Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 21

Linguistics Related Abstracts

21 Linguistic Trend in the Qur'anic Tafsir of 'Al Tahreer Wa Al Tanveer' by Sheikh Tahir Bin A'shur

Authors: Numan Hasan

Abstract:

We have tried to highlight the linguistic trend in the Qur’anic Tafsir of ‘Al Tahreer wa Al Tanveer’ by Sheikh Tahir Bin A’shur, the brightest linguistic commentator in the modern era. We have started studying the life of Bin A’shur and his contributions to the field of Qur’anic knowledge. We have also studied to focus on the linguistic approach of ‘Al Tahreer wa Al Tanveer’ and emphasized the importance of linguistic interpretations. We have tried to have a clear understanding about the features and characteristics of his Tafsir. We have also reflected on the methodological approach and linguistic reference of his interpretation. In the conclusion we presented the main results of a research.

Keywords: Islamic Studies, Linguistics, Interpretation, Tafsīr, Sheikh Tahir Bin A’shur

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20 Literacy in First and Second Language: Implication for Language Education

Authors: Inuwa Danladi Bawa

Abstract:

One of the challenges of African states in the development of education in the past and the present is the problem of literacy. Literacy in the first language is seen as a strong base for the development of second language; they are mostly the language of education. Language development is an offshoot of language planning; so the need to develop literacy in both first and second language affects language education and predicts the extent of achievement of the entire education sector. The need to balance literacy acquisition in first language for good conditioning the acquisition of second language is paramount. Likely constraints that includes; non-standardization, underdeveloped and undeveloped first languages are among many. Solutions to some of these include the development of materials and use of the stages and levels of literacy acquisition. This is with believed that a child writes well in second language if he has literacy in the first language.

Keywords: Linguistics, English Language, Literacy, Second Language, first language

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19 Non-Native Expatriate English: An Emerging Variety (Category of Users) in Cameroon?

Authors: Valentine Ubanako

Abstract:

This paper investigates a situation that has given rise to a particular kind of variety or category of users of English in Cameroon which I have called here Non-native expatriate English (Users). This paper asserts that Non-expatriates in Cameroon (those who work for native speakers of English) use English in a peculiar manner which is worth investigating. This paper thus looks into the kind of English they use and their attitudes towards other users of different varieties of English and how these non-native expatriates form new identities and try to negotiate social ascendency within a local context. Data for this paper is collected through observation, interviews and questionnaires. Some Cameroonians, especially the educated, believe that they must move to Europe or America, study to a very high level and struggle to be like the white man whereas, the lowly educated (working with native English expatriates), are living their European and American dream in Cameroon among their brothers. Thus, educational attainment is not a necessary criterion for social ascendency.

Keywords: Linguistics, English Language, non-native expatriate English, native expatriates, varieties of English

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18 Expressivity of Word-Formation in English and Russian Advertising Lexicon

Authors: Voronina Ekaterina Borisovna

Abstract:

The problem of expressivity of advertising lexicon is studied in the article. The comparison of English and Russian advertising lexicons is done. The objects of the analysis were English and Russian advertising texts, both printed advertising texts and texts extracted from the commercials. Some conclusions concerning the expressivity of advertising lexicon were made. Expressivity can be included in the semantic structure of words or created by word-formation means. Expressivity caused by morphological derivatives includes such facilities as derivational affixes, models and types of word formation.

