Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 2

lignocellulosic residues Related Abstracts

2 Ecotoxicological Safety of Wastewater Treated with Lignocellulosic Adsorbents

Authors: Isabel Brás, Artur Figueirinha, Bruno Esteves, Luísa P. Cruz-Lopes

Abstract:

Portugal is an important wine and olive oil producer, activities which generate a high quantity of residues commonly called grape stalks and olive cake, respectively. In this work grape stalks and olive cake were used as lignocellulosic adsorbents for wastewater containing lead treatment. To attain a better knowledge of the factors that could influence the quality of the treated wastewater, a chemical characterization of the materials used in the treatment was done. To access the ecotoxicological safety of the treated wastewater, several tests were performed. The results of the toxicity test show that the samples leachate has a mild effect on the living models tested. The tests performed in lemna and bacteria were the most sensible to toxicity effects of the samples. The results obtained in this work evidenced the importance of use of simple and fast toxicity tests to predict impacts in the environment.

Keywords: wastewater, Chemical Composition, lignocellulosic residues, ecotoxicological safety

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1 Wood Decay Fungal Strains Useful for Bio-Composite Material Production

Authors: C. Girometta, R. M. Baiguera, A. M. Picco, E. Savino, S. Babbini, D. S. Branciforti, M. Cartabia, D. Dondi, M. Pellegrini

Abstract:

Interest on wood decay fungi (WDF) has been increasing in the last year's thanks to the potentiality of this kind of fungi; research on new WDF strains has increased as well thus pointing out the key role of the culture collections. One of the most recent biotechnological application of WDF is the development of novel materials from natural or recycled resources. Based on different combinations of fungal species, substrate, and processing treatment involved (e.g. heat pressing), it is possible to achieve a wide variety of materials with different features useful for many industrial applications: from packaging to thermal and acoustic insulation. In comparison with the conventional ones, these materials represent a 100% natural and compostable alternative involving low amounts of energy in the production process. The purpose of the present work was to isolate and select WDF strains able to colonize and degrade different plant wastes thus producing a fungal biomass shapeable to achieve bio-composite materials. Strains were selected within the mycological culture collection of Pavia University (MicUNIPV, over 300 strains of WDF). The selected strains have been investigated with regards their ability to colonize and degrade plant residues from the local major cultivations (e.g. poplar, alfalfa, maize, rice, and wheat) and produce the fungal biomass. The degradation of the substrate was assessed by Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR). Chemical characterization confirmed that TGA and FTIR are complementary techniques able to provide quality-quantitative information on compositional and structural variation that occurs during the transformation from the substrate to the bio-composite material. This pilot study provides a fundamental step to tune further applications in fungus-residues composite biomaterials.

Keywords: Sustainable Materials, lignocellulosic residues, wood decay fungi, bio-composite material

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