Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Liquid crystals Related Abstracts

5 Rheological Properties of Polymer Systems in Magnetic Field

Authors: T. S. Soliman, A. G. Galyas, E. V. Rusinova, S. A. Vshivkov


The liquid crystals combining properties of a liquid and an anisotropic crystal substance play an important role in a science and engineering. Molecules of cellulose and its derivatives have rigid helical conformation, stabilized by intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Therefore the macromolecules of these polymers are capable to be ordered at dissolution and form liquid crystals of cholesteric type. Phase diagrams of solutions of some cellulose derivatives are known. However, little is known about the effect of a magnetic field on the viscosity of polymer solutions. The systems hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) – ethanol, HPC – ethylene glycol, HPC–DМАA, HPC–DMF, ethyl cellulose (EC)–ethanol, EC–DMF, were studied in the presence and absence of magnetic field. The solution viscosity was determined on a Rheotest RN 4.1 rheometer. The effect of a magnetic field on the solution properties was studied with the use of two magnets, which induces a magnetic-field-lines directed perpendicularly and parallel to the rotational axis of a rotor. Application of the magnetic field is shown to be accompanied by an increase in the additional assembly of macromolecules, as is evident from a gain in the radii of light scattering particles. In the presence of a magnetic field, the long chains of macromolecules are oriented in parallel with field lines. Such an orientation is associated with the molecular diamagnetic anisotropy of macromolecules. As a result, supramolecular particles are formed, especially in the vicinity of the region of liquid crystalline phase transition. The magnetic field leads to the increase in viscosity of solutions. The results were used to plot the concentration dependence of η/η0, where η and η0 are the viscosities of solutions in the presence and absence of a magnetic field, respectively. In this case, the values of viscosity corresponding to low shear rates were chosen because the concentration dependence of viscosity at low shear rates is typical for anisotropic systems. In the investigated composition range, the values of η/η0 are described by a curve with a maximum.

Keywords: Rheology, Liquid crystals, Magnetic Field, cellulose ethers

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4 Preparation and Electro-Optic Characteristics of Polymer Network Liquid Crystals Based On Polymethylvinilpirydine and Polyethylene Glycol

Authors: T. D. Ibragimov, A. R. Imamaliyev, G. M. Bayramov


The polymer network liquid crystals based on the liquid crystals Н37 and 5CB with polymethylvinilpirydine (PMVP) and polyethylene glycol (PEG) have been developed. Mesogene substance 4-n-heptyoxibenzoic acid (HOBA) is served for stabilization of obtaining composites. Kinetics of network formation is investigated by methods of polarization microscopy and integrated small-angle scattering. It is shown that gel-like states of the composite H-37 + PMVP + HOBA and 5CB+PEG+HOBA are formed at polymer concentration above 7 % and 9 %, correspondingly. At slow cooling, the system separates into a liquid crystal –rich phase and a liquid crystal-poor phase. At this case, transition of these phases in the H-37 + PMVP + HOBA (87 % + 12 % + 1 %) composite to an anisotropic state occurs at 49 оС and и 41 оС, accordingly, while the composite 5CB+PEG+HOBA (85% +13 % +2%) passes to anisotropic state at 36 оС corresponding to the isotropic-nematic transition of pure 5CB. The basic electro-optic parameters of the obtained composites are determined at room temperature. It is shown that the threshold voltage of the composite H-37 + PMVP + HOBA increase in comparison with pure H-37 and, accordingly, there is a shift of voltage dependence of rise times to the high voltage region. The contrast ratio worsens while decay time improves in comparison with the pure liquid crystal at all applied voltage. The switching times of the composite 5CB + PEG + HOBA (85% +13 % +2%) show anomalous behavior connected with incompleteness of the transition to an anisotropic state. Experimental results are explained by phase separation of the system, diminution of a working area of electro-optical effects and influence of areas with the high polymer concentration on areas with their low concentration.