Keywords: Linguistics, advertising lexicon, expressivity, word-formation means

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17 A Comparative Analysis of Vocabulary Learning Strategies among EFL Freshmen and Senior Medical Sciences Students across Different Fields of Study

Authors: M. Hadavi, Z. Hashemi

Abstract:

Learning strategies play an important role in the development of language skills. Vocabulary learning strategies as the backbone of these strategies have become a major part of English language teaching. This study is a comparative analysis of Vocabulary Learning Strategies (VLS) use and preference among freshmen and senior EFL medical sciences students with different fields of study. 449 students (236 freshman and 213 seniors) participated in the study. 64.6% were female and 35.4% were male. The instrument utilized in this research was a questionnaire consisting of 41 items related to the students’ approach to vocabulary learning. The items were classified under eight sections as dictionary strategies, guessing strategies, study preferences, memory strategies, autonomy, note- taking strategies, selective attention, and social strategies. The participants were asked to answer each item with a 5-point Likert-style frequency scale as follows:1) I never or almost never do this, 2) I don’t usually do this, 3) I sometimes do this, 4) I usually do this, and 5)I always or almost always do this. The results indicated that freshmen students and particularly surgical technology students used more strategies compared to the seniors. Overall guessing and dictionary strategies were the most frequently used strategies among all the learners (p=0/000). The mean and standard deviation of using VLS in the students who had no previous history of participating in the private English language classes was less than the students who had attended these type of classes (p=0/000). Female students tended to use social and study preference strategies whereas male students used mostly guessing and dictionary strategies. It can be concluded that the senior students under instruction from the university have learned to rely on themselves and choose the autonomous strategies more, while freshmen students use more strategies that are related to the study preferences.

Keywords: Linguistics, Medical Sciences, students, vocabulary leaning strategies

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16 Teaching Gender and Language in the EFL Classroom in the Arab World: Algerian Students’ Awareness of Their Gender Identities from New Perspectives

Authors: Amina Babou

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Gender and language is a moot and miscellaneous arena in the sphere of sociolinguistics, which has been proliferated so widely and rapidly in recent years. The dawn of research on gender and foreign language education was against the feminist researchers who allowed space for the bustling concourse of voices and perspectives in the arena of gender and language differences, in the early to the mid-1970. The objective of this scrutiny is to explore to what extent teaching gender and language in the English as a Foreign Language (EFL) classroom plays a pivotal role in learning language information and skills. And the gist of this paper is to investigate how EFL students in Algeria conflate their gender identities with the linguistic practices and scholastic expertise. To grapple with the full range of issues about the EFL students’ awareness about the negotiation of meanings in the classroom, we opt for observing, interviewing, and questioning later to check using ‘how-do-you do’ procedure. The analysis of the EFL classroom discourse, from five Algerian universities, reveals that speaking strategies such as the manners students make an abrupt topic shifts, respond spontaneously to the teacher, ask more questions, interrupt others to seize control of conversations and monopolize the speaking floor through denying what others have said, do not sit very lightly on 80.4% of female students’ shoulders. The data indicate that female students display the assertive style as a strategy of learning to subvert the norms of femininity, especially in the speaking module.

Keywords: Linguistics, Classroom Discourse, gender identities, EFL students

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15 Albanian Students’ Errors in Spoken and Written English and the Role of Error Correction in Assessment and Self-Assessment

Authors: Arburim Iseni, Afrim Aliti, Nagri Rexhepi

Abstract:

This paper focuses mainly on an important aspect of student-linguistic errors. It aims to explore the nature of Albanian intermediate level or B1 students’ language errors and mistakes and attempts to trace the possible sources or causes by classifying the error samples into both inter lingual and intra lingual errors. The hypothesis that intra lingua errors may be determined or induced somehow by the native language influence seems to be confirmed by the significant number of errors found in Albanian EFL students in the Study Program of the English Language and Literature at the State University of Tetova. Findings of this study have revealed that L1 interference first and then ignorance of the English Language grammar rules constitute the main sources or causes of errors, even though carelessness cannot be ruled out. Although we have conducted our study with 300 students of intermediate or B1 level, we believe that this hypothesis would need to be confirmed by further research, maybe with a larger number of students with different levels in order to draw more steady and accurate conclusions. The analysis of the questionnaires was done according to quantitative and qualitative research methods. This study was also conducted by taking written samples on different topics from our students and then distributing them with comments to the students and University teachers as well. These questionnaires were designed to gather information among 300 students and 48 EFL teachers, all of whom teach in the Study Program of English Language and Literature at the State University of Tetova. From the analyzed written samples of the students and face-to-face interviews, we could get useful insights into some important aspects of students’ error-making and error-correction. These different research methodologies were used in order to comprise a holistic research and the findings of the questionnaires helped us to come up with some more steady solutions in order to minimize the potential gap between students and teachers.

