Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 5

Lightning Related Abstracts

5 Statistical Description of Counterpoise Effective Length Based on Regressive Formulas

Authors: Petar Sarajcev, Josip Vasilj, Damir Jakus

Abstract:

This paper presents a novel statistical description of the counterpoise effective length due to lightning surges, where the (impulse) effective length had been obtained by means of regressive formulas applied to the transient simulation results. The effective length is described in terms of a statistical distribution function, from which median, mean, variance, and other parameters of interest could be readily obtained. The influence of lightning current amplitude, lightning front duration, and soil resistivity on the effective length has been accounted for, assuming statistical nature of these parameters. A method for determining the optimal counterpoise length, in terms of the statistical impulse effective length, is also presented. It is based on estimating the number of dangerous events associated with lightning strikes. Proposed statistical description and the associated method provide valuable information which could aid the design engineer in optimising physical lengths of counterpoises in different grounding arrangements and soil resistivity situations.

Keywords: Lightning, monte carlo method, counterpoise, grounding conductor, effective length, statistical distribution

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4 Flashover Detection Algorithm Based on Mother Function

Authors: John A. Morales, Guillermo Guidi, B. M. Keune

Abstract:

Electric Power supply is a crucial topic for economic and social development. Power outages statistics show that discharges atmospherics are imperative phenomena to produce those outages. In this context, it is necessary to correctly detect when overhead line insulators are faulted. In this paper, an algorithm to detect if a lightning stroke generates or not permanent fault on insulator strings is proposed. On top of that, lightning stroke simulations developed by using the Alternative Transients Program, are used. Based on these insights, a novel approach is designed that depends on mother functions analysis corresponding to the given variance-covariance matrix. Signals registered at the insulator string are projected on corresponding axes by the means of Principal Component Analysis. By exploiting these new axes, it is possible to determine a flashover characteristic zone useful to a good insulation design. The proposed methodology for flashover detection extends the existing approaches for the analysis and study of lightning performance on transmission lines.

Keywords: Lightning, Sensitivity Analysis, mother function, outages

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3 Analysis of Standard Tramway Surge Protection Methods Based on Real Cases

Authors: Alain Rousseau, Alfred Aragones, Gilles Rougier

Abstract:

The study is based on lightning and surge standards mainly the EN series 62305 for facility protection, EN series 61643 for Low Voltage Surge Protective Devices, High Voltage surge arrester standard en 60099-4 and the traction arrester standards namely EN 50526-1 and 50526-1 dealing respectively with railway applications fixed installations D.C. surge arresters and voltage limiting devices. The more severe stress for tramways installations is caused by direct lightning on the catenary line. In such case, the surge current propagates towards the various poles and sparkover the insulators leading to a lower stress. If the impact point is near enough, a significant surge current will flow towards the traction surge arrester that is installed on the catenary at the location the substation is connected. Another surge arrester can be installed at the entrance of the substation or even inside the rectifier to avoid insulation damages. In addition, surge arresters can be installed between + and – to avoid damaging sensitive circuits. Based on disturbances encountered in a substation following a lighting event, the engineering department of RATP has decided to investigate the cause of such damage and more generally to question the efficiency of the various possible protection means. Based on the example of a recent tramway line the paper present the result of a lightning study based on direct lightning strikes. As a matter of fact, the induced surges on the catenary are much more frequent but much less damaging. First, a lightning risk assessment is performed for the substations that takes into account direct lightning and induced lightning both on the substation and its connected lines such as the catenary. Then the paper deals with efficiency of the various surge arresters is discussed based on field experience and calculations. The efficiency of the earthing system used at the bottom of the pole is also addressed based on high frequency earthing measurement. As a conclusion, the paper is making recommendations for an enhanced efficiency of existing protection means.

Keywords: Risk, Lightning, traction, surge arrester, surge protective device

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2 Revised Tower Earthing Design in High-Voltage Transmission Network for High-Frequency Lightning Condition

Authors: Azwadi Mohamad, Pauzi Yahaya, Nadiah Hudi

Abstract:

Earthing system for high-voltage transmission tower is designed to protect the working personnel and equipments, and to maintain the quality of supply during fault. The existing earthing system for transmission towers in TNB’s system is purposely designed for normal power frequency (low-frequency) fault conditions that take into account the step and touch voltages. This earthing design is found to be inapt for lightning (transient) condition to a certain extent, which involves a high-frequency domain. The current earthing practice of laying the electrodes radially in straight 60 m horizontal lines under the ground, in order to achieve the specified impedance value of less than 10 Ω, was deemed ineffective in reducing the high-frequency impedance. This paper introduces a new earthing design that produces low impedance value at the high-frequency domain, without compromising the performance of low-frequency impedance. The performances of this new earthing design, as well as the existing design, are simulated for various soil resistivity values at varying frequency. The proposed concentrated earthing design is found to possess low TFR value at both low and high-frequency. A good earthing design should have a fine balance between compact and radial electrodes under the ground.

Keywords: Lightning, high-frequency, Earthing Design, tower footing impedance

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1 Design and Construction of an Impulse Current Generator for Lightning Strike Experiments

Authors: Kamran Yousefpour, Mojtaba Rostaghi-Chalaki, Jason Warden, Chanyeop Park

Abstract:

There has been a rising trend in using impulse current generators to investigate the lightning strike protection of materials including aluminum and composites in structures such as wind turbine blade and aircraft body. The focus of this research is to present a new impulse current generator built in the High Voltage Lab at Mississippi State University. The generator is capable of producing component A and D of the natural lightning discharges in accordance with the Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) standard, which is widely used in the aerospace industry. The generator can supply lightning impulse energy up to 400 kJ with the capability of producing impulse currents with magnitudes greater than 200 kA. The electrical circuit and physical components of an improved impulse current generator are described and several lightning strike waveforms with different amplitudes is presented for comparing with the standard waveform. The results of this study contribute to the fundamental understanding the functionality of the impulse current generators and present a new impulse current generator developed at the High Voltage Lab of Mississippi State University.

Keywords: capacitor, Lightning, impulse current generator, society of automotive engineers

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