocabulary Scale (BPVS-II), Naming Speed and Non-word Reading Tests from the Phonological Assessment Battery (PhAB) or Concepts about Print (CAP) – the last due to an age-related ceiling effect). No differences were found between the two groups on measures of social, emotional and behavioural regulation, and due to low levels of participation, it was not possible directly to assess the contribution of the parent component to children’s outcomes. The qualitative data highlighted conflicting concepts of engagement between parents and school staff. Ready to Learn is a promising intervention that merits further support and evaluation.

Keywords: Education, Literacy, after-school, parental engagement

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14 Improving Literacy Level Through Digital Books for Deaf and Hard of Hearing Students

Authors: Majed A. Alsalem


In our contemporary world, literacy is an essential skill that enables students to increase their efficiency in managing the many assignments they receive that require understanding and knowledge of the world around them. In addition, literacy enhances student participation in society improving their ability to learn about the world and interact with others and facilitating the exchange of ideas and sharing of knowledge. Therefore, literacy needs to be studied and understood in its full range of contexts. It should be seen as social and cultural practices with historical, political, and economic implications. This study aims to rebuild and reorganize the instructional designs that have been used for deaf and hard-of-hearing (DHH) students to improve their literacy level. The most critical part of this process is the teachers; therefore, teachers will be the center focus of this study. Teachers’ main job is to increase students’ performance by fostering strategies through collaborative teamwork, higher-order thinking, and effective use of new information technologies. Teachers, as primary leaders in the learning process, should be aware of new strategies, approaches, methods, and frameworks of teaching in order to apply them to their instruction. Literacy from a wider view means acquisition of adequate and relevant reading skills that enable progression in one’s career and lifestyle while keeping up with current and emerging innovations and trends. Moreover, the nature of literacy is changing rapidly. The notion of new literacy changed the traditional meaning of literacy, which is the ability to read and write. New literacy refers to the ability to effectively and critically navigate, evaluate, and create information using a range of digital technologies. The term new literacy has received a lot of attention in the education field over the last few years. New literacy provides multiple ways of engagement, especially to those with disabilities and other diverse learning needs. For example, using a number of online tools in the classroom provides students with disabilities new ways to engage with the content, take in information, and express their understanding of this content. This study will provide teachers with the highest quality of training sessions to meet the needs of DHH students so as to increase their literacy levels. This study will build a platform between regular instructional designs and digital materials that students can interact with. The intervention that will be applied in this study will be to train teachers of DHH to base their instructional designs on the notion of Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) theory. Based on the power analysis that has been done for this study, 98 teachers are needed to be included in this study. This study will choose teachers randomly to increase internal and external validity and to provide a representative sample from the population that this study aims to measure and provide the base for future and further studies. This study is still in process and the initial results are promising by showing how students have engaged with digital books.

Keywords: Technology, Literacy, deaf and hard of hearing, digital books

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13 Mental Health Literacy in the Arabic Community

Authors: Yamam Abuzinadah


Mental health literacy has become a very influential topic around the world due to the increase of mental health issues that have been reported through national research and surveys. Mental health literacy refers to the awareness, attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills when dealing with mental illness. This research explores mental health literacy in the Arabic and the ways culture informs perceptions of mental health in general. Also, the impact of mental health literacy on: help-seeking attitudes, relationships and community interactions. The outcomes of this research will contribute to raising mental health awareness among the Arabic community, develop and enhance mental health service provision and explore new ideas in regards to elevating mental health literacy in the Arabic community. This research aims to explore attitudes, beliefs, perspective, values and perceptions toward mental health in general among the Arabic community. It will also aim to highlight the factors contributing to theses beliefs, perspective, value and perception and accordingly the role these factors play in regards to awareness, services access, recovery and care provided from the family and the community. This thesis will aim to reflect a detailed theorisation and exploration of: (1) The impact of cultural factors on mental health literacy ie. attitudes, beliefs, knowledge and skills. (2) The ways culture informs perceptions of mental health literacy. (3) The impact of mental health literacy on: help-seeking behaviors, and relationships and community interactions.