Keywords: Linguistics, Applied Linguistics, sla, L1 & L2, Albanian EFL students and teachers, Errors and Mistakes, Students’ Assessment and Self-Assessment

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14 A Fresh Look at Tense System of Qashqaie Dialect of Turkish Language

Authors: Mohammad Sharifi Bohlouli

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Turkish language with many dialects is native or official language of great number of people all around the world. The Qashqaie dialect of Turkish language is spoken by the Qashqaie tribe mostly scattered in the southern part of Iran. This paper aims at analyzing the tense system of this dialect to detect the type and number of tense and aspects available to its speakers. To collect a reliable data, a group of 50 old native speakers were randomly chosen as the informants and different techniques such as; Shuy et al interviews, selective listening ,and eavesdropping were used. The results of data analysis showed that the tense system in the Qashqaie dialect of Turkish language includes 3 absolute tenses , 6 aspectual , and 2 subjunctive ones. The interesting part of the study is that Qashqaie dialect enables its speakers to make a kind of aspectual opposition through verb structure which seems to be almost impossible through verb forms in any other nonturkish languages. For example in the following examples sentences 1 &2 and 3&4 have the same translation In English although they are different in both meaning and structure. 1. Ali ensha yazirdi. 2. Ali ensha yazirmush. (Ali was writing a composition.) 3. Ali yadmishdi. 4. Ali yadmishimish. ( Ali had slept.) The changes in the verb structure in Qashqaie dialect enables its speakers to say that whether the doer of the action remembers the process of doing the action or not. So, it presents a new aspectual opposition as Observed /nonobserved. The research findings reveal many other regularities and linguistic features that can be useful for linguists interested in Turkish in general and for those interested in tense and aspect and also they can be helpful for different pedagogical purposes including teaching and translating.

Keywords: Linguistics, Turkish Language, qashqaie dialect, tense, aspect

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13 A Fresh Look at the Tense-Aspect System of the Qashqaie Dialect of Turkish Language

Authors: Mohammad Sharifi Bohlouli, Elnaz Sharifi Bohlouli

Abstract:

Turkish language with many dialects is native or official language of great number of people all around the world. The Qashqaie dialect of Turkish language is spoken by the Qashqaie tribe mostly scattered in the southern part of Iran. This paper aims at analyzing the tense system of this dialect to detect the type and number of tense and aspects available to its speakers. To collect a reliable data, a group of 50 old native speakers were randomly chosen as the informants and different techniques such as; Shuy et al interviews, selective listening ,and eavesdropping were used. The results of data analysis showed that the tense system in the Qashqaie dialect of Turkish language includes 3 absolute tenses, 6 aspectual, and 2 subjunctive ones. The interesting part of the study is that Qashqaie dialect enables its speakers to make a kind of aspectual opposition through verb structure which seems to be almost impossible through verb forms in any other nonturkish languages. For example in the following examples sentences 1&2 and 3&4 have the same translation In English although they are different in both meaning and structure. 1. Ali ensha yazirdi. 2. Ali ensha yazirmush. (Ali was writing a composition.) 3. Ali yadmishdi. 4. Ali yadmishimish. (Ali had slept.). The changes in the verb structure in Qashqaie dialect enables its speakers to say that whether the doer of the action remembers the process of doing the action or not. So, it presents a new aspectual opposition as Observed /nonobserved. The research findings reveal many other regularities and linguistic features that can be useful for linguists interested in Turkish in general and for those interested in tense and aspect and also they can be helpful for different pedagogical purposes including teaching and translating.

