Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

limit states Related Abstracts

4 Influence of Deficient Materials on the Reliability of Reinforced Concrete Members

Authors: Sami W. Tabsh

Abstract:

The strength of reinforced concrete depends on the member dimensions and material properties. The properties of concrete and steel materials are not constant but random variables. The variability of concrete strength is due to batching errors, variations in mixing, cement quality uncertainties, differences in the degree of compaction and disparity in curing. Similarly, the variability of steel strength is attributed to the manufacturing process, rolling conditions, characteristics of base material, uncertainties in chemical composition, and the microstructure-property relationships. To account for such uncertainties, codes of practice for reinforced concrete design impose resistance factors to ensure structural reliability over the useful life of the structure. In this investigation, the effects of reductions in concrete and reinforcing steel strengths from the nominal values, beyond those accounted for in the structural design codes, on the structural reliability are assessed. The considered limit states are flexure, shear and axial compression based on the ACI 318-11 structural concrete building code. Structural safety is measured in terms of a reliability index. Probabilistic resistance and load models are compiled from the available literature. The study showed that there is a wide variation in the reliability index for reinforced concrete members designed for flexure, shear or axial compression, especially when the live-to-dead load ratio is low. Furthermore, variations in concrete strength have minor effect on the reliability of beams in flexure, moderate effect on the reliability of beams in shear, and sever effect on the reliability of columns in axial compression. On the other hand, changes in steel yield strength have great effect on the reliability of beams in flexure, moderate effect on the reliability of beams in shear, and mild effect on the reliability of columns in axial compression. Based on the outcome, it can be concluded that the reliability of beams is sensitive to changes in the yield strength of the steel reinforcement, whereas the reliability of columns is sensitive to variations in the concrete strength. Since the embedded target reliability in structural design codes results in lower structural safety in beams than in columns, large reductions in material strengths compromise the structural safety of beams much more than they affect columns.

Keywords: Reliability, Code, structural safety, Random variables, Reinforced Concrete, shear, reliability index, flexure, limit states

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3 Evaluation of Earthquake Induced Cost for Mid-Rise Buildings

Authors: Gulsah Olgun, Ozgur Bozdag, Yildirim Ertutar

Abstract:

This paper mainly focuses on performance assessment of buildings by associating the damage level with the damage cost. For this purpose a methodology is explained and applied to the representative mid-rise concrete building residing in Izmir. In order to consider uncertainties in occurrence of earthquakes, the structural analyses are conducted for all possible earthquakes in the region through the hazard curve. By means of the analyses, probability of the structural response being in different limit states are obtained and used to calculate expected damage cost. The expected damage cost comprises diverse cost components related to earthquake such as cost of casualties, replacement or repair cost of building etc. In this study, inter-story drift is used as an effective response variable to associate expected damage cost with different damage levels. The structural analysis methods performed to obtain inter story drifts are response spectrum method as a linear one, accurate push-over and time history methods to demonstrate the nonlinear effects on loss estimation. Comparison of the results indicates that each method provides similar values of expected damage cost. To sum up, this paper explains an approach which enables to minimize the expected damage cost of buildings and relate performance level to damage cost.

Keywords: Performance Based Design, limit states, loss estimation, expected damage cost

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2 Challenges in the Material and Action-Resistance Factor Design for Embedded Retaining Wall Limit State Analysis

Authors: Kreso Ivandic, Filip Dodigovic, Damir Stuhec

Abstract:

The paper deals with the proposed 'Material' and 'Action-resistance factor' design methods in designing the embedded retaining walls. The parametric analysis of evaluating the differences of the output values mutually and compared with classic approach computation was performed. There is a challenge with the criteria for choosing the proposed calculation design methods in Eurocode 7 with respect to current technical regulations and regular engineering practice. The basic criterion for applying a particular design method is to ensure minimum an equal degree of reliability in relation to the current practice. The procedure of combining the relevant partial coefficients according to design methods was carried out. The use of mentioned partial coefficients should result in the same level of safety, regardless of load combinations, material characteristics and problem geometry. This proposed approach of the partial coefficients related to the material and/or action-resistance should aimed at building a bridge between calculations used so far and pure probability analysis. The measure to compare the results was to determine an equivalent safety factor for each analysis. The results show a visible wide span of equivalent values of the classic safety factors.

Keywords: limit states, Eurocode 7, action-resistance factor design, classic approach, embedded retaining wall, material factor design

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1 The Comparison of the Reliability Margin Measure for the Different Concepts in the Slope Analysis

Authors: S. Strelec, Kreso Ivandic, Filip Dodigovic, Damir Stuhec

Abstract:

The general difference analysis between the former and new design concepts in geotechnical engineering is carried out. The application of new regulations results in the need for real adaptation of the computation principles of limit states, i.e. by providing a uniform way of analyzing engineering tasks. Generally, it is not possible to unambiguously match the limit state verification procedure with those in the construction engineering. The reasons are the inability to fully consistency of the common probabilistic basis of the analysis, and the fundamental effect of material properties on the value of actions and the influence of actions on resistance. Consequently, it is not possible to apply separate factorization with partial coefficients, as in construction engineering. For the slope stability analysis design procedures problems in the light of the use of limit states in relation to the concept of allowable stresses is detailed in. The quantifications of the safety margins in the slope stability analysis for both approaches is done. When analyzing the stability of the slope, by the strict application of the adopted forms from the new regulations for significant external temporary and/or seismic actions, the equivalent margin of safety is increased. The consequence is the emergence of more conservative solutions.

Keywords: Slope Stability, limit states, Eurocode 7, allowable pressure

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