Keywords: Mental Health, Literacy, awareness, Arab

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12 Factors Affecting eHealth Literacy among Nursing Students in Jordan

Authors: Laila Habiballah, Ahmad Tubaishat


Background: with the development of information and communication technology, using the internet as a source to obtain health information is increasing. Nursing students as future health care providers should have the skills of locating, evaluating and using online health information. This will enable them to help their patients and families to make informed decisions. Aim: this study has a two-fold aim. The first is to assess the eHealth literacy among nursing students in Jordan. The second aim is to explore the factors that have an effect on the eHealth literacy. Methods: this is a descriptive cross-sectional survey that conducted in two universities in Jordan; public and private one. A number of 541 students from both universities were completed the eHEALS scale, which is an instrument designed to measure the eHealth literacy. Some additional personal and demographical variable were collected to explore its effect on eHealth literacy. Results: Students have a high perceived level of e-Health literacy (M=3.62, SD=0.58). They are aware of the available online health resources, know how to search, locate, and use these resources. But, they do not have the skills to evaluate these resources and cannot differentiate between the high and low-quality resources. The results showed as well that type of university, type of students' admission, academic level, students' skills of using the internet, and the perception of usefulness and importance of internet have an effect on the eHealth literacy. While the age, gender, GPA, and the frequency of using the internet was no significant factors. Conclusion: This study represents a baseline reference for the eHealth literacy in Jordan. Students have some skills of eHealth literacy and other skills need to be improved. Nursing educators and administrators should integrate and incorporate the skills of eHealth literacy in the curriculum.

Keywords: Nursing, Literacy, eHealth, students, jordan

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11 Use and Effects of Kanban Board from the Aspects of Brothers Furniture Limited

Authors: Kazi Rizvan, Yamin Rekhu


Due to high competitiveness in industries throughout the world, every industry is trying hard to utilize all their resources to keep their productivity as high as possible. Many tools have been being used to ensure smoother flow of an operation, to balance tasks, to maintain proper schedules for tasks, to maintain proper sequence for tasks, to reduce unproductive time. All of these tools are used to augment productivity within an industry. Kanban board is one of them and of the many important tools of lean production system. Kanban Board is a visual depiction of the status of tasks. Kanban board shows the actual status of the tasks. It conveys the progress and issues of tasks as well. Using Kanban Board, tasks can be distributed among workers and operation targets can be visually represented to them. In this paper, an example of Kanban board from the aspects of Brothers Furniture Limited was taken and how the Kanban board system was implemented, how the board was designed and how it was made easily perceivable for the less literate or illiterate workers. The Kanban board was designed for the packing section of Brothers Furniture Limited. It was implemented for the purpose of representing the tasks flow to the workers and to mitigate the time that was wasted while the workers remained wondering about what task they should start after they finish one. Kanban board subsumed seven columns and there was a column for comments where if any problem occurred during working on the tasks. Kanban board was helpful for the workers as the board showed the urgency of the tasks. It was also helpful for the store section as they could understand which products and how much of them could be delivered to store at any certain time. Kanban board had all the information centralized which is why the work-flow got paced up and idle time was minimized. Regardless of many workers being illiterate or less literate, Kanban board was still explicable for the workers as the Kanban cards were colored. Since the significance of colors can be conveniently interpretable to them, colored cards helped a great deal in that matter. Hence, the illiterate or less literate workers didn’t have to spend time wondering about the significance of the cards. Even when the workers weren’t told the significance of the colored cards, they could grow a feeling about their meaning as colors can trigger anyone’s mind to perceive the situation. As a result, the board elucidated the workers about what board required them to do, when to do and what to do next. Kanban board alleviated excessive time between tasks by setting day-plan for targeted tasks and it also reduced time during tasks as the workers were acknowledged of forthcoming tasks for a day. Being very specific to the tasks, Kanban board helped the workers become more focused on their tasks helped them do their job with more perfection. As a result, The Kanban board helped achieve a 8.75% increase in productivity than the productivity before the Kanban board was implemented.

Keywords: Productivity, Literacy, Color, Kanban Board, Lean Tool, packing

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10 A Study of Status of Women by Incorporating Literacy and Employment in India and Some Selected States