Keywords: Linguistics, Turkish Language, qashqaie dialect, tense, aspect

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12 Glossematics and Textual Structure

Authors: Abdelhadi Nadjer

Abstract:

The structure of the text to the systemic school -(glossématique-Helmslev). At the beginning of the note we have a cursory look around the concepts of general linguistics The science that studies scientific study of human language based on the description and preview the facts away from the trend of education than we gave a detailed overview the founder of systemic school and most important customers and more methods and curriculum theory and analysis they extend to all humanities, practical action each offset by a theoretical and the procedure can be analyzed through the elements that pose as another method we talked to its links with other language schools where they are based on the sharp criticism of the language before and deflected into consideration for the field of language and its erection has outside or language network and its participation in the actions (non-linguistic) and after that we started our Valglosamatik analytical structure of the text is ejected text terminal or all of the words to was put for expression. This text Negotiable divided into types in turn are divided into classes and class should not be carrying a contradiction and be inclusive. It is on the same materials as described relationships that combine language and seeks to describe their relations and identified.

Keywords: Linguistics, Text, Human Language, language schools

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11 A New Spell-Out Mechanism

Authors: Yusra Yahya

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In this paper, a new spell-out mechanism is developed and defended. This mechanism builds on the role of phase heads as both the loci of spell-out features and the transfer triggers via either Phase Impenetrability Condition 1 (PIC1) and/or Phase Impenetrability Condition 2 (PIC2). The assumption here is that phase heads, mainly v*, can regulate the spell-out process by deciding both the type of spell-out applying and the timing of spell-out relevant. This paper also proposes a new form of the constraint Wrap call it Wrap-XP’ and it is assumed to apply to IP as a functional maximal projection. This extension is shown to fall as a natural result once we assume the new theory of phases and multiple spell-out. Moreover, it is proposed in this work that some forms of XP movement are not motivated by an EPP feature of a strong phase head mainly v*, but they are rather motivated by a last resort strategy to accomplish the spell-out instruction of this phase head.

Keywords: Linguistics, Phonology, Syntax, phase theory, optimality theory

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10 The Syllable Structure and Syllable Processes in Suhwa Arabic: An Autosegmental Analysis

Authors: Muhammad Yaqub Olatunde

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Arabic linguistic science is redirecting its focus towards the analysis and description of social, regional, and temporal varieties of social, regional, and temporal varieties in order to show how they vary in pronunciation, vocabulary, and grammar. This is not to say that the traditional Arabic linguists did not mention scores of dialectical variations but such works focused on the geographical boundaries of the Arabic speaking countries. There is need for a comprehensive survey of various Arabic dialects within the boundary of Arabic speaking countries and outside showing both the similarities and differences of linguistic and extra linguistic elements. This study therefore examines the syllable structure and process in noun and verb in the shuwa Arabic dialect speaking in North East Nigeria [mainly in Borno state]. The work seeks to establish the facts about this phenomenon, using auto- segmental analysis. These facts are compared, where necessary; using possible alternative analysis, with what operate in other related dialects within and outside Arabic speaking countries. The interaction between epenthesis and germination in the language also generate an interesting issue. The paper then conclude that syllable structure and process in the language need to recognize the existence of complex onset and a complex rhyme producing a consonant cluster in the former and a closed syllable in the letter. This emerges as result of resyllabification, which is motivated by these processes.

