Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 16

Lipids Related Abstracts

16 Influence of Culture Conditions on the Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of Green Microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa

Authors: Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Saltanat B. Orazova, Alla V. Goncharova, Yana S. Tzurkan, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova, Bakytzhan K. Kairat

Abstract:

Microalgae due to the ability to accumulate high levels of practically valuable polyunsaturated fatty acids attract attention as a promising raw material for commercial products. It were defined the features of the growth processes of cells green protococcal microalgae Oocystis rhomboideus, Scenedesmus obliquus, Dictyochlorella globosa at cultivation in different nutritional mediums. For the rapid accumulation of biomass, combined with high productivity of total lipids fraction yield recommended to use the Fitzgerald medium (Scenodesmus obliquus, Oocystis rhomboideus) and/or Bold medium (Dictyochlorella globosa). Productivity of lipids decreased in sequence Dictyochlorella globosa > Scenodesmus obliquus > Oocystis rhomboideus. The bulk of fatty acids fraction of the total lipids is unsaturated fatty acids, which accounts for 70 to 83% of the total number of fatty acids. The share of monoenic acids varies from 16 to 36 %, the share of unsaturated fatty acids - from 44 to 65% of total fatty acids fraction. Among the unsaturated acids dominate α-linolenic acid (C18:3n-3), hexadecatetraenic acid (C16:4) and linoleic acid (C18:2).

Keywords: Lipids, Microalgae, Fatty Acids, culture conditions

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15 Influence of Culturing Conditions on Biomass Yield, Total Lipid and Fatty Acid Composition of Some Filamentous Fungi

Authors: Tatyana A. Karpenyuk, Alla V. Goncharova, Togzhan D. Mukasheva, Yana S. Tsurkan, Rosa U. Beisembaeva, Ludmila V. Ignatova, Ramza Z. Berzhanova

Abstract:

In this work the effect of culturing conditions of filamentous fungi Penicillium raistrickii, Penicillium anatolicum, Fusarium sp. on biomass yield, the content of total lipids and fatty acids was studied. It has been established that in time the process of lipids accumulation correlated with biomass growth of cultures, reaching maximum values in stationary growth phase. Biomass yield and accumulation of general lipids was increased by adding zinc to the culture medium. The more intensive accumulation of biomass and general lipids was observed at temperature 18°C. Lowering the temperature of culturing has changed the ratio of saturated: Unsaturated fatty acids in the direction of increasing the latter.

Keywords: biomass, Lipids, Fungi, culturing conditions, fatty acids (FA), growth dynamics

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14 Designing of Food Products with Seasoned Plant Components Assigned for Obese and Diabetic Individuals

Authors: A. Gramza-Michałowska, J. Skręty, M. Antczak, J. Kobus-Cisowska, D. Kmiecik, J. Korczak, Kulczyński Bartosz

Abstract:

Background: Modern consumer highly appreciates the correlation between eating habits and health. Intensified research showed many proofs confirming that food besides its basic nutritional function, possess also significant prophylactic and therapeutic potential. Preventive potential of selected food is commonly used as improvement factor of patients life standard. World Health Organization indicates that diabetes (Diabetes mellitus) and obesity are two of the most common and dangerous diseases. Diet therapy is an element of diabetes education program and a part of healing process, allowing maintaining and remaining the optimal metabolic state of the system. It must be remembered that diabetes treatment should be individualized to each patient. One of highly recommended vegetable for diabetes is asparagus (Asparagus officinalis L.), low calories common plant, growing in European countries. Objective: To propose the technology of unsweetened muesli production with addition of new components, we investigated the effects of selected vegetable addition on antioxidative capacity and consumer’s acceptance of muesli as representative of breakfast product. Methods: Muesli was formulated from a composition of oat flakes, flaxseed, bran, carrots, broccoli and asparagus. Basic composition of muesli was evaluated as content of protein, lipids, fatty acid composition, ash, selected minerals and caloricity. Antioxidant capacity of muesli was evaluated with use radical scavenging methods (DPPH, ABTS), ORAC value and PCL - photochemiluminescence antiradical potential. Proposed muesli as new product was also characterized with sensory analysis, which included color, scent, taste, consistency and overall acceptance of a product. Results: Results showed that addition of freeze-dried asparagus into muesli allowed to lower the fat content and caloricity of a product according to the base product. No significant loss in antioxidant potential was evaluated, also the sensory value of a product was not negative. Conclusion: Designed muesli would be an answer for obese people looking for healthy snack during the daytime. Results showed that product with asparagus addition would be accepted by the consumers and because of its antidiabetic potential could be a n important factor in prevention of diabetes or obesity. Financial support by the UE Project no PO IG 01.01.00.00-061/09