Authors: Barnali Thakuria, Labananda Choudhury


Gender equality and women’s empowerment is one of the components of eight Millennium Development Goal (MDG).Literacy and employment are the parameters which reflect the empowerment of women. But in a developing country like India, literacy and working status among the females are not satisfactory. Both literacy and employment technically can be measured by Literate Life Expectancy (LLE) and Working Life Expectancy (WLE).One can also combine both the factors literacy and working to get a better new measure. The proposed indicator can be called literate-working life expectancy (LWLE). LLE gives an average number of years a person lives in a literate state under current mortality and literacy conditions while WLE defined as average number of years a person lives in a working state if current mortality and working condition prevails. Similarly, LWLE gives number of expected years by a person living under both literate and working state. The situation of females cannot be figured out without comparing both the sexes. In the present paper an attempt has been made to estimate LLE and WLE in India along with some selected states from various zones of India namely Assam from the North-East, Gujarat from the West, Kerala from the South, Rajasthan from the North, Uttar Pradesh from the Central and West Bengal from the East respectively for both the sexes based on 2011 census. Furthermore, we have also developed a formula for a new indicator namely Literate-Working Life Expectancy (LWLE) and the proposed index has been applied in India and the selected states mentioned above for both males and females. Data has been extracted from SRS(Sample Registration System) based Abridged Life Table and Census of India. The computation of LLE follows the method developed by Lutz while WLE has followed the method developed by Saw Swee Hock. By combining both the factors literacy and employment, the new indicator LWLE also follows the method like LLE and WLE. Contrasted results have been found in different parts of India. The result shows that LLE at birth is highest(lowest) in the state Kerala(Uttar Pradesh) with 61.66 (39.51) years among the males. A similar situation is also observed among the females with 62.58 years and 25.11 years respectively. But male WLE at birth is highest (lowest) in Rajasthan(Kerala) with 37.11 (32.64) years. Highest female WLE at birth is also observed in Rajasthan with 23.51 years and the lowest is concentrated in Uttar Pradesh with 11.76 years. It is also found that Kerala’s performance is exceptionally good in terms of LWLE at birth while the lowest LWLE at birth prevails in the state Uttar Pradesh among the males. Female LWLE at birth is highest(lowest) in Kerala(Uttar Pradesh) with 19.73(4.77)years. The corresponding value of the index increases as the number of factors involved in the life expectancy decrease. It is found that women are lagging behind in terms of both literacy and employment. Findings of the study will help the planners to take necessary steps to improve the position of women.

Keywords: Literacy, Life Expectancy, literate life expectancy, working life expectancy

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9 The Importance of Mental Health Literacy: Interventions in a Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes, Portugal

Authors: Mariana Mangas, Yaroslava Martins, Ana Charraz, Ana Matos Pires


Introduction: Health literacy empowers people of knowledge, motivation and skills to access, understand, evaluate and mobilize information relating to health. Although the benefits of public knowledge of physical disease are widely accepted, knowledge about mental disorder has been compatibly neglected. Nowadays there is considerably evidence that literacy is of great importance for the promotion of health and prevention of mental illness. Objective: Disclosure the concept and importance of mental health literacy and introduce the literacy program of Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes. Methodology: A search was conducted on PubMed, using keywords “literacy” and “mental health”. A description of mental health literacy interventions implemented on Psychiatry Service of Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes was performed, namely, psychoeducation programs for depression and bipolar disorder. Results and discussion: Health literacy enables patient to be able to actively participate in his treatment. The improving of mental health literacy can promote early identification of mental disorders, improve treatment results, increase the use of health services and allow the community to take action to achieve better mental health. Psychoeducation is very useful in improving the course of disease and in reducing the number of episodes and hospitalizations. Bipolar patients who received psychoeducation and pharmacotherapy have no relapses during the program and last year. Conclusion: Mental health literacy is not simply a matter of having knowledge, rather, it is knowledge linked to action which can benefit mental health.

Keywords: Knowledge, Mental Health, Literacy, Psychoeducation, Empowerment

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8 Investigating Online Literacy among Undergraduates in Malaysia

Authors: Vivien Chee Pei Wei


Today we live in a scenario in which letters share space with images on screens that vary in size, shape, and style. The popularization of television, then the computer and now the e-readers, tablets, and smartphones made the electronic assume the role that previously was restricted to printed materials. Since the extensive use of new technologies to produce, disseminate, collect and access electronic publications began, the changes to reading has been intensified. To be able to read online, it involves more than just utilizing specific skills, strategies, and practices, but also in negotiating multiple information sources. In this study, different perspectives of digital reading are being explored in order to define the key aspects of the term. The focus is to explore how new technologies affect how undergraduates’ reading behavior, which in turn, gives readers different reading levels and engagement with the text and other support materials in the same media. There is also the importance of the relationship between reading platforms, reading levels and formats of electronic publications. The study looks at the online reading practices of about 100 undergraduates from a local university. The data collected using the survey and interviews with the respondents are analyzed thematically. Findings from this study found that both digital and traditional reading are interrelated, and should not be viewed as separate, but complementary to each other. However, reading online complicates some of the skills required by traditional reading. Consequently, in order to successfully read and comprehend multiple sources of information online, undergraduates need regular opportunities to practice and develop their skills as part of their natural reading practices.

