Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 6

liposome Related Abstracts

6 Synthesis of Liposomal Vesicles by a Novel Supercritical Fluid Process

Authors: Wen-Chyan Tsai, Syed S. H. Rizvi


Organic solvent residues are always associated with liposomes produced by the traditional techniques like the thin film hydration and reverse phase evaporation methods, which limit the applications of these vesicles in the pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Our objective was to develop a novel and benign process of liposomal microencapsulation by using supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) as the sole phospholipid-dissolving medium and a green substitute for organic solvents. This process consists of supercritical fluid extraction followed by rapid expansion via a nozzle and automatic cargo suction. Lecithin and cholesterol mixed in 10:1 mass ratio were dissolved in SC-CO2 at 20 ± 0.5 MPa and 60 oC. After at least two hours of equilibrium, the lecithin/cholesterol-laden SC-CO2 was passed through a 1000-micron nozzle and immediately mixed with the cargo solution to form liposomes. Liposomal micro-encapsulation was conducted at three pressures (8.27, 12.41, 16.55 MPa), three temperatures (75, 83 and 90 oC) and two flow rates (0.25 ml/sec and 0.5 ml/sec). Liposome size, zeta potential and encapsulation efficiency were characterized as functions of the operating parameters. The average liposomal size varied from 400-500 nm to 1000-1200 nm when the pressure was increased from 8.27 to 16.55 MPa. At 12.41 MPa, 90 oC and 0.25 ml per second of 0.2 M glucose cargo loading rate, the highest encapsulation efficiency of 31.65 % was achieved. Under a confocal laser scanning microscope, large unilamellar vesicles and multivesicular vesicles were observed to make up a majority of the liposomal emulsion. This new approach is a rapid and continuous process for bulk production of liposomes using a green solvent. Based on the results to date, it is feasible to apply this technique to encapsulate hydrophilic compounds inside the aqueous core as well as lipophilic compounds in the phospholipid bilayers of the liposomes for controlled release, solubility improvement and targeted therapy of bioactive compounds.

Keywords: Micro Encapsulation, supercritical carbon dioxide, liposome, non-toxic process

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5 Resveratrol Incorporated Liposomes Prepared from Pegylated Phospholipids and Cholesterol

Authors: Mont Kumpugdee-Vollrath, Khaled Abdallah


Liposomes and pegylated liposomes were widely used as drug delivery system in pharmaceutical field since a long time. However, in the former time, polyethylene glycol (PEG) was connected into phospholipid after the liposomes were already prepared. In this paper, we intend to study the possibility of applying phospholipids which already connected with PEG and then they were used to prepare liposomes. The model drug resveratrol was used because it can be applied against different diseases. Cholesterol was applied to stabilize the membrane of liposomes. The thin film technique in a laboratory scale was a preparation method. The liposomes were then characterized by nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) and light microscopic techniques. The stable liposomes can be produced and the particle sizes after filtration were in nanometers. The 2- and 3-chains-PEG-phospholipid (PL) caused in smaller particle size than the 4-chains-PEG-PL. Liposomes from PL 90G and cholesterol were stable during storage at 8 °C of 56 days because the particle sizes measured by PCS were almost not changed. There was almost no leakage of resveratrol from liposomes PL 90G with cholesterol after diffusion test in dialysis tube for 28 days. All liposomes showed the sustained release during measuring time of 270 min. The maximum release amount of 16-20% was detected with liposomes from 2- and 3-chains-PEG-PL. The other liposomes gave max. release amount of resveratrol only of 10%. The release kinetic can be explained by Korsmeyer-Peppas equation. 