Keywords: Linguistics, Processes, Dialect, Arabic, resyllabification

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9 The Effect of Classroom Atmospherics on Second Language Learning

Authors: Sresha Yadav, Ishwar Kumar

Abstract:

Second language learning is an important area of research in the language and linguistic domains. Literature suggests that several factors impact second language learning, including age, motivation, objectives, teacher, instructional material, classroom interaction, intelligence and previous background, previous linguistic experience, other student characteristics. Previous researchers have also highlighted that classroom atmospherics has a significant impact on learning as well as on the performance of students. However, the impact of classroom atmospherics on second language learning is still not known in the existing literature. Therefore, the purpose of the present study is to explore whether classroom atmospherics has an impact on second language learning or not? And if it does, it would be worthwhile to explore the nature of such relationship. The present study aims to explore the impact of classroom atmospherics on second language learning by dwelling into the existing literature to explore factors which impact second language learning, classroom atmospherics which impact language learning and the metrics through which such learning impacts could be measured. Based on the findings of literature review, the researchers have adopted a clustering approach for categorization and positioning of various measures of second language learning. Based on the clustering approach, the researchers have approach for measuring the impact of classroom atmospherics on second language learning by drawing a student sample consisting of 80 respondents. The results of the study uncover various basic premises of second language learning, especially with regard to classroom atmospherics. The present study is important not only from the point of view of language learning but implications could be drawn with regard to the design of classroom atmospherics, environmental psychology, anthropometrics, etc as well.

Keywords: Linguistics, Second Language Learning, Cluster Analysis, classroom atmospherics

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8 The Controversy of the English Sentence and Its Teaching Implication

Authors: Franklin Uakhemen Ajogbor

Abstract:

The issue of the English sentence has remained controversial from Traditional Grammar to modern linguistics. The English sentence occupies the highest rank in the hierarchy of grammatical units. Its consideration is therefore very necessary in learning English as a second language. Unfortunately, divergent views by grammarians on the concept of the English sentence have generated much controversy. There seems not to be a unanimous agreement on what actually constitute a sentence. Some schools of thought believe that a sentence must have a subject and a predicate while some believe that it should not. The types of sentence according to structure are also not devoid of controversy as the views of several linguists have not been properly harmonized. Findings have shown that serious effort and attention have not been paid by previous linguists to clear these ambiguities as it has a negative implication in the learning and teaching of English language. The variations on the concept of the English sentence have become particularly worrisome as a result of the widening patronage of English as a global language. The paper is therefore interested in the investigation of this controversy and suggesting a solution to the problem. In doing this, data was collected from students and scholars that show lack of uniformity in what a sentence is. Using the Systemic Functional Model as theoretical framework, the paper launches into the views held by these various schools of thought with the aim of reconciling these divergent views and also an attempt to open up further research on what actually constitute a sentence.

Keywords: Linguistics, Controversy, sentence, traditional grammar, grammatical units

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7 Moderate Holism as an Explanation for Linguistic Phenomena

Authors: Kênio Angelo Dantas Freitas Estrela

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Traditionally meaning holism is a theory that is related to the meaning attributed to words and their relationships to other words in a language. This theory can be more specifically defined as a defense of the mutual interdependence of all items of linguistic knowledge, so that, for example, to understand the meaning of a given expression, it is necessary to understand a large sector of the language in question or, even the complete language. The aim of this paper is to present a moderate version of meaning holism, which argues that, among other things, meaning holism does not imply the thesis of instability - if there is the change of belief about an object, there is a change of meaning - and, in this way, it is possible to attribute meanings to objects admitting changes of opinions and then beliefs. It will be shown how this version of holism gives an account of the main criticisms made of meaning holism in the last decades and also show how this theory can justify linguistic phenomena (like vagueness and polysemy) that are often treated as problems of language. Finally, it will also be argued that these linguistic phenomena are intrinsic to languages and that the moderate version of meaning holism can justify the occurrence of these phenomena.

