Commenced in January 2007
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Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

lignocellulose Related Abstracts

5 Sequential and Combinatorial Pre-Treatment Strategy of Lignocellulose for the Enhanced Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Spent Coffee Waste

Authors: Rajeev Ravindran, Amit K. Jaiswal

Abstract:

Waste from the food-processing industry is produced in large amount and contains high levels of lignocellulose. Due to continuous accumulation throughout the year in large quantities, it creates a major environmental problem worldwide. The chemical composition of these wastes (up to 75% of its composition is contributed by polysaccharide) makes it inexpensive raw material for the production of value-added products such as biofuel, bio-solvents, nanocrystalline cellulose and enzymes. In order to use lignocellulose as the raw material for the microbial fermentation, the substrate is subjected to enzymatic treatment, which leads to the release of reducing sugars such as glucose and xylose. However, the inherent properties of lignocellulose such as presence of lignin, pectin, acetyl groups and the presence of crystalline cellulose contribute to recalcitrance. This leads to poor sugar yields upon enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulose. A pre-treatment method is generally applied before enzymatic treatment of lignocellulose that essentially removes recalcitrant components in biomass through structural breakdown. Present study is carried out to find out the best pre-treatment method for the maximum liberation of reducing sugars from spent coffee waste (SPW). SPW was subjected to a range of physical, chemical and physico-chemical pre-treatment followed by a sequential, combinatorial pre-treatment strategy is also applied on to attain maximum sugar yield by combining two or more pre-treatments. All the pre-treated samples were analysed for total reducing sugar followed by identification and quantification of individual sugar by HPLC coupled with RI detector. Besides, generation of any inhibitory compounds such furfural, hydroxymethyl furfural (HMF) which can hinder microbial growth and enzyme activity is also monitored. Results showed that ultrasound treatment (31.06 mg/L) proved to be the best pre-treatment method based on total reducing content followed by dilute acid hydrolysis (10.03 mg/L) while galactose was found to be the major monosaccharide present in the pre-treated SPW. Finally, the results obtained from the study were used to design a sequential lignocellulose pre-treatment protocol to decrease the formation of enzyme inhibitors and increase sugar yield on enzymatic hydrolysis by employing cellulase-hemicellulase consortium. Sequential, combinatorial treatment was found better in terms of total reducing yield and low content of the inhibitory compounds formation, which could be due to the fact that this mode of pre-treatment combines several mild treatment methods rather than formulating a single one. It eliminates the need for a detoxification step and potential application in the valorisation of lignocellulosic food waste.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Pre-treatment, Enzymatic Hydrolysis, lignocellulose

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4 Screening of Factors Affecting the Enzymatic Hydrolysis of Empty Fruit Bunches in Aqueous Ionic Liquid and Locally Produced Cellulase System

Authors: Parveen Jamal, Md. Z. Alam, Amal A. Elgharbawy, Muhammad Moniruzzaman, Nassereldeen A. Kabbashi

Abstract:

The enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass is one of the obstacles in the process of sugar production, due to the presence of lignin that protects the cellulose molecules against cellulases. Although the pretreatment of lignocellulose in ionic liquid (IL) system has been receiving a lot of interest; however, it requires IL removal with an anti-solvent in order to proceed with the enzymatic hydrolysis. At this point, introducing a compatible cellulase enzyme seems more efficient in this process. A cellulase enzyme that was produced by Trichoderma reesei on palm kernel cake (PKC) exhibited a promising stability in several ILs. The enzyme called PKC-Cel was tested for its optimum pH and temperature as well as its molecular weight. One among evaluated ILs, 1,3-diethylimidazolium dimethyl phosphate [DEMIM] DMP was applied in this study. Evaluation of six factors was executed in Stat-Ease Design Expert V.9, definitive screening design, which are IL/ buffer ratio, temperature, hydrolysis retention time, biomass loading, cellulase loading and empty fruit bunches (EFB) particle size. According to the obtained data, IL-enzyme system shows the highest sugar concentration at 70 °C, 27 hours, 10% IL-buffer, 35% biomass loading, 60 Units/g cellulase and 200 μm particle size. As concluded from the obtained data, not only the PKC-Cel was stable in the presence of the IL, also it was actually stable at a higher temperature than its optimum one. The reducing sugar obtained was 53.468±4.58 g/L which was equivalent to 0.3055 g reducing sugar/g EFB. This approach opens an insight for more studies in order to understand the actual effect of ILs on cellulases and their interactions in the aqueous system. It could also benefit in an efficient production of bioethanol from lignocellulosic biomass.

