Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 9

lightweight concrete Related Abstracts

9 Structural Behavior of Lightweight Concrete Made With Scoria Aggregates and Mineral Admixtures

Authors: M. Shannag, A. Charif, S. Naser, F. Faisal, A. Karim

Abstract:

Structural lightweight concrete is used primarily to reduce the dead-load weight in concrete members such as floors in high-rise buildings and bridge decks. With given materials, it is generally desired to have the highest possible strength/unit weight ratio with the lowest cost of concrete. The work presented herein is part of an ongoing research project that investigates the properties of concrete mixes containing locally available Scoria lightweight aggregates and mineral admixtures. Properties considered included: workability, unit weight, compressive strength, and splitting tensile strength. Test results indicated that developing structural lightweight concretes (SLWC) using locally available Scoria lightweight aggregates and specific blends of silica fume and fly ash seems to be feasible. The stress-strain diagrams plotted for the structural LWC mixes developed in this investigation were comparable to a typical stress-strain diagram for normal weight concrete with relatively larger strain capacity at failure in case of LWC.

Keywords: fly ash, stress, silica fume, lightweight concrete, scoria, strain

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8 Making Lightweight Concrete with Meerschaum

Authors: H. Gonen, M. Dogan

Abstract:

Meerschaum, which is found in the earth’s crust, is a white and clay like hydrous magnesium silicate. It has a wide area of use from production of carious ornaments to chemical industry. It has a white and irregular crystalline structure. It is wet and moist when extracted, which is a good form for processing. At drying phase, it gradually loses its moisture and becomes lighter and harder. In through-dry state, meerschaum is durable and floats on the water. After processing of meerschaum, A ratio between %15 to %40 of the amount becomes waste. This waste is usually kept in a dry-atmosphere which is isolated from environmental effects so that to be used right away when needed. In this study, use of meerschaum waste as aggregate in lightweight concrete is studied. Stress-strain diagrams for concrete with meerschaum aggregate are obtained. Then, stress-strain diagrams of lightweight concrete and concrete with regular aggregate are compared. It is concluded that meerschaum waste can be used in production of lightweight concrete.

Keywords: lightweight concrete, aggregate, meerschaum, sepiolite, stress-strain diagram

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7 Behaviour of Lightweight Expanded Clay Aggregate Concrete Exposed to High Temperatures

Authors: Lenka Bodnarova, Rudolf Hela, Michala Hubertová, Iveta Nováková

Abstract:

This paper is concerning the issues of behaviour of lightweight expanded clay aggregates concrete exposed to high temperature. Lightweight aggregates from expanded clay are produced by firing of row material up to temperature 1050°C. Lightweight aggregates have suitable properties in terms of volume stability, when exposed to temperatures up to 1050°C, which could indicate their suitability for construction applications with higher risk of fire. The test samples were exposed to heat by using the standard temperature-time curve ISO 834. Negative changes in resulting mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, tensile strength, and flexural strength were evaluated. Also visual evaluation of the specimen was performed. On specimen exposed to excessive heat, an explosive spalling could be observed, due to evaporation of considerable amount of unbounded water from the inner structure of the concrete.

Keywords: High Temperature, lightweight concrete, expanded clay aggregate, explosive spalling, temperature-time curve ISO 834

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6 Durability of Lightweight Concrete Material Made from Date Palma Seeds

Authors: Mohammed Almograbi

Abstract:

Libya is one of the largest producers of dates from date palm, generating about 60000 tonnes of date palm seeds (DPS) annually. This large amount of seeds led to studies into the possible use as aggregates in lightweight concrete for some special structures. The utilization of DPS as aggregate in concrete provides a good solution as alternative aggregate to the stone aggregate. It has been recognized that, DPS can be used as coarse aggregate in structural lightweight concrete industry. For any structure member, the durability is one of the most important considerations during its service life. This paper presents the durability properties of DPS concrete. These include the water permeability, water absorption, sorptivity and chloride penetration. The test results obtained were comparable to the conventional lightweight concrete.

Keywords: Durability, Sustainability, lightweight concrete, date palm seeds, permeability of concrete, water absorption of concrete, sorptivity of concrete

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5 Analysis of Sound Loss from the Highway Traffic through Lightweight Insulating Concrete Walls and Artificial Neural Network Modeling of Sound Transmission

Authors: Kevser Dincer, Mustafa Tosun

Abstract:

In this study, analysis on whether the lightweight concrete walled structures used in four climatic regions of Turkey are also capable of insulating sound was conducted. As a new approach, first the wall’s thermal insulation sufficiency’s were calculated and then, artificial neural network (ANN) modeling was used on their cross sections to check if they are sound transmitters too. The ANN was trained and tested by using MATLAB toolbox on a personal computer. ANN input parameters that used were thickness of lightweight concrete wall, frequency and density of lightweight concrete wall, while the transmitted sound was the output parameter. When the results of the TS analysis and those of ANN modeling are evaluated together, it is found from this study, that sound transmit loss increases at higher frequencies, higher wall densities and with larger wall cross sections.

