Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

Liquids Related Abstracts

2 Dynamic Mechanical Analysis of Supercooled Water in Nanoporous Confinement and Biological Systems

Authors: Viktor Soprunyuk, Wilfried Schranz, Patrick Huber

Abstract:

In the present work, we show that Dynamic Mechanical Analysis (DMA) with a measurement frequency range f= 0.2 - 100 Hz is a rather powerful technique for the study of phase transitions (freezing and melting) and glass transitions of water in geometrical confinement. Inserting water into nanoporous host matrices, like e.g. Gelsil (size of pores 2.6 nm and 5 nm) or Vycor (size of pores 10 nm) allows one to study size effects occurring at the nanoscale conveniently in macroscopic bulk samples. One obtains valuable insight concerning confinement induced changes of the dynamics by measuring the temperature and frequency dependencies of the complex Young's modulus Y* for various pore sizes. Solid-liquid transitions or glass-liquid transitions show up in a softening or the real part Y' of the complex Young's modulus, yet with completely different frequency dependencies. Analysing the frequency dependent imaginary part of the Young´s modulus in the glass transition regions for different pore sizes we find a clear-cut 1/d-dependence of the calculated glass transition temperatures which extrapolates to Tg(1/d=0)=136 K, in agreement with the traditional value of water. The results indicate that the main role of the pore diameter is the relative amount of water molecules that are near an interface within a length scale of the order of the dynamic correlation length x. Thus we argue that the observed strong pore size dependence of Tg is an interfacial effect, rather than a finite size effect. We obtained similar signatures of Y* near glass transitions in different biological objects (fruits, vegetables, and bread). The values of the activation energies for these biological materials in the region of glass transition are quite similar to the values of the activation energies of supercooled water in the nanoporous confinement in this region. The present work was supported by the Austrian Science Fund (FWF, project Nr. P 28672 – N36).

Keywords: Biological Systems, Glasses, nanoporous materials, Liquids, Phase Transition, amorphous systems

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1 Comparing the Experimental Thermal Conductivity Results Using Transient Methods

Authors: Sofia Mylona, Dale Hume

Abstract:

The main scope of this work is to compare the experimental thermal conductivity results of fluids between devices using transient techniques. A range of different liquids within a range of viscosities was measured with two or more devices, and the results were compared between the different methods and the reference equations wherever it was available. The liquids selected are the most commonly used in academic or industrial laboratories to calibrate their thermal conductivity instruments having a variety of thermal conductivity, viscosity, and density. Three transient methods (Transient Hot Wire, Transient Plane Source, and Transient Line Source) were compared for the thermal conductivity measurements taken by using them. These methods have been chosen as the most accurate and because they all follow the same idea; as a function of the logarithm of time, the thermal conductivity is calculated from the slope of a plot of sensor temperature rise. For all measurements, the selected temperature range was at the atmospheric level from 10 to 40 ° C. Our results are coming with an agreement with the objections of several scientists over the reliability of the results of a few popular devices. The observation was surprising that the device used in many laboratories for fast measurements of liquid thermal conductivity display deviations of 500 percent which can be very poorly reproduced.

Keywords: Thermal Conductivity, Liquids, accurate data, transient methods

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