Keywords: Lipids, Vegetables, muesli, asparagus, antioxidant potential

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13 Acute Effects of Exogenous Hormone Treatments on Postprandial Acylation Stimulating Protein Levels in Ovariectomized Rats After a Fat Load

Authors: Bashair Al Riyami

Abstract:

Background: Acylation stimulating protein (ASP) is a small basic protein that was isolated based on its function as a potent lipogenic factor. The role of ASP in lipid metabolism has been described in numerous studies. Several association studies suggest that ASP may play a prominent role in female fat metabolism and distribution. Progesterone is established as a female lipogenic hormone, however the mechanisms by which progesterone exert its effects are not fully understood. AIM: Since ASP is an established potent lipogenic factor with a known mechanism of action, in this study we aim to investigate acute effects of different hormone treatments on ASP levels in vivo after a fat load. Methods: This is a longitudinal study including 24 female wister rats that were randomly divided into 4 groups including controls (n=6). The rats were ovariectomized, and fourteen days later the fasting rats were injected subcutaneously with a single dose of different hormone treatments (progesterone, estrogen and testosterone). An hour later, olive was administered by oral gavage, and plasma blood samples were collected at several time points after oil administration for ASP and triglyceride measurements. Area under the curve (TG-AUC) was calculated to represent TG clearance Results: RM-ANCOVA and post-analysis showed that only the progesterone treated group had a significant postprandial ASP increase at two hours compared to basal levels and to the controls (439.8± 62.4 vs 253.45± 59.03 ug/ml), P= 0.04. Interestingly, increased postprandial ASP levels coordinated negatively with corresponding TG levels and TG-AUC across the postprandial period most apparent in the progesterone and testosterone treated groups that behaved in an opposite manner. ASP levels were 3-fold higher in the progesterone compared to the testosterone treated group, whereas TG-AUC was significantly lower in the progesterone treated group compared to the testosterone treated group. Conclusion: These findings suggest that progesterone treatment enhances ASP production and TG clearance in a simultaneous manner. The strong association of postprandial ASP levels and TG clearance in the progesterone treated group support the notion of a stimulatory role for progesterone on ASP mediated TG clearance. This is the first functional study to demonstrate a cause-effect relationship between hormone treatment and ASP levels in vivo. These findings are promising and may contribute to further understanding the mechanism of progesterone function as a female lipogenic hormone through enhancing ASP production and plasma levels.

Keywords: Lipids, ASP, sex hormones, wister rats

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12 Dietary Magnesium, Lipids, and Hypertension: New Insights and Unsolved Mysteries

Authors: Yuri Nikitin, Elena Pello, Martin Bobak

Abstract:

In current issue we evaluated integration of magnesium with lipids; the attractive findings were obtained in men and women; the crucial ties of magnesium with total cholesterol in hypertensive men, with total cholesterol in concordance with low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in hypertensive women were disclosed; unanswered questions were trapped, difficulties were surmounted, and magnesium deficiency perseverance in pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease development was expressed; nutrients as well as risk factors may contribute to cardiovascular complications.