Keywords: Linguistics, Semantics, Philosophy of Language, meaning holism

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6 Linguistics and Islamic Studies in Historical Perspective: The Case of Interdisciplinary Communication

Authors: Olga Bernikova, Oleg Redkin

Abstract:

Islamic Studies and the Arabic language are indivisible from each other starting from the appearance of Islam and formation of the Classical language. The present paper demonstrates correlation among linguistics and religion in historical perspective with regard to peculiarities of the Arabic language which distinguish it from the other prophetic languages. Islamic Studies and Linguistics are indivisible from each other starting from the invent of Islam and formation of the Classical language. In historical perspective, the Arabic language has been and remains a tool for the expression of Islamic rhetoric being a prophetic language. No other language in the world has preserved its stability for more than 14 centuries. Islam is considered to be one of the most important factors which secure this stability. The analysis and study of the text of Qurʾān are of special importance for those who study Islamic civilization, its role in the destinies of the mankind, its values and virtues. Without understanding of the polyphony of this sacred text, indivisible unity of its form and content it is impossible to understand social developments both in the present and the past. Since the first years of Islam Qurʾān had been in the center of attention of Muslim scholars, and in the center of attention of theologians, historians, philologists, jurists, mathematicians. Only quite recently it has become an object of analysis of the specialists of computer technologies. In Arabic and Islamic studies mediaeval texts i.e. textual documents are considered the main source of information. Hence the analysis of the multiplicity of various texts and finding of interconnections between them help to set scattered fragments of the riddle into a common and eloquent picture of the past, which reflects the state of the society on certain stages of its development. The text of the Qurʾān like any other phenomenon is a multifaceted object that should be studied from different points of view. As a result, this complex study will allow obtaining a three-dimensional image rather than a flat picture alone.

Keywords: Islamic Studies, Linguistics, Religion, Arabic

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5 A Comparison of the First Language Vocabulary Used by Indonesian Year 4 Students and the Vocabulary Taught to Them in English Language Textbooks

Authors: Fitria Ningsih

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This study concerns on the process of making corpus obtained from Indonesian year 4 students’ free writing compared to the vocabulary taught in English language textbooks. 369 students’ sample writings from 19 public elementary schools in Malang, East Java, Indonesia and 5 selected English textbooks were analyzed through corpus in linguistics method using AdTAT -the Adelaide Text Analysis Tool- program. The findings produced wordlists of the top 100 words most frequently used by students and the top 100 words given in English textbooks. There was a 45% match between the two lists. Furthermore, the classifications of the top 100 most frequent words from the two corpora based on part of speech found that both the Indonesian and English languages employed a similar use of nouns, verbs, adjectives, and prepositions. Moreover, to see the contextualizing the vocabulary of learning materials towards the students’ need, a depth-analysis dealing with the content and the cultural views from the vocabulary taught in the textbooks was discussed through the criteria developed from the checklist. Lastly, further suggestions are addressed to language teachers to understand the students’ background such as recognizing the basic words students acquire before teaching them new vocabulary in order to achieve successful learning of the target language.

Keywords: Linguistics, English, textbooks, Writing, corpus, Frequency, vocabulary, Indonesian, wordlists

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4 Evaluation of Persian Medical Terms Compatibility with International Naming Criteria Based on the Applied Translation Procedures

Authors: Ali Akbar Zeinali

Abstract:

Lack of appropriate equivalences for the terms or technical words is the result of ineffective translation guidelines adopted in the translation processes. The increasing number of foreign words and specific terms incorporated into the native language are due to the ongoing development of technology and science. Many problems appear in medical translation when the Persian translators try to employ non-Persian or imported words in medical texts, in which multiple equivalents may be created for one particular word based on the individual preferences of authors and translators in the target language due to lack of standardization. The study attempted to discuss the findings based on the compatibility of the international naming criteria, considering the translation procedures. About 67% of 339 equivalents under this study were grouped as incompatible words while about 33% of them were compatible terms. The similarities and differences were investigated and discussed according to the compatibility status of the equivalents with Sager’s criteria. Such equivalents have been classified into several groups through bi-dimensional descriptions that were different features of translation procedures related to the international naming criteria. In review of the frequency distribution of compatibilities, the equivalents were divided into two categories of compatibles and incompatibles, indicating the effectiveness of the applied translation procedures.

