Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 3

linear model Related Abstracts

3 Linear MIMO Model Identification Using an Extended Kalman Filter

Authors: Matthew C. Best


Linear Multi-Input Multi-Output (MIMO) dynamic models can be identified, with no a priori knowledge of model structure or order, using a new Generalised Identifying Filter (GIF). Based on an Extended Kalman Filter, the new filter identifies the model iteratively, in a continuous modal canonical form, using only input and output time histories. The filter’s self-propagating state error covariance matrix allows easy determination of convergence and conditioning, and by progressively increasing model order, the best fitting reduced-order model can be identified. The method is shown to be resistant to noise and can easily be extended to identification of smoothly nonlinear systems.

Keywords: System Identification, mimo, Kalman Filter, linear model, model order reduction

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2 The Importance of including All Data in a Linear Model for the Analysis of RNAseq Data

Authors: Roxane A. Legaie, Kjiana E. Schwab, Caroline E. Gargett


Studies looking at the changes in gene expression from RNAseq data often make use of linear models. It is also common practice to focus on a subset of data for a comparison of interest, leaving aside the samples not involved in this particular comparison. This work shows the importance of including all observations in the modeling process to better estimate variance parameters, even when the samples included are not directly used in the comparison under test. The human endometrium is a dynamic tissue, which undergoes cycles of growth and regression with each menstrual cycle. The mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) present in the endometrium are likely responsible for this remarkable regenerative capacity. However recent studies suggest that MSCs also plays a role in the pathogenesis of endometriosis, one of the most common medical conditions affecting the lower abdomen in women in which the endometrial tissue grows outside the womb. In this study we compared gene expression profiles between MSCs and non-stem cell counterparts (‘non-MSC’) obtained from women with (‘E’) or without (‘noE’) endometriosis from RNAseq. Raw read counts were used for differential expression analysis using a linear model with the limma-voom R package, including either all samples in the study or only the samples belonging to the subset of interest (e.g. for the comparison ‘E vs noE in MSC cells’, including only MSC samples from E and noE patients but not the non-MSC ones). Using the full dataset we identified about 100 differentially expressed (DE) genes between E and noE samples in MSC samples (adj.p-val < 0.05 and |logFC|>1) while only 9 DE genes were identified when using only the subset of data (MSC samples only). Important genes known to be involved in endometriosis such as KLF9 and RND3 were missed in the latter case. When looking at the MSC vs non-MSC cells comparison, the linear model including all samples identified 260 genes for noE samples (including the stem cell marker SUSD2) while the subset analysis did not identify any DE genes. When looking at E samples, 12 genes were identified with the first approach and only 1 with the subset approach. Although the stem cell marker RGS5 was found in both cases, the subset test missed important genes involved in stem cell differentiation such as NOTCH3 and other potentially related genes to be used for further investigation and pathway analysis.

Keywords: Endometriosis, differential expression, linear model, RNAseq

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1 Design and Application of a Model Eliciting Activity with Civil Engineering Students on Binomial Distribution to Solve a Decision Problem Based on Samples Data Involving Aspects of Randomness and Proportionality

Authors: Veronica Vargas-Alejo, Martha E. Aguiar-Barrera, Humberto Gutierrez-Pulido


Identifying and modeling random phenomena is a fundamental cognitive process to understand and transform reality. Recognizing situations governed by chance and giving them a scientific interpretation, without being carried away by beliefs or intuitions, is a basic training for citizens. Hence the importance of generating teaching-learning processes, supported using technology, paying attention to model creation rather than only executing mathematical calculations. In order to develop the student's knowledge about basic probability distributions and decision making; in this work a model eliciting activity (MEA) is reported. The intention was applying the Model and Modeling Perspective to design an activity related to civil engineering that would be understandable for students, while involving them in its solution. Furthermore, the activity should imply a decision-making challenge based on sample data, and the use of the computer should be considered. The activity was designed considering the six design principles for MEA proposed by Lesh and collaborators. These are model construction, reality, self-evaluation, model documentation, shareable and reusable, and prototype. The application and refinement of the activity was carried out during three school cycles in the Probability and Statistics class for Civil Engineering students at the University of Guadalajara. The analysis of the way in which the students sought to solve the activity was made using audio and video recordings, as well as with the individual and team reports of the students. The information obtained was categorized according to the activity phase (individual or team) and the category of analysis (sample, linearity, probability, distributions, mechanization, and decision-making). With the results obtained through the MEA, four obstacles have been identified to understand and apply the binomial distribution: the first one was the resistance of the student to move from the linear to the probabilistic model; the second one, the difficulty of visualizing (infering) the behavior of the population through the sample data; the third one, viewing the sample as an isolated event and not as part of a random process that must be viewed in the context of a probability distribution; and the fourth one, the difficulty of decision-making with the support of probabilistic calculations. These obstacles have also been identified in literature on the teaching of probability and statistics. Recognizing these concepts as obstacles to understanding probability distributions, and that these do not change after an intervention, allows for the modification of these interventions and the MEA. In such a way, the students may identify themselves the erroneous solutions when they carrying out the MEA. The MEA also showed to be democratic since several students who had little participation and low grades in the first units, improved their participation. Regarding the use of the computer, the RStudio software was useful in several tasks, for example in such as plotting the probability distributions and to exploring different sample sizes. In conclusion, with the models created to solve the MEA, the Civil Engineering students improved their probabilistic knowledge and understanding of fundamental concepts such as sample, population, and probability distribution.

Keywords: Probability, Randomness, sample, linear model, models and modeling

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