Keywords: Lipids, Hypertension, dietary, Magnesium

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11 Protective Efficacy of Curcuma Aromatica Leaf Extract on Liver of Arsenic Intoxicated Albino Rats

Authors: Baby Tabassum, Priya Bajaj

Abstract:

Arsenic is a poisonous metalloid, naturally occurring in soil, air, rocks and ground water. This dreadful metalloid commonly exists as inorganic compound, arsenic trioxide. WHO permitted maximum limit for arsenic in water is 0.01 mg/L, but some affected areas show ground water level of arsenic up to 3 mg/L even. Ground water arsenic pollution has created a number of health problems, viz. keratosis, melanosis, lesions and even skin cancers. The key objective of our nested study was to characterize arsenic induced hepatotoxicity and to find out some herbal protection against it. For the purpose, we selected albino rat (Rattus norvegicus) as model for arsenic induced liver injury and wild turmeric (Curcuma aromatica) leaf extract as remedy for it. The study was performed at acute (1 day) and subacute (7, 14 & 21 days) levels. The LD50 estimated for arsenic trioxide was 14.98 mg/kg body weight. In our investigation, we observed a significant restoration of altered hepatic lipid, cholesterol, protein and glycogen contents as well as liver weight, body-weight and hepato-somatic index by Curcuma aromatica leaf extract before arsenic intoxication. The results reveal excellent protective efficacy of Curcuma aromatica leaf extract that further can be exploited in remediation programme in heavy metal affected areas.

Keywords: Lipids, Arsenic, Curcuma aromatica, glycogen

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10 Oil Extraction from Sunflower Seed Using Green Solvent 2-Methyltetrahydrofuran and Isoamyl Alcohol

Authors: Sérgio S. de Jesus, Aline Santana, Rubens Maciel Filho

Abstract:

The objective of this study was to choose and determine a green solvent system with similar extraction efficiencies as the traditional Bligh and Dyer method. Sunflower seed oil was extracted using Bligh and Dyer method with 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and isoamyl using alcohol ratios of 1:1; 2:1; 3:1; 1:2; 3:1. At the same time comparative experiments was performed with chloroform and methanol ratios of 1:1; 2:1; 3:1; 1:2; 3:1. Comparison study was done using 5 replicates (n=5). Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Office Excel (Microsoft, USA) to determine means and Tukey’s Honestly Significant Difference test for comparison between treatments (α = 0.05). The results showed that using classic method with methanol and chloroform presented the extraction oil yield with the values of 31-44% (w/w) and values of 36-45% (w/w) using green solvents for extractions. Among the two extraction methods, 2 methyltetrahydrofuran and isoamyl alcohol ratio 2:1 provided the best results (45% w/w), while the classic method using chloroform and methanol with ratio of 3:1 presented a extraction oil yield of 44% (w/w). It was concluded that the proposed extraction method using 2-methyltetrahydrofuran and isoamyl alcohol in this work allowed the same efficiency level as chloroform and methanol.

Keywords: Lipids, Extraction, sugarcane, green solvent

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9 Apolipoprotein E Gene Polymorphism and Its Association with Cardiovascular Heart Disease Risk Factors in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Authors: Shahrul Hamid, Amani Ashari, Julia Omar, Arif Hashim

Abstract:

Apolipoprotein E (APOE) gene polymorphism has influence on serum lipids which relates to cardiovascular risk. The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency distribution of APOE alleles among Malaysian Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (DM) patients with and without coronary artery disease (CAD) and their association with serum lipid profiles. A total of 115 patients were recruited in which 78 patients had Type 2 DM without CAD and 37 patients had Type 2 DM with CAD. The APOE polymorphism was detected by polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP). The APOE ɛ3 allele was the most common one in both groups. There was no significant association between the APOE genotypes and the CAD status in Type 2 DM using Pearson χ2 test. Further analysis indicated there were no significant differences in all lipid parameters between E2, E3 and E4 subgroups in both groups. The study showed that the E4 allele carriers of Type 2 DM with CAD patients had higher LDL-C level and lower HDL-C level compared to the other allele carriers. However, analyses showed these levels were not statistically different. The study also showed that the Type 2 DM with CAD group with E2 allele had higher triglyceride (TG). In conclusion, further study with larger sample size is needed to confirm role of E4 as a marker of CAD among Type 2 DM patients in Malaysian population.

