Commenced in January 2007
Frequency: Monthly
Edition: International
Paper Count: 4

Lighting Related Abstracts

4 The Effects of Lighting Environments on the Perception and Psychology of Consumers of Different Genders in a 3C Retail Store

Authors: Yu-Fong Lin


The main purpose of this study is to explore the impact of different lighting arrangements that create different visual environments in a 3C retail store on the perception, psychology, and shopping tendencies of consumers of different genders. In recent years, the ‘emotional shopping’ model has been widely accepted in the consumer market; in addition to the emotional meaning and value of a product, the in-store ‘shopping atmosphere’ has also been increasingly regarded as significant. The lighting serves as an important environmental stimulus that influences the atmosphere of a store. Altering the lighting can change the color, the shape, and the atmosphere of a space. A successful retail lighting design can not only attract consumers’ attention and generate their interest in various goods, but it can also affect consumers’ shopping approach, behavior, and desires. 3C electronic products have become mainstream in the current consumer market. Consumers of different genders may demonstrate different behaviors and preferences within a 3C store environment. This study tests the impact of a combination of lighting contrasts and color temperatures in a 3C retail store on the visual perception and psychological reactions of consumers of different genders. The research design employs an experimental method to collect data from subjects and then uses statistical analysis adhering to a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial design to identify the influences of different lighting environments. This study utilizes virtual reality technology as the primary method by which to create four virtual store lighting environments. The four lighting conditions are as follows: high contrast/cool tone, high contrast/warm tone, low contrast/cool tone, and low contrast/warm tone. Differences in the virtual lighting and the environment are used to test subjects’ visual perceptions, emotional reactions, store satisfaction, approach-avoidance intentions, and spatial atmosphere preferences. The findings of our preliminary test indicate that female subjects have a higher pleasure response than male subjects in a 3C retail store. Based on the findings of our preliminary test, the researchers modified the contents of the questionnaires and the virtual 3C retail environment with different lighting conditions in order to conduct the final experiment. The results will provide information about the effects of retail lighting on the environmental psychology and the psychological reactions of consumers of different genders in a 3C retail store lighting environment. These results will enable useful practical guidelines about creating 3C retail store lighting and atmosphere for retailers and interior designers to be established.

Keywords: Virtual Reality, Lighting, environmental stimuli

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3 Energy Efficient Lighting in Educational Buildings through the Example of a High School in Istanbul

Authors: Nihan Gurel Ulusan


It is obvious that electrical energy, which is an inseparable part of modern day’s human and also the most important power source of our age, should be generated on a level that will suffice the nation’s requirements. The electrical energy used for a sustainable architectural design should be reduced as much as possible. Designing the buildings as energy efficient systems which aim at reducing the artificial illumination loads has been a current subject of our times as a result of concepts gaining importance like conscious consumption of energy sources, environment-friendly designs and sustainability. Reducing the consumption of electrical energy regarding the artificial lighting carries great significance, especially in the volumes which are used all day long like the educational buildings. Starting out with such an aim in this paper, the educational buildings are explored in terms of energy efficient lighting. Firstly, illumination techniques, illumination systems, light sources, luminaries, illumination controls and 'efficient energy' usage in lighting are mentioned. In addition, natural and artificial lighting systems used in educational buildings and also the spaces building up these kind buildings are examined in terms of energy efficient lighting. Lastly, the illumination properties of the school sample chosen for this study, Kağıthane Anadolu Lisesi, a typical high school in Istanbul, is observed. Suggestions are made in order to improve the system by evaluating the illumination properties of the classes with the survey carried out with the users.

Keywords: Energy Efficient, Lighting, educational buildings, illumination techniques

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2 Light, Restorativeness and Performance in the Workplace: A Pilot Study

Authors: D. Scarpanti, M. Brondino, M. Pasini


Background: the present study explores the role of light and restorativeness on work. According with the Attention Restoration Theory (ART) and a Model of Work Environment, the main idea is that some features of environment, i.e., lighting, influences the direct attention, and so, the performance. Restorativeness refers to the presence/absence level of all the characteristics of physical environment that help to regenerate direct attention. Specifically, lighting can affect level of fascination and attention in one hand; and in other hand promotes several biological functions via pineal gland. Different reviews on this topic show controversial results. In order to bring light on this topic, the hypotheses of this study are that lighting can affect the construct of restorativeness and, in the second time, the restorativeness can affect the performance. Method: the participants are 30 workers of a mechatronic company in the North Italy. Every subject answered to a questionnaire valuing their subjective perceptions of environment in a different way: some objective features of environment, like lighting, temperature and air quality; some subjective perceptions of this environment; finally, the participants answered about their perceived performance. The main attention is on the features of light and his components: visual comfort, general preferences and pleasantness; and the dimensions of the construct of restorativeness; fascination, coherence and being away. The construct of performance per se is conceptualized in three level: individual, team membership and organizational membership; and in three different components: proficiency, adaptability, and proactivity, for a total of 9 subcomponents. Findings: path analysis showed that some characteristics of lighting respectively affected the dimension of fascination; and, as expected, the dimension of fascination affected work performance. Conclusions: The present study is a first pilot step of a wide research. These first results can be summarized with the statement that lighting and restorativeness contribute to explain work performance variability: in details perceptions of visual comfort, satisfaction and pleasantness, and fascination respectively. Results related to fascination are particularly interesting because fascination is conceptualized as the opposite of the construct of direct attention. The main idea is, in order to regenerate attentional capacity, it’s necessary to provide a lacking of attention (fascination). The sample size did not permit to test simultaneously the role of the perceived characteristics of light to see how they differently contribute to predict fascination of the work environment. However, the results highlighted the important role that light could have in predicting restorativeness dimensions and probably with a larger sample we could find larger effects also on work performance. Furthermore, longitudinal data will contribute to better analyze the causal model along time. Applicative implications: the present pilot study highlights the relevant role of lighting and perceived restorativeness in the work environment and the importance to focus attention on light features and the restorative characteristics in the design of work environments.

Keywords: Performance, workplace, Lighting, restorativeness

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1 Energy Savings with the Use of LED Lights at the Wastewater Treatment Plant

Authors: Kishen Prathivadi


The Sewer Authority Mid-Coastside (SAM) is a Joint Powers Authority formed in 1976 and provides secondary wastewater treatment to an average flow of 2.0 million gallons per day. SAM owns and operates a Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) and a sanitary sewage collection system that collects sewage from its three member agencies: the City of Half Moon Bay, the Granada Community Services District and Montara Water and Sanitary District. The Sewer Authority Mid-Coastside (SAM) partnered with Pacific Gas & Electric, and its contractor GEL America, to review and replace all inefficient lighting fixtures and bulbs at the SAM treatment plant and administrative office. The project focused on replacing old and inefficient lighting fixtures and bulbs, reducing annual operating and maintenance costs, and reducing SAM’s carbon footprint. The project resulted in a 55% overall energy reduction, higher light quality and acuity, and a total operational savings of $495,000 over ten years.

Keywords: Electrical, Lighting, LED, Energy Savings

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