Keywords: Literacy, Concepts, digital reading, traditional reading

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7 Exploring Family and Preschool Early Interactive Literacy Practices in Jordan

Authors: Rana Alkhamra


Background: Child's earliest experiences with books and stories during the first years of his life are strongly linked with the development of his early language and literacy skills. Interacting in routine learning activities, such as shared book reading, storytelling, and teaching about the letters of the alphabet make a critical foundation for early learning, language growth and emergent literacy. Aim: The current study explores family and preschool early interactive literacy practices in families and preschools (nursery and kindergarten) in Jordan. It highlights the importance of early interactive literacy activities on child language and literacy growth and development. Methods: This is a cross sectional study that surveyed 243 Jordanian families. The survey investigated literacy routine practices, largely shared books reading, at home and at preschool; child speech and language development; and family demographics. Results: Around 92.5% of the families read books and stories to their children, as frequently as 1-2 times weekly or monthly (75%). Only 19.6% read books on daily basis. Many families reported preferring story-telling (97%). Despite that families acknowledged the importance of early literacy activities, on language, reading and writing, cognitive, and academic development, 45% asked for education and training pertaining to specific ways and ideas to help their young children develop language and literacy skills. About 69% of the families reported reading books and stories to their children for 15 minutes a day, while 71.2% indicated having their children watch television for 3 to > 6 hours a day. At preschool, only 52.8% of the teachers were reported to read books and stories. Factors like parent education, monthly income, living inside (33.6%) or outside (66.4%) the capital city of Amman significantly (p < 0.05) affected child early literacy interactive activities whether at home or at preschool. Conclusion: Early language and literacy skills depend largely on the opportunities and experiences provided to children in the home and in preschool environment. Family literacy programs can play an important role in bridging the gap in early literacy experiences for families that need help. Also, speech therapists can work in collaboration with families and educators to ensure that young children have high quality and sufficient opportunities to participate in early literacy activities both at home and in preschool environments.

Keywords: Language, Practices, Literacy, Family, jordan, preschool, interactive activities

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6 Variation of Lexical Choice and Changing Need of Identity Expression

Authors: Thapasya J., Rajesh Kumar


Language plays complex roles in society. The previous studies on language and society explain their interconnected, complementary and complex interactions and, those studies were primarily focused on the variations in the language. Variation being the fundamental nature of languages, the question of personal and social identity navigated through language variation and established that there is an interconnection between language variation and identity. This paper analyses the sociolinguistic variation in language at the lexical level and how the lexical choice of the speaker(s) affects in shaping their identity. It obtains primary data from the lexicon of the Mappila dialect of Malayalam spoken by the members of Mappila (Muslim) community of Kerala. The variation in the lexical choice is analysed by collecting data from the speech samples of 15 minutes from four different age groups of Mappila dialect speakers. Various contexts were analysed and the frequency of borrowed words in each instance is calculated to reach a conclusion on how the variation is happening in the speech community. The paper shows how the lexical choice of the speakers could be socially motivated and involve in shaping and changing identities. Lexical items or vocabulary clearly signal the group identity and personal identity. Mappila dialect of Malayalam was rich in frequent use of borrowed words from Arabic, Persian and Urdu. There was a deliberate attempt to show their identity as a Mappila community member, which was derived from the socio-political situation during those days. This made a clear variation between the Mappila dialect and other dialects of Malayalam at the surface level, which was motivated to create and establish the identity of a person as the member of Mappila community. Historically, these kinds of linguistic variation were highly motivated because of the socio-political factors and, intertwined with the historical facts about the origin and spread of Islamism in the region; people from the Mappila community highly motivated to project their identity as a Mappila because of the social insecurities they had to face before accepting that religion. Thus the deliberate inclusion of Arabic, Persian and Urdu words in their speech helped in showing their identity. However, the socio-political situations and factors at the origin of Mappila community have been changed over a period of time. The social motivation for indicating their identity as a Mappila no longer exist and thus the frequency of borrowed words from Arabic, Persian and Urdu have been reduced from their speech. Apart from the religious terms, the borrowed words from these languages are very few at present. The analysis is carried out by the changes in the language of the people according to their age and found to have significant variations between generations and literacy plays a major role in this variation process. The need of projecting a specific identity of an individual would vary according to the change in the socio-political scenario and a variation in language can shape the identity in order to go with the varying socio-political situation in any language.