Keywords: Sound Insulation, lightweight concrete, artificial neuron network, sound transmit loss

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4 Development of Non-Structural Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete

Authors: Kazeem K. Adewole, Ismail A. Yahya

Abstract:

In the published literature, Palm Kernel Shell (PKS), an agricultural waste has largely been used as a large aggregate in PKS concrete production. In this paper, the development of Crushed Palm Kernel Shell Fine Aggregate Concrete (CPKSFAC) with crushed PKS (CPKS) as the fine aggregate and granite as the coarse aggregate is presented. 100mm x 100mm x 100mm 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC and River Sand Fine Aggregate Concrete (RSFAC) cubes were molded, cured for 28 days and subjected to a compressive strength test. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 2240kg/m3 and 2335kg/m3 respectively. The average wet densities of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 RSFAC cubes are 2606kg/m3 and 2553kg/m3 respectively. The average compressive strengths of the 1:11/2:3 and 1:2:4 CPKSFAC cubes are 15.40MPa and 14.30MPa respectively. This study demonstrates that CPKSFA is suitable for the production of non-structural C8/10 and C12/15 concrete specified in BS EN 206-1:2000.

Keywords: lightweight concrete, fine aggregate, crushed palm kernel shell, non-structural concrete

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3 Green Concrete for Sustainable Indonesia Structures: Lightweight Concrete Using Oil Palm Shell as Coarse Aggregate with Superplasticizer and Fly Ash

Authors: Feny Acelia Silaban

Abstract:

The development of Indonesia’s infrastructure in many islands is significantly increased through the years. Based on this condition, concrete materials which are extracted from natural resources are over exploited and slowly becoming rare, thus the demand for alternative materials becomes so urgently crucial. Oil Palm is one of the biggest commodities in Indonesia with the total amount of 31 million tons in the last 2014. The production of palm oil also generates lots of solid wastes in the form of Oil Palm Shell (OPS). Constructing more environmentally sustainable structures can be achieved by producing lightweight concrete using the Oil Palm Shell (OPS). This paper investigated the effects of OPS and combination of Superplasticizer and fly ash proportion of lightweight concrete mix design to the compressive strength, flexure strength, modulus of elasticity, shrinkage behavior, and water absorption. The Oil Palm Shell had undergone special treatment by washing it with hot water and soap to reduce the oil content. This experiment used four different proportions of Superplasticizer with fly ash and 30 % OPS proportion from the weight of total compositions mixture by the result of trial mix. The experiment result showed that using OPS coarse aggregates and Superplasticizer with fly ash, the average of 28-day compressive strength reached 30-35 MPa. The highest 28-day compressive strength comes from 1.2 % Superplasticizer with 5 % fly ash proportion samples with the strength by 33 MPa. The sample with proportion of 1 % Superplasticizer and 7.5 % fly ash has the highest shrinkage value compared to other proportions. The characteristic of OPS as coarse aggregates is in a standard range of natural coarse aggregates. In general, this lightweight concrete using OPS coarse aggregate and Superplasticizer has high potential to be green-structural lightweight concrete alternative in Indonesia.

Keywords: Waste Materials, lightweight concrete, superplasticizer, oil palm shell

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2 Experimental Study of Different Types of Concrete in Uniaxial Compression Test

Authors: Mostafa Jafarian Abyaneh, Khashayar Jafari, Vahab Toufigh

Abstract:

Polymer concrete (PC) is a distinct concrete with superior characteristics in comparison to ordinary cement concrete. It has become well-known for its applications in thin overlays, floors and precast components. In this investigation, the mechanical properties of PC with different epoxy resin contents, ordinary cement concrete (OCC) and lightweight concrete (LC) have been studied under uniaxial compression test. The study involves five types of concrete, with each type being tested four times. Their complete elastic-plastic behavior was compared with each other through the measurement of volumetric strain during the tests. According to the results, PC showed higher strength, ductility and energy absorption with respect to OCC and LC.

Keywords: Polymer Concrete, lightweight concrete, uniaxial compression test, ordinary cement concrete, volumetric strain

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1 Enhancement of Mechanical Properties and Thermal Conductivity of Oil Palm Shell Lightweight Concrete Reinforced with High Performance Polypropylene Fibres

Authors: Ming Chian Yew, Ming Kun Yew, Lip Huat Saw, Jing Han Beh, Leong Tatt Loh, Siong Kang Lim, Foo Wei Lee

Abstract:

Oil palm shell (OPS) is the solid waste product from the palm oil sector of the agricultural industry and can be used as alternative coarse aggregates to substitute depleting conventional raw materials. This research aims to investigate the incorporation of various high-performance polypropylene (HPP) fibres with different geometry to enhance the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of OPS lightweight concrete. The effect of different volume fractions (Vf) (0.05%, 0.10% and 0.15%) were studied for each fibre. The results reveal that the effectiveness of HPP fibres to increase the compressive strength at later ages was more pronounced than at early age. It is found that the use of HPP fibres reinforced OPS lightweight concrete (LWC) induced the advantageous of improving mechanical properties (compressive strength, flexural strength and splitting tensile strength) and thermal conductivity. Hence, this HPP fibres is a promising alternative solution to compensate lower mechanical properties as well as contribute to energy efficiency building material in the construction industry.

Keywords: Mechanical Properties, Thermal Conductivity, lightweight concrete, oil palm shell, high performance polypropylene fibre

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