Keywords: Lipids, Cardiovascular Disease, diabetes mellitus, Apolipoprotein E

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8 Molecular Mechanisms of Lipid Metabolism and Obesity Modulation by Caspase-1/11 and nlrp3 Inflammasome in Mice

Authors: Lívia Pimentel Sant'ana Dourado, Raquel Das Neves Almeida, Luís Henrique Costa Corrêa Neto, Nayara Soares, Kelly Grace Magalhães

Abstract:

Introduction: Obesity and high-fat diet intake have a crucial impact on immune cells and inflammatory profile, highlighting an emerging realization that obesity is an inflammatory disease. In the present work, we aimed to characterize the role of caspase-1/11 and NLRP3 inflammasome in the establishment of mice obesity and modulation of inflammatory lipid metabolism induced by high fat diet intake. Methods and results: Wild type, caspase-1/11 and NLRP3 knockout mice were fed with standard fat diet (SFD) or high fat diet (HFD) for 90 days. The weight of animals was measured weekly to monitor the weight gain. After 90 days, the blood, peritoneal lavage cells, heart and liver were collected from mice studied here. Cytokines were measured in serum by ELISA and analyzed in spectrophotometry. Lipid antigen presentation molecule CD1d expression, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and lipid droplets biogenesis were analyzed in cells from mice peritoneal cavity by flow cytometry. Liver histopathology was performed for morphological evaluation of the organ. The absence of caspase-1/11, but not NLRP3, in mice fed with HFD favored the mice weight gain, increased liver size, induced development of hepatic steatosis and IL-12 secretion in mice compared to mice fed with SFD. In addition, caspase-1/11 knockout mice fed with HFD presented an increased CD1d molecule expression, as well as higher levels of lipid droplets biogenesis and ROS generation compared to wild type mice also fed with HFD. Conclusion: Our data suggest that caspase-1/11 knockout mice have greater susceptibility to obesity as well as increased activation of lipid metabolism and inflammatory markers.

Keywords: Lipids, Obesity, caspase 1, caspase 11, inflamassome

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7 Lipid-Coated Magnetic Nanoparticles for Frequency Triggered Drug Delivery

Authors: Yogita Patil-Sen

Abstract:

Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs) have become increasingly important materials for separation of specific bio-molecules, drug delivery vehicle, contrast agent for MRI and magnetic hyperthermia for cancer therapy. Hyperthermia is emerging as an alternative cancer treatment to the conventional radio- and chemo-therapy, which have harmful side effects. When subjected to an alternating magnetic field, the magnetic energy of SPIONs is converted into thermal energy due to movement of particles. The ability of SPIONs to generate heat and potentially kill cancerous cells, which are more susceptible than the normal cells to temperatures higher than 41 °C forms the basis of hyerpthermia treatement. The amount of heat generated depends upon the magnetic properties of SPIONs which in turn is affected by their properties such as size and shape. One of the main problems associated with SPIONs is particle aggregation which limits their employability in in vivo drug delivery applications and hyperthermia cancer treatments. Coating the iron oxide core with thermally responsive lipid based nanostructures tend to overcome the issue of aggregation as well as improve biocompatibility and can enhance drug loading efficiency. Herein we report suitability of SPIONs and silica coated core-shell SPIONs, which are further, coated with various lipids for drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia applications. The synthesis of nanoparticles is carried out using the established methods reported in the literature with some modifications. The nanoparticles are characterised using Infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) and Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM). The heating ability of nanoparticles is tested under alternating magnetic field. The efficacy of the nanoparticles as drug carrier is also investigated. The loading of an anticancer drug, Doxorubicin at 18 °C is measured up to 48 hours using UV-visible spectrophotometer. The drug release profile is obtained under thermal incubation condition at 37 °C and compared with that under the influence of alternating magnetic field. The results suggest that the nanoparticles exhibit superparamagnetic behaviour, although coating reduces the magnetic properties of the particles. Both the uncoated and coated particles show good heating ability, again it is observed that coating decreases the heating behaviour of the particles. However, coated particles show higher drug loading efficiency than the uncoated particles and the drug release is much more controlled under the alternating magnetic field. Thus, the results demonstrate that lipid coated SPIONs exhibit potential as drug delivery vehicles for magnetic hyperthermia based cancer therapy.