Keywords: Resveratrol, cholesterol, liposome, NTA, pegylation

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4 Lab Activities for Introducing Nanoscience to Teachers and Students

Authors: Riam Abu-Much, Muhamad Hugerat


Nanoscience has become one of the main science fields in the world; its importance is reflected in both society and industry; therefore, it is very important to intensify educational programs among teachers and students that aim to introduce "Nano Concepts" to them. Two different lab activities were developed for demonstrating the importance of nanoscale materials using unique points of view. In the first, electrical conductive films made of silver nanoparticles were fabricated. The silver nanoparticles were protected against aggregation using electrical conductive polypyrrole, which acts also as conductive bridge between them. The experiments show a simpler way for fabricating conductive thin film than the much more complicated and costly conventional method. In the second part, the participants could produce emulsions of liposome structures using Phosphatidylcholine as a surfactant, and following by minimizing the size of it from micro-scale to nanometer scale (400 nm), using simple apparatus called Mini-Extruder, in that way the participants could realize the change in solution transparency, and the effect of Tyndall when the size of the liposomes is reduced. Freshmen students from the Academic Arab College for Education in Haifa, Israel, who are studying to become science teachers, participated in this lab activity as part of the course "Chemistry in the Lab". These experiments are appropriate for teachers, high school and college students.

Keywords: Case study, Colloid, surfactant, emulsion, liposome

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3 Cardiolipin-Incorporated Liposomes Carrying Curcumin and Nerve Growth Factor to Rescue Neurons from Apoptosis for Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment

Authors: Yung-Chih Kuo, Che-Yu Lin, Jay-Shake Li, Yung-I Lou


Curcumin (CRM) and nerve growth factor (NGF) were entrapped in liposomes (LIP) with cardiolipin (CL) to downregulate the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases for Alzheimer’s disease (AD) management. AD belongs to neurodegenerative disorder with a gradual loss of memory, yielding irreversible dementia. CL-conjugated LIP loaded with CRM (CRM-CL/LIP) and that with NGF (NGF-CL/LIP) were applied to AD models of SK-N-MC cells and Wistar rats with an insult of β-amyloid peptide (Aβ). Lipids comprising 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3- phosphocholine (Avanti Polar Lipids, Alabaster, AL), 1',3'-bis[1,2- dimyristoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho]-sn-glycerol (CL; Avanti Polar Lipids), 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N- [methoxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (Avanti Polar Lipids), 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine-N-[carboxy(polyethylene glycol)-2000] (Avanti Polar Lipids) and CRM (Sigma–Aldrich, St. Louis, MO) were dissolved in chloroform (J. T. Baker, Phillipsburg, NJ) and condensed using a rotary evaporator (Panchum, Kaohsiung, Taiwan). Human β-NGF (Alomone Lab, Jerusalem, Israel) was added in the aqueous phase. Wheat germ agglutinin (WGA; Medicago AB, Uppsala, Sweden) was grafted on LIP loaded with CRM for (WGA-CRM-LIP) and CL-conjugated LIP loaded with CRM (WGA-CRM-CL/LIP) using 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (Sigma–Aldrich) and N-hydroxysuccinimide (Alfa Aesar, Ward Hill, MA). The protein samples of SK-N-MC cells (American Type Tissue Collection, Rockville, MD) were used for sodium dodecyl sulfate (Sigma–Aldrich) polyacrylamide gel (Sigma–Aldrich) electrophoresis. In animal study, the LIP formulations were administered by intravenous injection via a tail vein of male Wistar rats (250–280 g, 8 weeks, BioLasco, Taipei, Taiwan), which were housed in the Animal Laboratory of National Chung Cheng University in accordance with the institutional guidelines and the guidelines of Animal Protection Committee under the Council of Agriculture of the Republic of China. We found that CRM-CL/LIP could inhibit the expressions of phosphorylated p38 (p-p38), p-Jun N-terminal kinase (p-JNK), and p-tau protein at serine 202 (p-Ser202) to retard the neuronal apoptosis. Free CRM and released CRM from CRM-LIP and CRM-CL/LIP were not in a straightforward manner to effectively inhibit the expression of p-p38 and p-JNK in the cytoplasm. In addition, NGF-CL/LIP enhanced the quantities of p-neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 1 (p-TrkA) and p-extracellular-signal-regulated kinase 5 (p-ERK5), preventing the Aβ-induced degeneration of neurons. The membrane fusion of NGF-LIP activated the ERK5 pathway and the targeting capacity of NGF-CL/LIP enhanced the possibility of released NGF to affect the TrkA level. Moreover, WGA-CRM-LIP improved the permeation of CRM across the blood–brain barrier (BBB) and significantly reduced the Aβ plaque deposition and malondialdehyde level and increased the percentage of normal neurons and cholinergic function in the hippocampus of AD rats. This was mainly because the encapsulated CRM was protected by LIP against a rapid degradation in the blood. Furthermore, WGA on LIP could target N-acetylglucosamine on endothelia and increased the quantity of CRM transported across the BBB. In addition, WGA-CRM-CL/LIP could be effective in suppressing the synthesis of acetylcholinesterase and reduced the decomposition of acetylcholine for better neurotransmission. Based on the in vitro and in vivo evidences, WGA-CRM-CL/LIP can rescue neurons from apoptosis in the brain and can be a promising drug delivery system for clinical AD therapy.