Keywords: Linguistics, Terminology, naming, medical translation

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3 The Role of Social Parameters in the Choice of Address Forms Used in Kinship Domain in Punjab, Pakistan

Authors: Ana Ramsha, Samrah Hidayat

Abstract:

This study examines the role of social parameters in the choice of address forms used in kinship domain in Punjab, Pakistan. The study targeted 140 respondents in order to test the impact of social factors along with the regional differences in the choices of address forms in kinship domain. Statistical analyses are done by applying t-test for gender in relation to choices of address forms and ANOVA for age, income, education and social class. The study finds out that there is a strong connection of different social parameters not only with language use and practice but also in choices and use of address forms, especially in kinship relationships. Moreover, it is highlighted that gender does not influence in the choices of address forms, even the participants belonging to young and middle categories show no significant difference with regard to the choices of address form despite the fact that all the factors and parameters exert influence on the choices of address forms. Hence address forms as being one of the major traits of language and society is affected by all the social factors around and regional differences are also most important as they give identity and ethnicity to the society.

Keywords: Linguistics, kinship, address forms, social parameters

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2 Analyzing Microblogs: Exploring the Psychology of Political Leanings

Authors: Meaghan Bowman

Abstract:

Microblogging has become increasingly popular for commenting on current events, spreading memes, and encouraging individualism, which favors its low-context communication channel. These social media platforms allow users to express opinions while interacting with a wide range of populations. Hashtags permit the identification of like-minded individuals worldwide on a vast array of topics. For example, in 2016, the Colombia government held a referendum on a draft peace agreement with the Fuerzas Armadas Revolucionarias de Colombia, also known as the FARC, an anti-government militia. Popular approval would provide seats in the legislature for former FARC members, and immunity for drug members. Government polling had indicated strong public support of the referendum, which failed on October 2nd. The output of the analytic tool, Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count (LIWC)--a program that calculates the degree to which words in psychologically meaningful categories are used--may suggest the nature of individuals’ internal states and sentiments. When applied to groupings of social media posts unified by hashtag, such information can be helpful to community leaders during periods in which the forming of public opinion happens at the same time as the unfolding of political, economic, or social events, the outcome of which stands to impact the well-being of the group. In this study, we applied the online tools, Google Translate and University of Texas’s LIWC, to a 90-posting sample from a corpus of Colombian Spanish microblogs, collected by Notre Dame University (NDU). On translated disjoint sets, identified by hashtag as being authored by advocates of voting “No,” voting “Yes,” and staying neutral (indicated by absence of hashtag), we observed the value of LIWC’s Tone feature as a distinguishing characteristic of the categories and the word “peace,” as carrying particular significance, due to frequency of use in the data. Preliminary findings show that the word peace positively influences the blogs, as well as the hashtags, and when both are eliminated from the original blog, the emotional tone becomes overall more negative. This shows that the ways that social media users decide how to post can ultimately have an impact not only on how they are perceived but also how they might be able to influence other social media users.

Keywords: Linguistics, Social Media, Colombia peace referendum, FARC, hashtags, microblogging

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1 Performativity and Valuation Techniques: Evidence from Investment Banks in the Wake of the Global Financial Crisis

Authors: Alicja Reuben, Amira Annabi

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In this paper, we explore the relationship between the selection of valuation techniques by investment banks and the banks’ risk perceptions and performance in the context of the theory of performativity. We use inferential statistics to study these relationships by building a unique dataset based on the disclosure of 12 investment banks’ 2012-2015 annual financial statements. Moreover, we create two constructs, namely intensity of use and risk perception. We measure the intensity of use as a frequency metric of how often a particular bank adopts valuation techniques for a particular asset or liability. We measure risk perception based on disclosed ranges of values for unobservable inputs. Our results are twofold: we find a significant negative correlation between (1) intensity of use and investment bank performance and (2) intensity of use and risk perception. These results indicate that a performative process takes place, and the valuation techniques are enacting their environment.

Keywords: Linguistics, Language, performativity, financial techniques

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