Keywords: Lipids, drug delivery, hyperthermia, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONS)

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6 Association of Lipoprotein Lipase Gene (HindIII rs320) Polymorphisms with Moderate Hypertriglyceridemia Secondary to Metabolic Syndrome

Authors: Antonio Brunetti, Meryem Abi-Ayad, Biagio Arcidiacono, Eusebio Chiefari, Daniela Foti, Mohamed Benyoucef

Abstract:

Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) is a key enzyme for lipid metabolism; its genetic polymorphism can be a candidate for modulating lipids parameters in metabolic syndrome. The objective of the present study was to determine whether lipoproteins lipase polymorphisMetS (LPL-HindIII) could be associated with moderate hypertriglyceridemia (secondary to metabolism syndrome). The polymorphism Hind III (rs320) was assessed by PCR-RFLP in 51 MetS patients and 17 healthy controls from the hospital in Tlemcen. The logistic regression analyses showed no significant association with Hind III genotype and hypertriglyceridemia (TG ≥ 1,5g/l or TG lower treatment) (P=0,455), metabolic syndrome (P=0,455), hypertension (P=0,802) and type 2 diabetes (P=0,144). In terms of plasma biomarkers, although not statistically significant, there was a difference in TG levels (P > 0,05), which was lowest among carriers of the homogenous mutant allele (H-). In this study, there was no association between the rare allele (H-) and disease protection, and between the frequent allele (H+) and disease prevalence (hypertriglyceridemia, metabolic syndrome, hypertension, type 2 diabetes).

Keywords: Lipids, metabolic syndrome, moderate secondary hypertriglyceridemia, polymorphism lipoprotein lipase, HindIII(rs320)

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5 Biodiesel Production and Heavy Metal Removal by Aspergillus fumigatus sp.

Authors: Ahmed M. Haddad, Hadeel S. El-Shaal, Gadallah M. Abu-Elreesh

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Some of filamentous fungi can be used for biodiesel production as they are able to accumulate high amounts of intracellular lipids when grown at stress conditions. Aspergillus fumigatus sp. was isolated from Nile delta soil in Egypt. The fungus was primarily screened for its capacity to accumulate lipids using Nile red staining assay. The fungus could accumulate more than 20% of its biomass as lipids when grown at optimized minimal medium. After lipid extraction, we could use fungal cell debris to remove some heavy metals from contaminated waste water. The fungal cell debris could remove Cd, Cr, and Zn with absorption efficiency of 73%, 83.43%, and 69.39% respectively. In conclusion, the Aspergillus fumigatus isolate may be considered as a promising biodiesel producer, and its biomass waste can be further used for bioremediation of wastewater contaminated with heavy metals.

Keywords: Bioremediation, Lipids, Biodiesel, Heavy Metals, Fungi, oleaginous

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4 Exploring the Strategy to Identify Seed-Specific Acyl-Hydrolases from Arabidopsis thaliana by Activity-Based Protein Profiling

Authors: M. Latha, Achintya K. Dolui, P. Vijayaraj

Abstract:

Vegetable oils mainly triacylglycerol (TAG) are an essential nutrient in the human diet as well as one of the major global commodity. There is a pressing need to enhance the yield of oil production to meet the world’s growing demand. Oil content is controlled by the balance between synthesis and breakdown in the cells. Several studies have established to increase the oil content by the overexpression of oil biosynthetic enzymes. Interestingly the significant oil accumulation was observed with impaired TAG hydrolysis. Unfortunately, the structural, as well as the biochemical properties of the lipase enzymes, is widely unknown, and so far, no candidate gene was identified in seeds except sugar-dependent1 (SDP1). Evidence has shown that SDP1directly responsible for initiation of oil breakdown in the seeds during germination. The present study is the identification of seed-specific acyl-hydrolases by activity based proteome profiling (ABPP) using Arabidopsis thaliana as a model system. The ABPP reveals that around 8 to 10 proteins having the serine hydrolase domain and are expressed during germination of Arabidopsis seed. The N-term sequencing, as well as LC-MS/MS analysis, was performed for the differentially expressed protein during germination. The coding region of the identified proteins was cloned, and lipases activity was assessed with purified recombinant protein. The enzyme assay was performed against various lipid substrates, and we have observed the acylhydrolase activity towards lysophosphatidylcholine and monoacylglycerol. Further, the functional characteristic of the identified protein will reveal the physiological significance the enzyme in oil accumulation.

Keywords: Lipids, lipase, vegetable oil, triacylglycerol

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3 Case Study on Innovative Aquatic-Based Bioeconomy for Chlorella sorokiniana

Authors: Iryna Atamaniuk, Hannah Boysen, Nils Wieczorek, Natalia Politaeva, Iuliia Bazarnova, Kerstin Kuchta

Abstract:

Over the last decade due to climate change and a strategy of natural resources preservation, the interest for the aquatic biomass has dramatically increased. Along with mitigation of the environmental pressure and connection of waste streams (including CO2 and heat emissions), microalgae bioeconomy can supply food, feed, as well as the pharmaceutical and power industry with number of value-added products. Furthermore, in comparison to conventional biomass, microalgae can be cultivated in wide range of conditions without compromising food and feed production, thus addressing issues associated with negative social and the environmental impacts. This paper presents the state-of-the art technology for microalgae bioeconomy from cultivation process to production of valuable components and by-streams. Microalgae Chlorella sorokiniana were cultivated in the pilot-scale innovation concept in Hamburg (Germany) using different systems such as race way pond (5000 L) and flat panel reactors (8 x 180 L). In order to achieve the optimum growth conditions along with suitable cellular composition for the further extraction of the value-added components, process parameters such as light intensity, temperature and pH are continuously being monitored. On the other hand, metabolic needs in nutrients were provided by addition of micro- and macro-nutrients into a medium to ensure autotrophic growth conditions of microalgae. The cultivation was further followed by downstream process and extraction of lipids, proteins and saccharides. Lipids extraction is conducted in repeated-batch semi-automatic mode using hot extraction method according to Randall. As solvents hexane and ethanol are used at different ratio of 9:1 and 1:9, respectively. Depending on cell disruption method along with solvents ratio, the total lipids content showed significant variations between 8.1% and 13.9 %. The highest percentage of extracted biomass was reached with a sample pretreated with microwave digestion using 90% of hexane and 10% of ethanol as solvents. Proteins content in microalgae was determined by two different methods, namely: Total Kejadahl Nitrogen (TKN), which further was converted to protein content, as well as Bradford method using Brilliant Blue G-250 dye. Obtained results, showed a good correlation between both methods with protein content being in the range of 39.8–47.1%. Characterization of neutral and acid saccharides from microalgae was conducted by phenol-sulfuric acid method at two wavelengths of 480 nm and 490 nm. The average concentration of neutral and acid saccharides under the optimal cultivation conditions was 19.5% and 26.1%, respectively. Subsequently, biomass residues are used as substrate for anaerobic digestion on the laboratory-scale. The methane concentration, which was measured on the daily bases, showed some variations for different samples after extraction steps but was in the range between 48% and 55%. CO2 which is formed during the fermentation process and after the combustion in the Combined Heat and Power unit can potentially be used within the cultivation process as a carbon source for the photoautotrophic synthesis of biomass.