Keywords: Polymers, Liquid crystals, Optical Properties, small-angle scattering

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3 Phase Transition and Molecular Polarizability Studies in Liquid Crystalline Mixtures

Authors: M. Shahina, K. Fakruddin, C. M. Subhan, S. Rangappa


In this work, two mixtures with equal concentrations of 1) 4ꞌ-(6-(4-(pentylamino) methyl)-3-hydroxyphenoxy) hexyloxy) biphenyl-4-carbonitrile+-4-((4-(hexyloxy) benzylidene) amino) phenyl 4-butoxy benzoate and 2) 4ꞌ - (6-(4-(hexylamino) methyl)-3-hydroxyphenoxy) hexyloxy) biphenyl-4-carbonitrile+-4-((4-(octyloxy) benzylidene) amino) phenyl 4-butoxy benzoate, have been prepared. The transition temperature and optical texture are observed by using thermal microscopy. Density and birefringence studies are carried out on the above liquid crystalline mixtures. Using density and refractive indices data, the molecular polarizabilities are evaluated by using well-known Vuks and Neugebauer models. The molecular polarizability is also evaluated theoretically by Lippincott δ function model. The results reveal that the polarizability values are same in both experimental and theoretical methods.

Keywords: Liquid crystals, birefringence, polarizability, transition temperature, optical textures

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2 The Inversion of Helical Twist Sense in Liquid Crystal by Spectroscopy Methods

Authors: Anna Drzewicz, Marzena Tykarska


The chiral liquid crystal phases form the helicoidal structure, which is characterized by the helical pitch and the helical twist sense. In anticlinic smectic phase with antiferroelectric properties three types of helix temperature dependence have been obtained: increased helical pitch with temperature and right-handed helix, decreased helical pitch with temperature and left-handed helix and the inversion of both. The change of helical twist sense may be observed during the transition from one liquid crystal phase to another or within one phase for the same substance. According to Gray and McDonnell theory, the helical handedness depends on the absolute configuration of the assymetric carbon atom and its position related to the rigid core of the molecule. However, this theory does not explain the inversion of helical twist sense phenomenon. It is supposed, that it may be caused by the presence of different conformers with opposite handendess, which concentration may change with temperature. In this work, the inversion of helical twist sense in the chiral liquid crystals differing in the length of alkyl chain, in the substitution the benzene ring by fluorine atoms and in the type of helix handedness was tested by vibrational spectroscopy (infrared and raman spectroscopy) and by nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The results obtained from the vibrational spectroscopy confirm the presence of different conformers. Moreover, the analysis of nuclear magnetic resonance spectra is very useful to check, on which structural fragments the change of conformations are important for the change of helical twist sense.

Keywords: Liquid crystals, vibrational spectroscopy, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy, helical twist sense

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1 Influence of Single Source Irradiation on the Homogeneous Alignment of Liquid Crystals Molecules on Glass Substrates

Authors: Sarah Akhtar, Rizwan Mahmood


A detailed study of homogeneous alignment of liquid crystal molecules on a glass substrate will be presented. Thin films of polyimide were coated on several glass substrates. Various methods were employed to prepare coated surfaces to achieve desired alignment; these include traditionally rubbing the surface with a felt cloth then exposing them perpendicular to the easy axis with incandescent light (IL), linearly polarized ultraviolet (LPUVR) and un-polarized ultraviolet (UPUVR) radiation. The quality of the alignment was tested by measuring the tilt angle in the temperature range between 30°C to 55°C. Regression analysis of the data using ‘SigmaPlot’ suggests a gradual increase in tilt angle (1.1°-1.8°) for the rubbed, 0.6° to 3.6° increase for the rubbed plus IL radiated and 1.6° to 4.6° for the rubbed plus UPUVL radiated samples, respectively. However to our surprise, we found tilt angle to be decreasing from 2.4° to 1.6° for the rubbed plus LPUVL radiated samples. We hope that these findings will be helpful in the fabrication of display panels and other electro-optic devices.

Keywords: homogeneous, Liquid crystals, tilt angle, polyimide

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