Keywords: Identity, Literacy, Variation, Dialect, borrowings, lexical choice

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5 The Effects of Teacher Efficacy, Instructional Leadership and Professional Learning Communities on Student Achievement in Literacy and Numeracy: A Look at Primary Schools within Sibu Division

Authors: Jarrod Sio Jyh Lih


This paper discusses the factors contributing to student achievement in literacy and numeracy in primary schools within Sibu division. The study involved 694 level 1 primary schoolteachers. Using descriptive statistics, the study observed high levels of practice for teacher efficacy, instructional leadership and professional learning communities (PLCs). The differences between gender, teaching experience and academic qualification were analyzed using the t-test and one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). The study reported significant differences in respondent perceptions based on teaching experience vis-à-vis teacher efficacy. Here, the post hoc Tukey test revealed that efficaciousness grows with experience. A correlation test observed positive and significant correlations between all independent variables. Binary logistic regression was applied to predict the independent variables’ influence on student achievement. The findings revealed that a dimension of instructional leadership – ‘monitoring student progress’ - emerged as the best predictor of student achievement for literacy and numeracy. The result indicated the students were more than 4 times more likely to achieve the national key performance index for both literacy and numeracy when student progress was monitored. In conclusion, ‘monitoring student progress’ had a positive influence on students’ achievement for literacy and numeracy, hence making it a possible course of action for school heads. However, more comprehensive studies are needed to ascertain its consistency within the context of Malaysia.

Keywords: Instructional, Literacy, Efficacy, numeracy

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4 Library Support for the Intellectually Disabled: Book Clubs and Universal Design

Authors: Matthew Conner, Leah Plocharczyk


This study examines the role of academic libraries in support of the intellectually disabled (ID) in post-secondary education. With the growing public awareness of the ID, there has been recognition of their need for post-secondary educational opportunities. This was an unforeseen result for a population that has been associated with elementary levels of education, yet the reasons are compelling. After aging out of the school system, the ID need and deserve educational and social support as much as anyone. Moreover, the commitment to diversity in higher education rings hollow if this group is excluded. Yet, challenges remain to integrating the ID into a college curriculum. This presentation focuses on the role of academic libraries. Neglecting this vital resource for the support of the ID is not to be thought of, yet the library’s contribution is not clear. Library collections presume reading ability and libraries already struggle to meet their traditional goals with the resources available. This presentation examines how academic libraries can support post-secondary ID. For context, the presentation first examines the state of post-secondary education for the ID with an analysis of data on the United States compiled by the ThinkCollege! Project. Geographic Information Systems (GIS) and statistical analysis will show regional and methodological trends in post-secondary support of the ID which currently lack any significant involvement by college libraries. Then, the presentation analyzes a case study of a book club at the Florida Atlantic University (FAU) libraries which has run for several years. Issues such as the selection of books, effective pedagogies, and evaluation procedures will be examined. The study has found that the instruction pedagogies used by libraries can be extended through concepts of Universal Learning Design (ULD) to effectively engage the ID. In particular, student-centered, participatory methodologies that accommodate different learning styles have proven to be especially useful. The choice of text is complex and determined not only by reading ability but familiarity of subject and features of the ID’s developmental trajectory. The selection of text is not only a necessity but also promises to give insight into the ID. Assessment remains a complex and unresolved subject, but the voluntary, sustained, and enthusiastic attendance of the ID is an undeniable indicator. The study finds that, through the traditional library vehicle of the book club, academic libraries can support ID students through training in both reading and socialization, two major goals of their post-secondary education.

Keywords: Literacy, Academic Libraries, Post-Secondary Education, Intellectual Disability

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3 Enhancing Experiential Education in Teacher Education Classes Through Simulated Person Methodology

Authors: Karen Armstrong


This study is a narrative inquiry into the use of simulated person methodology (SPM) in teacher education classes. This methodology -often used in medical schools- has tremendous benefits in terms of enhancing experiential education in teacher education classes. Literacy education is a major focus in elementary schools. New teachers must work with parents to ensure that children learn to read and expand their literacy horizons. The classes used in this narrative inquiry research consist of one graduate class on family literacy and two pre-service teacher education classes: literacy and culture and early and family literacy. Two scenarios were devised, both of which simulated a parent-teacher interview. In the first scenario, the parent is a reluctant father who is ashamed of his lack of reading ability and does not understand why literacy is important. His seven-year-old son, wanting to emulate his father, has suddenly transformed from an eager student to one who rejects the value of reading in loyalty to his father who cannot read. In the second scenario, a father is called in by the teacher because his son has started acting out in class. The mother in this scenario is temporarily absent from the home, and the father is now the sole caregiver. In each of the scenarios, students are the teachers who are problem-solving these dilemmas in a safe environment with the 'parent' who is a specially trained simulated person. Teacher candidates enact, with the trained simulated person, their strategies for encouraging parents to engage in the literacy development of their children. Teacher candidates attempt to offer support and encouragement to parents. This simulation strategy offers both beginning and more experienced teachers the opportunity to practice an interview with two distinct and contrasting family situations with regard to the literacy of young children. The paper discusses the details of the scenarios enacted in class and the reflective discussion through which students learn from the simulation.