Keywords: alzheimer’s disease, liposome, β-amyloid, mitogen-activated protein kinase

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2 Chitosan Coated Liposome Incorporated Cyanobacterial Pigment for Nasal Administration in the Brain Stroke

Authors: Kyou Hee Shim, Hwa Sung Shin


When a thrombolysis agent is administered to treat ischemic stroke, excessive reactive oxygen species are generated due to a sudden provision of oxygen and occurs secondary damage cell necrosis. Thus, it is necessary to administrate adjuvant as well as thrombolysis agent to protect and reduce damaged tissue. As cerebral blood vessels have specific structure called blood-brain barrier (BBB), it is not easy to transfer substances from blood to tissue. Therefore, development of a drug carrier is required to increase drug delivery efficiency to brain tissue. In this study, cyanobacterial pigment from the blue-green algae known for having neuroprotective effect as well as antioxidant effect was nasally administrated for bypassing BBB. In order to deliver cyanobacterial pigment efficiently, the nano-sized liposome was used as a carrier. Liposomes were coated with a positive charge of chitosan since negative residues are present at the nasal mucosa the first gateway of nasal administration. Characteristics of liposome including morphology, size and zeta potential were analyzed by transmission electron microscope (TEM) and zeta analyzer. As a result of cytotoxic test, the liposomes were not harmful. Also, being administered a drug to the ischemic stroke animal model, we could confirm that the pharmacological effect of the pigment delivered by chitosan coated liposome was enhanced compared to that of non-coated liposome. Consequently, chitosan coated liposome could be considered as an optimized drug delivery system for the treatment of acute ischemic stroke.

Keywords: chitosan, ischemic stroke, liposome, cyanobacterial pigment, nasal administration

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1 Liposomal Encapsulation of Silver Nanoparticle for Improved Delivery and Enhanced Anticancer Properties

Authors: Azeez Yusuf, Alan Casey


Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) are one of the most widely investigated metallic nanoparticles due to their promising antibacterial activities. In recent years, AgNP research has shifted beyond antimicrobial use to potential applications in the medical arena. This shift coupled with the extensive commercial applications of AgNP will further increase human exposure, and the subsequent risk of adverse effects that may result from repeated exposures and inefficient delivery meaning research into improved AgNP delivery is of paramount importance. In this study, AgNP were encapsulated in a natural bio-surfactant, dipalmitoylphosphatyidyl choline (DPPC), in an attempt to enhance the intracellular delivery and simultaneously mediate the associated cytotoxicity of the AgNP. It was noted that as a result of the encapsulation, liposomal-AgNP (Lipo-AgNP) at 0.625 μg/ml induced significant cell death in THP1 cell lines a notably lower dose than that of the uncoated AgNP induced cytotoxicity. The induced cytotoxicity was shown to result in an increased level of DNA fragmentation resulting in a cell cycle interruption at the S phase of the cell cycle. It was shown that the predominate form of cell death upon exposure to both uncoated and Lipo-AgNP was apoptosis, however, a ROS-independent activation of the executioner caspases 3/7 occurred when exposed to the Lipo-AgNP. These findings showed that encapsulation of AgNP enhances AgNP cytotoxicity and mediates an ROS-independent induction of apoptosis.

Keywords: Cytotoxicity, encapsulation, Silver Nanoparticles, liposome, AgNP

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