Keywords: Pretreatment, Hydrolysis, cellulase, lignocellulose

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3 Evaluation of Microwave-Assisted Pretreatment for Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Brijesh K. Tiwari, Amit K. Jaiswal, Shady S. Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams

Abstract:

Waste materials from a wide range of agro-industrial processes may be used as substrates for microbial growth, and subsequently the production of a range of high value products and bioenergy. In addition, utilization of these agro-residues in bioprocesses has the dual advantage of providing alternative substrates, as well as solving their disposal problems. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are a by-product (45%) of coffee processing. SCG is a lignocellulosic material, which is composed mainly of cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin. Thus, a pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of such carbohydrates. In this context, microwave pretreatment of lignocellulosic biomass without the addition of harsh chemicals represents a green technology. Moreover, microwave treatment has a high heating efficiency and is easy to implement. Thus, microwave pretreatment of SCG without adding of harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, microwave pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG at varying power levels (100, 250, 440, 600, and 1000 W) for 60 s. By increasing microwave power to a certain level (which vary by varying biomass), reducing sugar increases, then reducing sugar from biomass start to decrease with microwave power increase beyond this level. Microwave pretreatment of SCG at 60s followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 91.6 ± 7.0 mg/g of biomass (at microwave power of 100 w). Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose using microwave was found to be an effective and energy efficient technology to improve saccharification and glucose yield. Energy performance will be evaluated for the microwave pretreatment, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol and other high value products.

Keywords: Microwave, Pretreatment, lignocellulose, spent coffee grounds

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2 Effect of Ultrasound-Assisted Pretreatment on Saccharification of Spent Coffee Grounds

Authors: Brijesh K. Tiwari, Amit K. Jaiswal, Shady S. Hassan, Gwilym A. Williams

Abstract:

EU is known as the destination with the highest rate of the coffee consumption per capita in the world. Spent coffee grounds (SCG) are the main by-product of coffee brewing. SCG is either disposed as a solid waste or employed as compost, although the polysaccharides from such lignocellulosic biomass might be used as feedstock for fermentation processes. However, SCG as a lignocellulose have a complex structure and pretreatment process is required to facilitate an efficient enzymatic hydrolysis of carbohydrates. However, commonly used pretreatment methods, such as chemical, physico-chemical and biological techniques are still insufficient to meet optimal industrial production requirements in a sustainable way. Ultrasound is a promising candidate as a sustainable green pretreatment solution for lignocellulosic biomass utilization in a large scale biorefinery. Thus, ultrasound pretreatment of SCG without adding harsh chemicals investigated as a green technology to enhance enzyme hydrolysis. In the present work, ultrasound pretreatment experiments were conducted on SCG using different ultrasound frequencies (25, 35, 45, 130, and 950 kHz) for 60 min. Regardless of ultrasound power, low ultrasound frequency is more effective than high ultrasound frequency in pretreatment of biomass. Ultrasound pretreatment of SCG (at ultrasound frequency of 25 kHz for 60 min) followed by enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in total reducing sugars of 56.1 ± 2.8 mg/g of biomass. Fourier transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate changes in functional groups of biomass after pretreatment, while high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for determination of glucose. Pretreatment of lignocellulose by low frequency ultrasound in water only was found to be an effective green approach for SCG to improve saccharification and glucose yield compared to native biomass. Pretreatment conditions will be optimized, and the enzyme hydrolysate will be used as media component substitute for the production of ethanol.

Keywords: Ultrasound, Pretreatment, lignocellulose, spent coffee grounds

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1 Optimization of Alkali Assisted Microwave Pretreatments of Sorghum Straw for Efficient Bioethanol Production

Authors: Partha Roy, Chandrajit Balomajumder, Bahiru Tsegaye

Abstract:

The limited supply and related negative environmental consequence of fossil fuels are driving researcher for finding sustainable sources of energy. Lignocellulose biomass like sorghum straw is considered as among cheap, renewable and abundantly available sources of energy. However, lignocellulose biomass conversion to bioenergy like bioethanol is hindered due to the reluctant nature of lignin in the biomass. Therefore, removal of lignin is a vital step for lignocellulose conversion to renewable energy. The aim of this study is to optimize microwave pretreatment conditions using design expert software to remove lignin and to release maximum possible polysaccharides from sorghum straw for efficient hydrolysis and fermentation process. Sodium hydroxide concentration between 0.5-1.5%, v/v, pretreatment time from 5-25 minutes and pretreatment temperature from 120-2000C were considered to depolymerize sorghum straw. The effect of pretreatment was studied by analyzing the compositional changes before and after pretreatments following renewable energy laboratory procedure. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to test the significance of the model used for optimization. About 32.8%-48.27% of hemicellulose solubilization, 53% -82.62% of cellulose release, and 49.25% to 78.29% lignin solubilization were observed during microwave pretreatment. Pretreatment for 10 minutes with alkali concentration of 1.5% and temperature of 1400C released maximum cellulose and lignin. At this optimal condition, maximum of 82.62% of cellulose release and 78.29% of lignin removal was achieved. Sorghum straw at optimal pretreatment condition was subjected to enzymatic hydrolysis and fermentation. The efficiency of hydrolysis was measured by analyzing reducing sugars by 3, 5 dinitrisylicylic acid method. Reducing sugars of about 619 mg/g of sorghum straw were obtained after enzymatic hydrolysis. This study showed a significant amount of lignin removal and cellulose release at optimal condition. This enhances the yield of reducing sugars as well as ethanol yield. The study demonstrates the potential of microwave pretreatments for enhancing bioethanol yield from sorghum straw.

Keywords: Optimization, Hydrolysis, Cellulose, lignocellulose

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