Keywords: Teacher Education, Literacy, experiential education, simulated person methodology

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2 Assessment of Digital Literacy Skills of Librarians in Tertiary Institutions Inniger State

Authors: Mustapha Abdulkadir Gana, Jibrin Attahiru Alhassan, Adamu Musa Baba


The exponential growth of information sources, resources and the continued Communication Technology (ICT) sophistication of libraries all over the world call for capable and ICT compliant librarians in Nigeria, this article assesses the digital literacy skills of librarians in tertiary institutions in Niger state. The survey research method was applied in the study using a random sampling technique to draw the sample. Fifty-eight copies of the questionnaire were administered while forty-nine copies were completed, returned, and used in the study, which represents 84% of the response rate. Two research questions were answered, and data were analyzed using Statistical Package for the Social Sciences (SPSS). The finding uncovered that the librarians lack the requisite digital literacy skills to access the wealth of digital information resources available. The study recommends some steps to turn around the situations amongst; librarians must be empowered with all necessary digital literacy skills, embark on rigorous training and retraining programs, workshops, conferences, and seminars, there should also be a coherent training policy for the librarians on a sustainable basis to increase their requisite digital literacy skills.

Keywords: Information, Digital, Literacy, Skills

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1 Formal History Teaching and Lifeworld Literacies: Developing Transversal Skills as an Embodied Learning Outcomes in Historical Research Projects

Authors: Paul Flynn, Luke O’Donnell


There is a pressing societal need for educators in formal and non-formal settings to develop pedagogical frameworks, programmes, and interventions that support the development of transversal skills for life beyond the classroom. These skills include communication, collaboration, interpersonal relationship building, problem-solving, and planning, and organizational skills; or lifeworld literacies encountered first hand. This is particularly true for young people aged between 15-18. This demographic represents both the future of society and those best positioned to take advantage of well-designed, structured educational supports within and across formal and non-formal settings. Secondary school history has been identified as an appropriate area of study which deftly develops many of those transversal skills so crucial to positive societal engagement. However, in the formal context, students often challenge history’s relevance to their own lived experience and dismiss it as a study option. In response to such challenges, teachers will often design stimulating lessons which are often well-received. That said, some students continue to question modern-day connections, presenting a persistent and pervasive classroom distraction. The continuing decline in numbers opting to study second-level history indicates an erosion of what should be a critical opportunity to develop all-important lifeworld literacies within formal education. In contrast, students readily acknowledge relevance in non-formal settings where many participants meaningfully engage with history by way of student-focused activities. Furthermore, many do so without predesigned pedagogical aids which support transversal skills development as embodied learning outcomes. As this paper will present, there is a dearth of work pertaining to the circular subject of history and its embodied learning outcomes, including lifeworld literacies, in formal and non-formal settings. While frequently challenging to reconcile formal (often defined by strict curricula and examination processes), and non-formal engagement with history, opportunities do exist. In the Irish context, this is exemplified by a popular university outreach programme: breaking the SEAL. This programme supports second-level history students as they fulfill curriculum requirements in completing a research study report. This report is a student-led research project pulling on communication skills, collaboration with peers and teachers, interpersonal relationships, problem-solving, and planning and organizational skills. Completion of this process has been widely recognized as excellent preparation not only for higher education (third level) but work-life demands as well. Within a formal education setting, the RSR harnesses non-formal learning virtues and exposes students to limited aspects of independent learning that relate to a professional work setting –a lifeworld literacy. Breaking the SEAL provides opportunities for students to enhance their lifeworld literacy by engaging in an independent research and learning process within the protective security of the classroom and its teacher. This paper will highlight the critical role this programme plays in preparing participating students (n=315) for life after compulsory education and presents examples of how lifeworld literacies may be developed through a scaffolded process of historical research and reporting anchored in non-formal contexts.

Keywords: Education, History, Literacy, transversal skills

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