Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

liquid desiccant Related Abstracts

3 Solar Liquid Desiccant Regenerator for Two Stage KCOOH Based Fresh Air Dehumidifier

Authors: M. V. Rane, Tareke Tekia


Liquid desiccant based fresh air dehumidifiers can be gainfully deployed for air-conditioning, agro-produce drying and in many industrial processes. Regeneration of liquid desiccant can be done using direct firing, high temperature waste heat or solar energy. Solar energy is clean and available in abundance; however, it is costly to collect. A two stage liquid desiccant fresh air dehumidification system can offer Coefficient of Performance (COP), in the range of 1.6 to 2 for comfort air conditioning applications. High COP helps reduce the size and cost of collectors required. Performance tests on high temperature regenerator of a two stage liquid desiccant fresh air dehumidifier coupled with seasonally tracked flat plate like solar collector will be presented in this paper. The two stage fresh air dehumidifier has four major components: High Temperature Regenerator (HTR), Low Temperature Regenerator (LTR), High and Low Temperature Solution Heat Exchangers and Fresh Air Dehumidifier (FAD). This open system can operate at near atmospheric pressure in all the components. These systems can be simple, maintenance-free and scalable. Environmentally benign, non-corrosive, moderately priced Potassium Formate, KCOOH, is used as a liquid desiccant. Typical KCOOH concentration in the system is expected to vary between 65 and 75%. Dilute liquid desiccant at 65% concentration exiting the fresh air dehumidifier will be pumped and preheated in solution heat exchangers before entering the high temperature solar regenerator. In the solar collector, solution will be regenerated to intermediate concentration of 70%. Steam and saturated solution exiting the solar collector array will be separated. Steam at near atmospheric pressure will then be used to regenerate the intermediate concentration solution up to a concentration of 75% in a low temperature regenerator where moisture vaporized be released in to atmosphere. Condensed steam can be used as potable water after adding a pinch of salt and some nutrient. Warm concentrated liquid desiccant will be routed to solution heat exchanger to recycle its heat to preheat the weak liquid desiccant solution. Evacuated glass tube based seasonally tracked solar collector is used for regeneration of liquid desiccant at high temperature. Temperature of regeneration for KCOOH is 133°C at 70% concentration. The medium temperature collector was designed for temperature range of 100 to 150°C. Double wall polycarbonate top cover helps reduce top losses. Absorber integrated heat storage helps stabilize the temperature of liquid desiccant exiting the collectors during intermittent cloudy conditions, and extends the operation of the system by couple of hours beyond the sunshine hours. This solar collector is light in weight, 12 kg/m2 without absorber integrated heat storage material, and 27 kg/m2 with heat storage material. Cost of the collector is estimated to be 10,000 INR/m2. Theoretical modeling of the collector has shown that the optical efficiency is 62%. Performance test of regeneration of KCOOH will be reported.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Solar, Regeneration, dehumidification, liquid desiccant

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2 Efficient Liquid Desiccant Regeneration for Fresh Air Dehumidification Application

Authors: M. V. Rane, Tareke Tekia


Fresh Air Dehumidifier having a capacity of 1 TR has been developed by Heat Pump Laboratory at IITB. This fresh air dehumidifier is based on potassium formate liquid desiccant. The regeneration of the liquid desiccant can be done in two stages. The first stage of liquid desiccant regeneration involves the boiling of liquid desiccant inside the evacuated glass type solar thermal collectors. Further regeneration of liquid desiccant can be achieved using Low Temperature Regenerator, LTR. The coefficient of performance of the fresh air dehumidifier greatly depends on the performance of the major components such as high temperature regenerator, low temperature regenerator, fresh air dehumidifier, and solution heat exchangers. High effectiveness solution heat exchanger has been developed and tested. The solution heat exchanger is based on a patented aluminium extrusion with special passage geometry to enhance the heat transfer rate. Effectiveness up to 90% was achieved. Before final testing of the dehumidifier, major components have been tested individually. Testing of the solar thermal collector as hot water and steam generator reveals that efficiency up to 55% can be achieved. In this paper, the development of 1 TR fresh air dehumidifier with special focus on solution heat exchangers and solar thermal collector performance is presented.

Keywords: Air Conditioning, Solar, Regeneration, dehumidification, coefficient of performance, liquid desiccant

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1 Regeneration of a Liquid Desiccant Using Membrane Distillation to Unlock Coastal Desert Agriculture Potential

Authors: TorOve Leiknes, Kimberly J. Cribbs, Ryan M. Lefers, Noreddine Ghaffour


In Gulf Cooperation Council (GCC) countries, domestic agriculture is hindered by a lack of freshwater, poor soil quality, and ambient temperatures unsuitable for cultivation resulting in a heavy reliance on imported food. Attempts to minimize the risk of food insecurity by growing crops domestically creates a significant demand on limited freshwater resources in this region. Cultivating food in a greenhouse allows some of these challenges, such as poor soil quality and temperatures unsuitable for cultivation, to be overcome. One of the most common methods for greenhouse cooling is evaporative cooling. This method cools the air by the evaporation of water and requires a large amount of water relative to that needed for plant growth and air with a low relative humidity. Considering that much of the population in GCC countries live within 100 km of a coast and that sea water can be utilized for evaporative cooling, coastal agriculture could reduce the risk of food insecurity and water demand. Unfortunately, coastal regions tend to experience both high temperatures and high relative humidity causing evaporative cooling by itself to be inadequate. Therefore, dehumidification is needed prior to utilizing evaporative cooling. Utilizing a liquid desiccant for air dehumidification is promising, but the desiccant regeneration to retain its dehumidification potential remains a significant obstacle for the adoption of this technology. This project studied the regeneration of a magnesium chloride (MgCl₂) desiccant solution from 20wt% to 30wt% by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) and explored the possibility of using the recovered water for irrigation. Two 0.2 µm hydrophobic PTFE membranes were tested at feed temperatures of 80, 70, and 60°C and with a permeate temperature of 20°C. It was observed that the permeate flux increases as the difference between the feed and coolant temperature increases and also as the feed concentration decreases. At 21wt% the permeate flux was 34,17, and 14 L m⁻² h⁻¹ for feed temperatures of 80, 70, and 60°C, respectively. Salt rejection decreased overtime; however, it remained greater than 99.9% over an experimental time span of 10 hours. The results show that DCMD can successfully regenerate the magnesium chloride desiccant solution.

Keywords: Agriculture, direct contact membrane distillation, GCC countries, liquid desiccant, water recovery

Procedia PDF Downloads 46