Keywords: Lipids, Bioeconomy, Proteins, Microalgae, saccharides

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2 Biophysical Analysis of the Interaction of Polymeric Nanoparticles with Biomimetic Models of the Lung Surfactant

Authors: Weiam Daear, Patrick Lai, Elmar Prenner

Abstract:

The human body offers many avenues that could be used for drug delivery. The pulmonary route, which is delivered through the lungs, presents many advantages that have sparked interested in the field. These advantages include; 1) direct access to the lungs and the large surface area it provides, and 2) close proximity to the blood circulation. The air-blood barrier of the alveoli is about 500 nm thick. The air-blood barrier consist of a monolayer of lipids and few proteins called the lung surfactant and cells. This monolayer consists of ~90% lipids and ~10% proteins that are produced by the alveolar epithelial cells. The two major lipid classes constitutes of various saturation and chain length of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and phosphatidylglycerol (PG) representing 80% of total lipid component. The major role of the lung surfactant monolayer is to reduce surface tension experienced during breathing cycles in order to prevent lung collapse. In terms of the pulmonary drug delivery route, drugs pass through various parts of the respiratory system before reaching the alveoli. It is at this location that the lung surfactant functions as the air-blood barrier for drugs. As the field of nanomedicine advances, the use of nanoparticles (NPs) as drug delivery vehicles is becoming very important. This is due to the advantages NPs provide with their large surface area and potential specific targeting. Therefore, studying the interaction of NPs with lung surfactant and whether they affect its stability becomes very essential. The aim of this research is to develop a biomimetic model of the human lung surfactant followed by a biophysical analysis of the interaction of polymeric NPs. This biomimetic model will function as a fast initial mode of testing for whether NPs affect the stability of the human lung surfactant. The model developed thus far is an 8-component lipid system that contains major PC and PG lipids. Recently, a custom made 16:0/16:1 PC and PG lipids were added to the model system. In the human lung surfactant, these lipids constitute 16% of the total lipid component. According to the author’s knowledge, there is not much monolayer data on the biophysical analysis of the 16:0/16:1 lipids, therefore more analysis will be discussed here. Biophysical techniques such as the Langmuir Trough is used for stability measurements which monitors changes to a monolayer's surface pressure upon NP interaction. Furthermore, Brewster Angle Microscopy (BAM) employed to visualize changes to the lateral domain organization. Results show preferential interactions of NPs with different lipid groups that is also dependent on the monolayer fluidity. Furthermore, results show that the film stability upon compression is unaffected, but there are significant changes in the lateral domain organization of the lung surfactant upon NP addition. This research is significant in the field of pulmonary drug delivery. It is shown that NPs within a certain size range are safe for the pulmonary route, but little is known about the mode of interaction of those polymeric NPs. Moreover, this work will provide additional information about the nanotoxicology of NPs tested.

Keywords: Lipids, Nanoparticles, lung surfactant, Brewster angle microscopy

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1 Biological Studies on Producing Samoli Bread Supplement with Irradiated Sunflower Flour by Gamma Rays

Authors: Amal. N. Al-Kuraieef

Abstract:

Smoli bread was made by supplementation sunflower flour which was prepared from sunflower (Dahr-EL-Haea) gray after hilling and milling, flour was irradiated by two doses (5 and 10 kGy). After that, the ratios of irradiated sunflower flour were 5 and 10%. All samples of samoli bread were examined for organoleptic and biological evaluation. Biological assay (PER, NPU, FE, DC and BV) was carried out on rats fed 5 and 10% irradiated and non-irradiated sunflower Samoli bread. Results obtained showed that, total lipids, cholesterol and triglycerides were reduced comparable, to that of casein. Also, figures of the biological evaluations were higher than those of the control samoli bread and improved its nutritive values.

Keywords: Lipids, Gamma rays, Sunflower, cholesterol, triglycerides, samoli bread

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